Mongolian History

Historical Events


BattleBattle of Interest

1215-06-01 Beijing, under control of Jurchen ruler Emperor Xuanzong of Jin, is captured by the Mongols under Genghis Khan, ending the Battle of Beijing

Great Khan of the Mongol Empire Genghis Khan
Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
Genghis Khan
  • 1223-05-31 Mongol invasion of the Cumans: Battle of the Kalka River - Mongol armies of Genghis Khan lead by Subutai defeat Kievan Rus and Cumans.
  • 1238-02-07 The Mongols burn the Russian city of Vladimir
  • 1238-03-04 Battle of the Sit River: Mongol forces of Batu Khan overcome Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal near Yaroslavl in Russia, ending Russian resistance
  • 1240-12-06 Mongols under Batu Khan occupy & destroy Kiev
  • 1241-03-18 Kraków is ravaged by Mongols.
  • 1241-04-09 Battle of Liegnitz - Mongol armies defeat Poles & Germans
  • 1241-04-13 Battle of Theiss: Mongols beat Hungarian King Béla IV
  • 1249-02-16 Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khan of the Mongols.
  • 1256-12-15 Hulagu Khan captures and destroys Hashshashin stronghold at Alamut, in present-day Iran, part of the Mongol offensive on Islamic southwest Asia
  • 1258-01-29 Mongols defeated by Dai Viet at the battle of Dong Bo Dau
  • 1258-02-13 Baghdad falls to the Mongols as the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1260-05-05 Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, becomes ruler of the Mongol Empire.

Mongolian Emperor and Founder of the Yuan Dynasty Kublai Khan
Mongolian Emperor and Founder of the Yuan Dynasty
Kublai Khan
  • 1260-05-21 Hao Jing, envoy of Mongol leader Kublai Khan imprisoned by order of the high Chancellor of China, Jia Sidao at the Song Dynasty court of Emperor Lizong while attempting to negotiate with the Song
  • 1260-09-03 Battle of Ain Djaloet, Palestine defeats Mongols army
  • 1276-06-14 While taking exile in Fuzhou in southern China, away from the advancing Mongol invaders, the remnants of the Song Dynasty court hold the coronation ceremony for the young prince Zhao Shi, making him Emperor Duanzong of Song.
  • 1279-03-19 A Mongolian victory at the naval Battle of Yamen ends the Song Dynasty in China.
  • 1363-08-30 Beginning of the Battle of Lake Poyang; two Chinese rebel leaders Chen Youliang and Zhu Yuanzhang are pitted against each other in what was one of the largest naval battles in history during Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty
  • 1380-09-08 Battle on Kulikovo: Moscow's great monarch Dimitri beats Mongols beginning the decline of the Tatars

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1401-07-09 Turko-Mongol ruler Tamerlane (Timur) destroys Baghdad, killing 20,000

Turkic Conqueror Tamerlane
Turkic Conqueror
Tamerlane
  • 1449-09-08 Battle of Tumu Fortress - Mongolians capture the Chinese emperor

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1480-10-08 Great standing on the Ugra river, standoff between forces of Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Great Horde, and Ivan III Grand Prince of all Rus, Tataro-Mongols retreat, leds to disintegration of the Horde

Grand Prince of Moscow and Russia Ivan the Great
Grand Prince of Moscow and Russia
Ivan the Great
  • 1658-07-31 Aurangzeb appoints himself Mongol emperor
  • 1911-12-29 Mongolia gains independence from the Qing dynasty.
  • 1921-02-25 The Living Buddha, Hutuktu, is crowned king of Mongolia as the country declares independence from China
  • 1921-03-13 Mongolia (formerly Outer Mongolia) declares independence from China
  • 1921-07-11 Mongolia gains independence from China (National Day)
  • 1921-11-05 Soviet Russia signs a treaty with Mongolia, temporarily supporting the new government against China and Japanese incursions
  • 1923-07-13 American explorer Roy Chapman Andrews discovers the first recognised dinosaur eggs, in the Gobi Desert, Mongolia
  • 1924-11-26 Mongolian People's Republic proclaimed
  • 1939-08-20 Russian offensive under General Zjoekov against Japanese invasion in Mongolia
  • 1939-08-31 Japanese invasion army driven out of Mongolia
  • 1960-07-05 Mongolia adopts constitution
  • 1961-10-27 Outer Mongolia & Mauritania become 102nd & 103rd members of UN
  • 1981-03-22 Soyuz 39 carries 2 cosmonauts (1 Mongolian) to Salyut 6
  • 1993-06-06 Punsalmaagiyn Otsjirbat recognized as president of Mongolia
  • 1998-01-01 Mongolia switches from a 46 hour to 40 hour work week
  • 2001-12-19 A record high barometric pressure of 1085.6 hPa (32.06 inHg) is recorded at Tosontsengel, Khövsgöl Province, Mongolia.
  • 2013-06-27 Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj is re-elected President of Mongolia

Famous Birthdays


Person of interestPerson of Interest

1215-09-23 Kublai Khan, Mongol Emperor (1260-94) and founder of the Yuan dynasty in China (1271-94), born in Monoglia (d. 1294)

Mongolian Emperor and Founder of the Yuan Dynasty Kublai Khan
Mongolian Emperor and Founder of the Yuan Dynasty
Kublai Khan
  • 1271-11-05 Mahmud Ghazan, Mongol ruler (d. 1304)
  • 1902-02-08 Demchugdongrub, Mongolian politician (d. 1966)
  • 1946-05-20 Bakhaavaa Buidaa, Mongolia, wrestler (Oly-silver-1972) disqualified
  • 1947-12-05 Jugderdemidjin Gurragcha, Mongolia, cosmonaut (Soyuz 39)
  • 1949-02-05 Maidarjabyn Ganzorig, Mongolia, cosmonaut (Soyuz 39 backup)
  • 1968-02-02 Simon Wickham-Smith, composer and Mongolist
  • 1971-12-01 Dolgorsürengiin Serjbüdee, Mongolian professional wrestler
  • 1980-09-17 Asashoryu Akinori, Mongolian sumo wrestler (born as Dolgorsuren Dagvador)
  • 1984-06-01 Naidangiin Tüvshinbayar, first Mongolian athlete win gold medal from Olympics

Famous Weddings

  • 2007-07-12 World's tallest man who measures 7'9" Bao Xishun (56) weds Xia Shujian (28) in a traditional Mongolian ceremony at the tomb of Kublai Khan in Beijing, China

Famous Deaths


Person of interestPerson of Interest

1227-08-18 Genghis Khan, Mongol conqueror, dies

Great Khan of the Mongol Empire Genghis Khan
Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
Genghis Khan
  • 1227-08-25 Ghengis Khan, [Temudjin], founded Mongolia, dies
  • 1265-02-08 Hulagu Khan, Mongol ruler (b. 1217)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1294-02-18 Kublai Khan, Mongol Emperor (1260-94) and founder of the Yuan dynasty in China (1271-94), dies at 78

Mongolian Emperor and Founder of the Yuan Dynasty Kublai Khan
Mongolian Emperor and Founder of the Yuan Dynasty
Kublai Khan
  • 1304-05-11 Mahmud Ghazan, Mongol ruler (b. 1271)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1405-02-14 Timur/Tamerlane "Lenk", [Crippled], Turko-Mongol ruler, dies at about 68

Turkic Conqueror Tamerlane
Turkic Conqueror
Tamerlane
  • 1900-07-24 Ferdinand Hamet, Dutch missionary in Mongolia, murdered at 59
  • 1952-01-26 Khorloogiin Choibalsan, leader of Mongolia (b. 1895)
  • 1966-05-23 Demchugdongrub, Mongolian politician (b. 1902)
  • 1991-04-20 Jumjaagiyn Tsedenbal, Mongolian politician, dies
  • 1991-04-20 Yumzhagin Tsendenbal, PM of Mongolia (1952-74), dies