What Happened in 1809

Historical Events

  • Jan 1 Holland Brigade under brig gen Chasse reaches Madrid
  • Jan 5 Treaty of Dardanelles concluded between Britain & France

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 6 Napoleonic Wars: Invasion of Cayenne, by combined British, Portuguese and colonial Brazilian forces, begins

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • Jan 12 British take Cayenne (French Guiana) from French (until 1814)
  • Jan 16 Peninsular War: The British defeat the French at the Battle of Corunna
  • Jan 20 1st US geology book published by William Maclure
  • Feb 1 Dutch King Louis Napoleon accepts metric system
  • Feb 3 Territory of Illinois organizes (including present-day Wisconsin)
  • Feb 8 Franz I of Austria declares war on France

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 11 Robert Fulton patents steamboat

Commercial Steamboat Inventor Robert Fulton
Commercial Steamboat Inventor
Robert Fulton
  • Feb 13 French take Saragossa, Spain after a long siege
  • Feb 20 US Supreme Court rules federal government power greater than any state
  • Mar 1 Embargo Act of 1807 repealed & Non-Intercourse Act signed
  • Mar 4 Madison becomes 1st president inaugurated in American-made clothes
  • Mar 22 Charles XIII succeeds Gustav IV Adolf to the Swedish throne.
  • Mar 28 Peninsular War: France defeats Spain in the Battle of Medelin.
  • Mar 29 King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden abdicates after a coup d'état. At the Diet of Porvoo, Finland's four Estates pledge allegiance to Alexander I of Russia, commencing the secession of the Grand Duchy of Finland from Sweden.
  • Apr 18 First run of 2,000 guineas horse race at Newmarket, England
  • Apr 20 Napoleon I and French forces defeat Austria at Battle of Abensberg, Bavaria
  • Apr 22 Battle at Eckmuhl - Napoleon beats Austria Archduke Karl
  • May 5 Citizenship is denied to Jews of Canton of Aargau Switzerland
  • May 5 Mary Kies is 1st woman issued a US patent (weaving straw)
  • May 17 Papal States annexed by France
  • May 21 Battle of Aspern-Essling: Austrian archduke Karl beats Napoleon
  • May 24 Dartmoor Prison opens to house French prisoners of war
  • Jun 1 Allardyce Barclay begins a bet of walking 1 mile every hour for 1,000 hours. Each hour he walked a mile round trip from his home
  • Jun 6 Sweden declares independence, constitutional monarchy established with a new constituion empowering Riksdag after 20 years of absolute monarchy
  • Jun 8 William Hyde Wollaston invents the first reflective goniometer
  • Jun 10 1st US steamboat to a make an ocean voyage leaves NY for Phila
  • Jul 5 -6) Battle of Wagram - Napoleon beats archduke Charles
  • Jul 16 La Paz, Bolivia declares its independence from the Spanish Crown and forms the Junta Tuitiva. The first independent government in Spanish America, led by Pedro Domingo Murillo
  • Jul 27 Battle of Talavera: British/Spanish army vs French army
  • Jul 30 British armed force of 39,000 lands in Walcheren
  • Jul 31 1st practical US railroad track (wooden, for horse-drawn cars), Phila
  • Aug 8 70 disciples of Gaon of Vilnius, arrive in Palestine
  • Aug 10 Ecuador declares independence from Spain (National Day)
  • Sep 17 Peace between Sweden and Russia in the Finnish War. The territory to become Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn.
  • Sep 18 Royal Opera House in London opens

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 11 Along the Natchez Trace in Tennessee, explorer Meriwether Lewis dies under mysterious circumstances at an inn called Grinder's Stand.

Soldier/Public Administrator Meriwether Lewis
Soldier/Public Administrator
Meriwether Lewis
  • Nov 22 Peregrine Williamson of Baltimore patents a steel pen
  • Dec 25 Physician Ephraim McDowell performs the first abdominal surgery in the U.S, an ovariotomy to remove a 22 lb ovarian tumor
  • Dec 26 British invasionary troop leaves Vlissingen
  • Dec 30 Wearing masks at balls forbidden in Boston

Famous Birthdays

  • Jan 1 John Pieter Heije, Dutch physician/writer/poet (Silver Fleet)
  • Jan 2 Friedrich Wilhelm Jahns, composer

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jan 4 Louis Braille, Coupvray France, developer (reading system for blind)

Braille Inventor Louis Braille
Braille Inventor
Louis Braille
  • Jan 15 Cornelia Connelly, founder (Society of the Holy Child Jesus), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Jan 15 Pierre Joseph Proudhon, France, politician (libertarian socialist)
  • Jan 18 Richard Caswell Gatlin, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1896)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jan 19 Edgar Allan Poe, author (Pit & the Pendulum), born in Boston, Massachusetts

  • Jan 20 Sebastian de Iradier, Spanish composer (La Paloma)
  • Jan 23 Veer Surendra Sai, Indian Freedom Fighter
  • Feb 3 Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Hamburg Germ, composer (Great Scherzos)
  • Feb 7 Frederik Paludan-Muller, Danish Romantic poet (Danserinden)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Feb 12 Abraham Lincoln, American politician (R) 16th President (1861-65), born in Hardin County, Kentucky (d. 1865)

US President Abraham Lincoln
US President
Abraham Lincoln

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Feb 12 Charles Darwin, English naturalist (Origin of the Species) who conceived the theory of evolution by natural selection, born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire (d. 1882)

Naturalist Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Feb 15 Cyrus Hall McCormick, Shenandoah Valley Virginia, American inventor (Mechanical reaper)

Inventor of the Mechanical Reaper Cyrus Hall McCormick
Inventor of the Mechanical Reaper
Cyrus Hall McCormick
  • Feb 15 André Dumont, Belgian geologist (d. 1857)
  • Feb 20 Albertus J Duymaer van Twist, gov-gen of Neth-Indies
  • Feb 20 Henry Walton Wessells, Brigadier General (Union volunteers), (d. 1889)
  • Feb 24 Edwin H K Freiherr von Manteuffel, governor/viceroy (Elzas-Lutherian)
  • Feb 25 George Washington Cullom, Bvt Major General (Union Army), (d. 1892)
  • Mar 10 William David Porter, Commander (Union Navy), (d. 1864)
  • Mar 15 Joseph Jenkins Roberts, 1st President of Liberia
  • Mar 15 Karl Josef von Hefele, German theologian (d. 1893)
  • Mar 19 Fredrik Pacius, composer
  • Mar 24 Joseph Liouville, France, discover of transcendental numbers
  • Mar 27 Georges Eugene Haussmann, architect, born in Paris, France
  • Mar 31 Edward FitzGerald, England, writer (Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam)
  • Mar 31 Otto Jonas Lindblad, composer
  • Mar 31 Nikolai Gogol, Ukrainian-born Russian novelist, humorist, and dramatist (Dead Souls, The Inspector-General)
  • Apr 1 Willem Ruys J Dz, Dutch ship owner
  • Apr 4 Benjamin Pierce, US mathematician/astronomer
  • Apr 14 George W Vreede, Dutch lawyer/politician
  • Apr 15 Hermann Gunther Grassmann, mathematician
  • Apr 17 Philip St George Cocke, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1861)
  • Apr 20 John Smith Preston, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1881)
  • Apr 21 Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter, Secy State (Confederacy)
  • Apr 23 Eugene-Prosper Prevost, composer
  • Apr 28 Conradus Leemans, Dutch archaeologist
  • May 6 William Walker, composer
  • Jun 13 George Philip St Cooke, Bvt Major General (Union Army), (d. 1895)
  • Jun 15 François-Xavier Garneau, French-Canadian poet and historian (d. 1866)
  • Jun 18 Sylvanus William Godon, Commander (Union Navy), (d. 1879)
  • Jun 27 Francois de Canrobert, French marshal/parliament member
  • Jul 8 Ljudwit Gaj, Croatian writer/poet (Pjesma iz Zagorja)
  • Jul 9 Frederick Henle, Germany, pathologist
  • Jul 10 Friedrich August von Quenstedt, German geologist (d. 1889)
  • Jul 28 Ormsby McKnight Mitchel, astronomer/Major General (Union volunteers)
  • Jul 30 Charles Chiniquy, Quebec-born excommunicated Catholic priest (d. 1899)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Aug 6 Alfred Lord Tennyson, British Poet Laureate of Great Britain, born in Somersby, Lincolnshire (d. 1892)

  • Aug 9 William Barret Travis, commander at Battle of the Alamo
  • Aug 21 Francesco Schira, composer
  • Aug 23 Juliusz Slowacki, Polish poet (Trip to H Land)
  • Aug 27 Hannibal Hamlin, (R) 15th VP (1861-65)
  • Aug 29 Oliver Wendell Holmes, physician/author (Old Ironsides), born in Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • Aug 30 Adolf Friedrich Hesse, composer
  • Sep 5 Manuel Montt Torres, President of Chile (d. 1880)
  • Sep 9 William Radford, Commander (Union Navy), (d. 1890)
  • Sep 20 Sterline "Old Pap" Price, Major General (Confederate Army)
  • Sep 21 Sophia Hawthorne, Salem Massachusetts, American writer, painter and illustator
  • Sep 27 Raphael Semmes, Rear Admiral (Confederate Navy), (d. 1877)
  • Oct 2 Anton Emil Titl, composer
  • Oct 4 Albrecht F H, prince of Prussia
  • Oct 4 Robert Cumming Schenck, Major General (Union volunteers), (d. 1890)
  • Oct 11 Orson Squire Fowler, American phrenologist (d. 1887)
  • Oct 22 Federico Ricci, composer
  • Oct 22 Volney E. Howard, American politician (d. 1889)
  • Oct 27 Peter "Peerke" Donders, Dutch RC missionary to Suriname
  • Nov 4 Benjamin Robbins Curtis, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1874)
  • Nov 9 Albert Taylor Bledsoe, Asst Secy War (Confederacy), (d. 1877)
  • Nov 13 John AB Dahlgren, US Union lt adm/inventor (Civil war Dahlgren-cannon)
  • Nov 23 Horatio Phillips Van Cleve, Bvt Major General (Union volunteers)
  • Nov 26 Mariano Obiols, composer
  • Nov 27 Frances Anne "Fanny" Kemble, England, Shakespearian actress (Juliet)
  • Nov 30 Thomas Molleson Mudie, composer
  • Dec 3 Thomas Alfred Davies, Bvt Mjr General (Union volunteers), (d. 1899)
  • Dec 6 Stephen Thomas, Brigadier General (Union volunteers), (d. 1903)
  • Dec 16 Peter P van Bosse, Dutch attorney/liberal minister of Finance
  • Dec 19 Pierre-Joseph van Beneden, Belg, paleont (life cycle of tapeworms)
  • Dec 20 Friedrich Karl Kuhmstedt, composer
  • Dec 22 Benedict Augustin Morel, Fren psychologist (dementia praecox), born in Vienna, Austria

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Dec 24 Kit Carson, American frontiersman, Indian fighter and army officer, born in Madison County, Kentucky (d. 1868)

Frontiersman Kit Carson
Kit Carson
  • Dec 26 William Nelson Pendleton, Brig Gen (Confederate Army), (d. 1883)
  • Dec 29 Albert Pike, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1891)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Dec 29 William Ewart Gladstone, Liberal British PM (1868-74, '80-86, '92-94), (d. 1898)

British Prime Minister William Gladstone
British Prime Minister
William Gladstone

Famous Divorces

Broken heartDivorce of Interest

Dec 16 Napoleon Bonaparte divorces Empress Joséphine by French Senate

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte

Famous Deaths

  • Jan 4 Bartolomeo Giacometti, composer, dies at 67
  • Jan 16 Sir John Moore, British General, at the Battle of Corunna (b. 1761)
  • Jan 21 Josiah Hornblower, American statesman (b. 1729)
  • Feb 20 Johann Joseph Emmert, composer, dies at 76
  • Mar 7 Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, Austrian composer, dies at 73
  • Mar 23 Ferdinand-Philippe-Joseph Staes, composer, dies at 60
  • Mar 26 Gabriele Mario Piozzi, composer, dies at 68
  • Mar 27 Joseph M Vien, French (court)painter/etcher, dies at 92
  • May 8 Augustin Pajou, French sculptor (Bachante), dies at 78
  • May 17 Leopold Auenbrugger von Auenbrugg, physician, dies
  • May 30 Johan B Scheffer, portrait painter, dies at about 43
  • May 31 Ferdinand von Schill, Prussian officer/rebel, dies in battle at 33
  • May 31 Franz Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer (Jahreszeiten), dies at 77
  • May 31 Jean Lannes, French marshal (b. 1769)
  • Jun 3 John "Christmas" Beckwith, composer, dies at 58
  • Jun 4 Nicolai Arbraham Abildgaard, Danish painter/architect, dies at 65

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jun 8 Thomas Paine, English/American writer (Age of Reason, Common Sense), dies at 72

Voice of the American Revolution Thomas Paine
Voice of the American Revolution
Thomas Paine
  • Jul 3 Joseph Quesnel, French-Canadian composer and playwright (b. 1746)
  • Jul 6 Antoine Charles Louis Lasalle, French cavalry general (b. 1775)
  • Jul 24 Johann Gottfried Eckard, composer, dies at 74
  • Aug 12 Mikhail Kamensky, Russian field marshal (b. 1738)
  • Aug 18 Matthew Boulton, English manufacturer and engineer (b. 1728)
  • Aug 30 Ignacy Potocki, Polish Foreign Minister (constitution), dies
  • Sep 7 Caroline Schelling, [Michaelis], German author and academic dies at 46
  • Sep 7 Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, King of Thailand (b. 1737)
  • Sep 21 Alexander Reinagle, composer, dies at 53
  • Oct 2 Wybo Fijnje, politician/patriot/journalist, dies at 59
  • Oct 8 James Elphinston, Scottish philologist (b. 1721)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Oct 11 Meriwether Lewis, (Lewis & Clark Expedition), commits suicide at 35

Soldier/Public Administrator Meriwether Lewis
Soldier/Public Administrator
Meriwether Lewis
  • Oct 30 William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, British Prime Minister (1783, 1807-09), dies at 71
  • Nov 9 Paul Sandby, English cartographer (b. 1725)
  • Nov 26 Nicolas-Marie Dalayrac, composer, dies at 56
  • Dec 16 Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy, French chemist (b. 1755)
  • Dec 31 Franz Ignaz Beck, composer, dies at 75