- 657 Battle of Siffin during the first Muslim civil war between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah I beside Euphrates River
- 1519 Francisco Pizarro receives royal charter for the west coast of South America
- 1803 The Surrey Iron Railway, arguably the world's first public railway, opens in south London.
- 1908 United States Attorney General Charles Joseph Bonaparte issues an order to immediately staff the Office of the Chief Examiner (later renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation).
- 1945 Declaration of Potsdam: US, Britain and China demand the Japanese surrender during WWII
- 1953 Fidel Castro begins rebellion, the "26th of July Movement," against Fulgenico Batista's regime in Cuba
1st automobile trip across the United States (SF-NY) completed by Horatio Nelson Jackson and Sewall K. Crocker
On This Day in 1903