- 522 BC Darius I of Persia kills Magian usurper Gaumâta, securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire
- 480 BC Battle of Salamis: The Greek fleet under Themistocles defeats the Persian fleet under Xerxes I
- 1567 War of Religion breaks out in France - Huguenots try to kidnap King Charles IX
- 1829 British Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel establishes London's Metropolitan Police - hence the nicknames "bobbies" and "peelers"
- 2008 Dow Jones Industrial Average falls 777.68 points, its largest single-day point loss, following the bankruptcies of Lehman Brothers and Washington Mutual
American oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller becomes the world's first billionaire
On This Day in 1916