Estonian History

Historical Events

  • 1217-09-21 The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights.
  • 1220-08-08 Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula
  • 1343-04-23 St. George's Night Uprising in Estonia
  • 1582-01-15 Russia cedes Livonia & Estonia to Poland, loses access to Baltic
  • 1918-02-15 Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania adopt Gregorian calendar
  • 1918-02-24 Estonia declares independence from Russia
  • 1918-12-16 German troops evacuate Finland, give over Kiev in the Ukraine to revolutionary forces and pull back from Estonia as Bolshevik forces move in
  • 1920-02-02 Estonia declares its Independence from Russia (Dorpat Peace)
  • 1920-02-02 Tarto/Dorpat peace treaty: USSR recognizes Estonian independence
  • 1920-02-24 Peace treaty gives Estonia independence
  • 1921-09-22 The League of Nations accepts membership of independent Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
  • 1922-04-29 1st official Intl Weightlifting Federation Champ (Tallinn, Estonia)
  • 1925-02-12 Estonia bans communist Party
  • 1929-02-09 USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Poland & Romania sign Litvinov's Pact, providing for renunciation of war among its signatories
  • 1934-03-12 Acting Pres Constantine Päts commits coup in Tallinn Estonia
  • 1934-09-12 Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania signs Baltic Entente, against USSR
  • 1939-09-28 Estonia accepts Soviet military bases
  • 1940-06-17 USSR occupies Estonia
  • 1940-07-21 Soviet Union annexes Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
  • 1940-08-06 Estonia is annexed into Soviet empire
  • 1940-08-25 Lithuania, Latvia & Estonia incorporated into Soviet Union
  • 1941-06-14 Estonia loses 11,000 inhabitants as a consequence of mass deportations into Siberia
  • 1941-06-22 Estonians starts armed resistance against Soviet occupation
  • 1943-09-15 Concentration Camp Vaivara in Estonia opens
  • 1944-09-26 Soviet forces occupy Estonia
  • 1946-05-08 Estonian school girls Aili Jõgi and Ageeda Paavel blow up the Soviet memorial that preceded the Bronze Soldier in Tallinn.
  • 1988-09-11 1/3 of population argues for Estonia autonomy
  • 1988-11-16 Estonia declares sovereignty in internal affairs
  • 1990-05-08 Reindependence Day of Estonia
  • 1990-12-01 Lithuania, Estonia & Latvia hold their 1st joint session
  • 1991-03-03 Latvia & Estonia vote to become independent of the USSR
  • 1991-08-20 Estonia formally declares its independence from the USSR
  • 1991-09-02 US officially recognizes independence of Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania
  • 1991-09-06 USSR recognizes the independence of the 3 Baltic republics (Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania)
  • 1991-09-17 UN admits Estonia, Latvia, Lithuiania, North & South Korea, Marshall Islands & Micronesia
  • 1992-06-28 The Constitution of Estonia is signed into law.
  • 1994-08-31 Last Russian soldiers leave Estonia & Latvia
  • 1994-09-26 Estonia government of Laar flees
  • 1994-09-28 909 people die when an Estonian ferry capsizes & sinks in Baltic sea
  • 1995-03-05 Estonia Centrumlinkse Coalition party wins parliamentary election
  • 2001-05-12 46th Eurovision Song Contest: Tanel Padar, Dave Benton and 2XL for Estonia wins singing "Everybody" in Copenhagen
  • 2002-11-21 NATO invites Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia to become members.
  • 2002-12-13 Enlargement of the European Union: The European Union announces that Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia will become members from May 1, 2004.
  • 2003-09-14 Estonia approves joining the European Union in a referendum.
  • 2004-03-29 Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia join NATO as full members.
  • 2004-05-01 Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia join the European Union, celebrated at the residence of the Irish President in Dublin.
  • 2004-06-28 Estonia, Lithuania and Slovenia join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism
  • 2006-05-09 Estonia ratifies the European Constitution.
  • 2007-03-04 Estonian parliamentary election: approximately 30,000 voters take advantage of electronic voting in Estonia, world's 1st nationwide vote where part of the vote casting allowed by remote electronic voting
  • 2007-04-27 Estonian authorities remove the Bronze Soldier, a Soviet Red Army war memorial in Tallinn, amid political controversy with Russia.
  • 2007-12-21 The Schengen Agreement area increases to include 9 European Union member states; Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia on land and sea borders.
  • 2008-09-08 Latvia joins its northern neighbor Estonia in recession as GDP falls 0.2% in the second quarter from the first quarter, when it fell 0.3%; property markets and construction have suffered in both Baltic states
  • 2013-02-20 Estonia becomes the first country to establish a national system of fast chargers for electric cars
  • 2014-03-26 Taavi Rõivas becomes Prime Minister of Estonia

Famous Birthdays

  • 1684-02-24 Catherine I, Empress of Russia 1725-27, Dorpat, Estonia
  • 1779-08-20 Fabian Gottlieb von Bellinghausen, Russian Explorer who discovered the continent of Antarctica, born in Osel, Estonia (d. 1852)
  • 1792-02-28 Karl Earnest Ritter von Baer, Estonian/German embryologist
  • 1843-12-24 Lydia Koidula, Estonian poet (d. 1886)
  • 1864-04-30 Juhan Liiv, Estonian poet (d. 1913)
  • 1865-10-22 Kristjan Raud, Estonian painter (d. 1943)
  • 1874-02-23 Konstantin Päts, Estonian PM (1921-23, 1932-33), dictator (1933-40)
  • 1876-04-22 Georg Lurich, Estonian wrestler (d. 1920)
  • 1878-01-30 Anton Hansen Tammsaare, Estonian author (d. 1940)
  • 1878-02-28 Artur Kapp, Estonian composer (d. 1952)
  • 1878-08-02 Aino J M Kallas, Finnish writer (White Ship, Estonian Tales)
  • 1878-11-01 Konrad Mägi, Estonian painter (d. 1925)
  • 1881-11-12 Olev Siinmaa, Estonian architect (d. 1948)
  • 1882-09-28 Mart Saar, Estonian composer, born in Hüpassaare, Viljandi County (d. 1963)
  • 1883-03-27 Marie Under, Estonian author and poet (d. 1980)
  • 1883-08-19 Leonid Kulik, Tartu Estonia, Russian Minerologist who led the first research expedition to study the Tunguska meteor site, the largest impact event in recorded history
  • 1884-02-12 Johan Laidoner, Estonian military commander (d. 1953)
  • 1888-03-24 Viktor Kingissepp, Estonian Bolshevik politician (d. 1922)
  • 1890-01-13 Jüri Uluots, Estonian Prime Minister (d. 1945)
  • 1891-01-09 August Gailit, Estonia, writer (Ekke Moor)
  • 1891-02-04 Yuri Losmann, Estonia, marathon runner (Olympic-silver 1920)
  • 1891-06-04 Erno Rapee, American conductor and composer (Radio City Music Hall), born in Narva, Estonia (d. 1945)
  • 1893-10-23 Ernest Julius Öpik, Kunda, Estonian Astronomer and Astrophysicist known for his studies of meteors and the structure and evolution of the cosmos
  • 1896-07-02 Lydia Mei, Estonian artist (d. 1965)
  • 1898-07-14 Ivan Triesault, Estonia, actor (Cry of the Werewolf, Black Parachute)
  • 1898-10-21 Eduard Pütsep, Estonian wresler and Olympic medalist (d. 1960)
  • 1899-11-15 Avdy Andresson, Estonian statesman (d. 1990)
  • 1900-03-07 Evald Aav, Estonian composer (Vikerlased), born in Tallinn (d. 1939) [OS 22 Feb]
  • 1901-02-20 Louis I Kahn, Estonia, architect (Bryn Mawr dormitory) [or Dec 20]
  • 1902-08-18 Adamson-Eric, Estonian painter, born in Tartu, Estonia (d. 1968)
  • 1903-01-10 Voldemar Väli, Estonian wrestler (d. 1997)
  • 1903-02-22 Ain-Ervin Mere, Estonian Nazi (d. 1969)
  • 1903-03-16 Nikolai Lopatnikoff, Revel Estonia, composer (Variaioni Concertanto)
  • 1904-05-22 Paul Viiding, Estonian poet (d. 1962)
  • 1908-02-12 August Neo, Estonian wrestler (d. 1982)
  • 1908-03-10 Kristjan Palusalu, Estonia, heavyweight wrestler (Olympic-gold-1936)
  • 1908-06-24 Alfons Rebane, Estonian military officer (d. 1976)
  • 1915-11-28 Evald Okas, Estonian painter
  • 1916-08-20 Paul Felix Schmidt, Estonian-German chess player (d. 1984)
  • 1917-03-30 Els Aarne, Estonian composer, born in Makiivka, Russian Empire (d. 1995)
  • 1920-02-19 Jaan Kross, Estonian writer (d. 2007)
  • 1920-03-21 Georg Ots, Estonian singer (d. 1975)
  • 1920-08-03 Elmar Tampõld, Estonian-Canadian architect
  • 1921-03-12 Ülo Jõgi, Estonian freedom fighter (d. 2007)
  • 1922-02-18 Juhan Smuul, Estonian author (d. 1971)
  • 1928-05-10 Arnold Rüütel, Estonian president
  • 1930-08-15 Ageeda Paavel, Estonian freedom fighter
  • 1931-04-01 Ita Ever, Estonian actress
  • 1931-05-25 Aili Jõgi, Estonian freedom fighter
  • 1932-10-15 Jaan Raats, Estonian composer, born in Tartu
  • 1933-02-28 Rein Taagepera, Estonian politician
  • 1935-09-11 Arvo Pärt, Estonian composer, born in Paide, Järva County
  • 1936-12-08 Brad Jurjens, Estonia, director (The Bank Job)
  • 1937-06-07 Neeme Järvi, Estonian conductor
  • 1937-09-04 Mikk Mikiver, Estonian actor and director (d. 2006)
  • 1943-03-20 Naima Neidre, Estonian graphic artist
  • 1944-02-29 Ene Ergma, Estonian politician
  • 1945-09-13 Andres Küng, Swedish-Estonian politician, journalist (d. 2002)
  • 1947-12-09 Jaak Jõerüüt, Soviet-born Estonian politician
  • 1949-03-03 Jüri Allik, Estonian psychologist
  • 1949-06-11 Benjamin Vasserman, Estonian graphic artist
  • 1953-06-24 Ivo Lill, Estonian artist
  • 1953-11-22 Urmas Alender, Estonian singer (d. 1994)
  • 1953-12-14 René Eespere, Soviet-born Estonian composer
  • 1958-01-27 Kadri Mälk, Estonian artist and jewelry designer
  • 1959-10-16 Erkki-Sven Tüür, Estonian composer
  • 1960-04-22 Mart Laar, Estonian statesman
  • 1962-06-11 Erika Salumäe, Estonian cyclist, Olympian
  • 1962-09-13 Tõnu Õnnepalu, Estonian poet and author
  • 1962-10-14 Jaan Ehlvest, Estonian chess player
  • 1963-04-24 Tõnu Trubetsky, Estonian musician
  • 1965-10-14 Jüri Jaanson, Estonian rower
  • 1965-12-13 Marko Mäetamm, Estonian artist
  • 1966-08-27 Juhan Parts, Prime Minister of Estonia
  • 1966-12-17 Kristiina Ojuland, Estonian politician
  • 1967-08-10 Mart Sander, Estonian singer and actor
  • 1968-02-04 Marko Matvere, Estonian actor
  • 1970-06-25 Erki Nool, Estonian decathlete
  • 1971-05-27 Kaur Kender, Estonian author
  • 1972-02-03 Mart Poom, Estonian football player
  • 1977-02-23 Kristina Šmigun, Estonian cross-country skier
  • 1977-09-27 Andrus Värnik, Estonian javelin thrower
  • 1977-12-23 Helen Mahmastol, Miss Universe-Estonia (1996)
  • 1978-02-12 Silver Meikar, Estonian politician
  • 1978-07-02 Jüri Ratas, Estonian politician
  • 1978-08-13 Kristiina Heinmets, Miss Estonia Universe (1997)
  • 1978-09-14 Carmen Kass, Estonian model
  • 1980-01-30 Pavel Ponomaryov, Russian-Estonian actor
  • 1980-10-27 Tanel Padar, Estonian singer
  • 1981-05-26 Eda-Ines Etti, Estonian singer
  • 1981-11-03 Sten Pentus, Estonian racing car driver
  • 1983-12-10 Katrin Siska, Estonian singer
  • 1984-01-18 Maarja Kivi, Estonian singer
  • 1984-02-06 Piret Järvis, Estonian singer
  • 1985-09-26 Lenna Kuurmaa, Estonian singer (Vanilla Ninja)
  • 1987-03-16 Tiiu Kuik, Estonian model
  • 1989-01-13 Triinu Kivilaan, Estonian singer

Famous Deaths

  • 1217-09-21 Lembitu of Lehola, Estonian soldier
  • 1876-11-28 Karl Earnest Ritter von Baer, Estonian/German embryologist, dies at 84
  • 1886-08-11 Lydia Koidula, Estonian poet (b. 1843)
  • 1920-01-20 Georg Lurich, Estonian wrestler (b. 1876)
  • 1922-05-04 Viktor Kingissepp, Estonian Bolshevik politician (b. 1888)
  • 1925-08-15 Konrad Mägi, Estonian artist (b. 1878)
  • 1939-03-21 Evald Aav, Estonian composer, dies at 39
  • 1940-03-01 Anton Hansen Tammsaare, Estonian author (b. 1878)
  • 1942-01-27 Kaarel Eenpalu, Estonian Prime Minister (b. 1888)
  • 1942-10-01 Ants Piip, Estonian Prime Minister (b. 1884)
  • 1943-05-19 Kristjan Raud, Estonian painter (b. 1865)
  • 1945-01-09 Jüri Uluots, Estonian Prime Minister (b. 1890)
  • 1948-03-29 Olev Siinmaa, Estonian architect (b. 1881)
  • 1952-01-14 Artur Kapp, Estonian composer (b. 1878)
  • 1960-08-22 Eduard Pütsep, Estonian wrestler (b. 1898)
  • 1960-11-05 August Gailit, Estonian writer (Ekke Moor), dies at 69
  • 1962-06-27 Paul Viiding, Estonian poet (b. 1904)
  • 1963-10-28 Mart Saar, Estonian composer, dies at 81
  • 1968-02-19 Georg Hackenschmidt, Estonian professional wrestler (b. 1878)
  • 1969-04-05 Ain-Ervin Mere, Estonian Nazi (b. 1903)
  • 1971-04-13 Juhan Smuul, Estonian author (b. 1921)
  • 1974-03-17 Louis I Kahn, Estonia/US architect, dies at about 73
  • 1975-06-05 Paul Keres, Estonian chess player (b. 1916)
  • 1975-09-05 Georg Ots, Estonian singer (b. 1920)
  • 1976-03-08 Alfons Rebane, Estonian military commander (b. 1908)
  • 1980-09-25 Marie Under, Estonian author and poet (b. 1883)
  • 1982-08-19 August Neo, Estonian wrestler (b. 1908)
  • 1983-11-23 Juhan Muks, Estonian artist (b. 1899)
  • 1984-08-11 Paul Felix Schmidt, Estonian-German chess player (b. 1916)
  • 1985-09-10 Ernest Julius Öpik, Estonian astronomer and astrophysicist known for his studies of meteors and the structure and evolution of the cosmos, dies at 91
  • 1994-09-28 Urmas Alender, Estonian singer and musician (b. 1953)
  • 1995-06-14 Els Aarne, Estonian composer, dies at 78
  • 1997-04-13 Voldemar Väli, Estonian wrestler (b. 1903)
  • 2002-12-10 Andres Küng, Swedish-Estonian politician, journalist (b. 1945)
  • 2004-02-28 Andres Nuiamäe, Estonian soldier (b. 1982)
  • 2005-01-12 Edmund S. Valtman, Estonian-born cartoonist (b. 1914)
  • 2006-01-09 Mikk Mikiver, Estonian actor, director (b. 1937)
  • 2006-03-04 Edgar Valter, Estonian illustrator/cartoonist (b. 1929)
  • 2006-03-14 Lennart Meri, former president of Estonia (b. 1929)
  • 2007-05-14 Ülo Jõgi, Estonian freedom fighter (b. 1921)
  • 2007-12-27 Jaan Kross, Estonian writer (b. 1920)
  • 2010-11-12 Karl Plutus, Estonian jurist and centenarian (b. 1904)
  • 2010-12-24 Eino Tamberg, Estonian composer (b. 1930)