What Happened in 1844

Historical Events

  • Jan 1 1st edition of New Rotterdam's Daily (3x per week)
  • Jan 15 University of Notre Dame receives its charter in Indiana
  • Jan 25 Recontre between Reps Weller & Shriver, US House of Representative
  • Feb 3 Hector Berlioz' "Carnaval Romain" premieres in Paris
  • Feb 14 Lt. John C. Frémont first European to discover Lake Tahoe in the US
  • Feb 27 Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti (National Day)
  • Feb 28 12-inch gun aboard USS Princeton explodes, killing Secretary of State Abel P. Upshur, Secretary of the Navy Thomas Gilmer, and other high-ranking U.S. federal officials
  • Feb 28 6th Grand National: Mr John Crickmere aboard Discount wins
  • Mar 8 King Oscar I ascends to the throne of Sweden-Norway.

Music releaseMusic Premiere

Mar 9 Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Hernani" premieres in Venice

Composer Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
  • Mar 21 Origin of Baha'i Era-Baha'i calendar starts here (Baha 1, 1)
  • Mar 21 The original date predicted by William Miller of Massachusetts for the return of Christ and the end of the world.
  • Mar 28 Jose Zorilla's "Don Juan Tenorio" premieres in Madrid
  • Apr 12 Texan envoys sign Treaty of Annexation with the United States

Electoral defeatPresidential Convention

May 1 Whig convention nominates Henry Clay as presidential candidate

Legislator and Orator Henry Clay
Legislator and Orator
Henry Clay
  • May 6 Johan Thorbecke argues general right to vote
  • May 23 Declaration of Bab (Baha'i festival) ('Azamat 7, 1)

CommunicationHistoric Communication

May 24 Samuel Morse taps out "What hath God wrought" in the world's 1st telegraph message

Inventor Samuel Morse
Samuel Morse
  • May 25 1st telegraphed news dispatch is published in Baltimore Patriot
  • Jun 6 Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) forms in London

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jun 15 Charles Goodyear patents the vulcanization of rubber

  • Jun 22 Influential North American fraternity Delta Kappa Epsilon is founded at Yale University.
  • Jul 3 The last pair of Great Auks is killed.
  • Jul 27 Fire destroys US mint at Charlotte, North Carolina
  • Jul 30 1st US yacht club - NY Yacht Club organized by John Cox Stevens and 8 friends aboard the Gimcrack

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Aug 8 Brigham Young chosen as head of Mormon Church following the death of Joseph Smith

Founder of Salt Lake City and President of the LDS Church Brigham Young
Founder of Salt Lake City and President of the LDS Church
Brigham Young
  • Aug 29 1st white-indian lacrosse game in Montreal, Indians win
  • Sep 5 Iron ore discovered in Minnesota's Mesabi Mountains
  • Sep 25 Canada defeats USA by 23 runs in the 1st cricket international
  • Sep 28 Oscar I of Sweden-Norway is crowned king of Sweden.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 1 German explorer Ludwig Leichhardt departs Jimbour, the farthest outpost of settlement on the Queensland Darling Downs, to begin his exploration of Australia's Northern Territory from Moreton Bay to Port Essington

Explorer and Naturalist Ludwig Leichhardt
Explorer and Naturalist
Ludwig Leichhardt
  • Oct 22 Millerite Adventists wait for appearance of Jesus
  • Nov 6 Spain grants Dominican Republic independence
  • Nov 23 Independence of the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark.
  • Dec 3 RC Society Apostole of Prayer forms

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

Dec 4 James Knox Polk elected 11th US President

11th US President James Knox Polk
11th US President
James Knox Polk
  • Dec 11 1st dental use of nitrous oxide, Hartford, Ct
  • Dec 21 The Rochdale Pioneers commence business at their cooperative in Rochdale, England, starting the Cooperative movement.
  • Dec 30 Opera "Stradella" after being rewritten is produced (Hamburg)

Famous Birthdays

  • Jan 4 Thomas H Rollinson, composer
  • Jan 7 Marie-Bernarde Soubirous, [St Bernadette of Lourdes], saint/visionary
  • Jan 14 Clara Kathleen Rogers, composer
  • Jan 16 Ismail Qemali, Albanian nationalist (d. 1919)
  • Jan 20 Johan Peter Selmer, composer
  • Jan 25 Frederick E Kitziger, composer
  • Jan 30 Moritz F Freiherr von Bissing, German gen/gov-gen of Belgium (1914-17)
  • Feb 1 Eduard Adolf Strasburger, German botanist (Angiospermen)
  • Feb 1 Granville Stanley Hall, US, psychologist
  • Feb 2 Leander Schlegel, composer
  • Feb 17 A Montgomery Ward, found mail-order business (Montgomery Ward)
  • Feb 18 Willem Maris, Dutch painter (Hague School)
  • Feb 20 Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann, Austria, physicist (statistical mechanics)
  • Feb 20 Joshua Slocum, Canadian seaman and adventurer (d. 1909)
  • Feb 21 Charles-Marie Widor, Lyons France, composer/prof (Paris Conservatory)
  • Feb 22 Kazamierz Julian Kratzer, composer
  • Mar 2 Hermanus J A M Schaepman, clergyman/Dutch politician
  • Mar 4 Josip Jurcic, Slovenian writer (10th Brother)
  • Mar 6 Nicolai Rimski-Korsakov, composer (Flight of the Bumble Bee) (NS 3/18)
  • Mar 7 Anthony Comstock, New Canaan Ct, anti-vice crusader/philatelist
  • Mar 10 Pablo Martin M de Sarasate y Navascuez, composer (Spanish Dancing)
  • Mar 14 King Umberto I, of Italy (1878-1900)
  • Mar 15 Bransby Cooper, cricketer (in Dhaka Batsman in Australia's 1st Test)
  • Mar 18 Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Tikhvin Russia, composer (Scheherazade)
  • Mar 19 Minna Canth, Finland, playwright (The Pastor's Family) and social activist
  • Mar 23 Eugene Gigout, composer
  • Mar 27 Alophus Washington Greely, US, Arctic explorer
  • Mar 30 Paul M Verlaine, France, lyric poet (Sagesse Bonbeur)
  • Mar 31 Andrew Lang, Scotland, author (The Blue Fairy Book)
  • Apr 6 Joseph Ludwig, composer
  • Apr 16 Anatole France, writer (Thaïs, Wickerwork Woman, Nobel 1921)
  • Apr 22 Lewis Thornton Powell, would-be assassin of Secretary of State William H. Seward (d. 1865)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

May 2 Elijah McCoy, Canadian-American inventor of African descent, notable for his 57 US patents (lubrication of steam engines), born in Colchester, Ontario (d. 1929)

Inventor Elijah McCoy
Elijah McCoy
  • May 3 Edouard A Drumont, French anti-semitic journalist
  • May 3 Richard D'Oyly Carte, England, opera impresario (Ivanhoe)
  • May 8 Hermann Gradener, composer
  • May 9 [Maria] Catharina Beersmans, Belgian actress (Bad Herders)
  • May 17 Julius Wellhausen, German biblical scholar (d. 1918)
  • May 20 Henri Julien Felix Rousseau, French ambassador/painter (Dream)
  • May 22 Mary Cassatt, US, Impressionist painter (Woman Bathing)
  • May 23 `Abdu'l-Bahá, Successor to Prophet of the Bahá'í Faith (d. 1921)
  • May 28 Leon Felix Augustin Joseph Vasseur, composer
  • May 30 Louis Varney, composer
  • Jun 1 Galusha Pennypacker, Bvt Major General (Union Army), (d. 1916)
  • Jun 1 John J. Toffey, American Civil War hero (d. 1911)
  • Jun 3 Detlev [Freiherr Friedrich A von] Liliencron, German poet
  • Jun 3 Emile Paladilhe, composer
  • Jun 3 Garret Augustus Hobart, (R) 24th US VP (1897-99)
  • Jun 6 Konstantin Savitsky, Russian painter (d. 1905)
  • Jun 10 J Albert Neuhuys, Dutch painter (Haagse school)
  • Jun 10 Karl Hagenbeck, German animal trainer (Von Tieren und Menschen)
  • Jun 14 Edouard Naville, Swiss egyptologist
  • Jun 21 Ernest F Cambier, Belgian colonial pioneer (1st railway Congo)
  • Jul 1 Verney L Cameroon, English explorer (Tanganyika)
  • Jul 8 Mary Johnson Lincoln, educator (Boston Cooking School)
  • Jul 11 Peter I Karadjordjevic, King of Serbia/Yugoslavia
  • Jul 22 William Archibald Spooner, reverend/inventor (spoonerisms), born in London, England

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 25 Thomas Eakins, American artist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Painter Thomas Eakins
Thomas Eakins
  • Jul 28 Gerard Manley Hopkins, England, poet (Windhover)
  • Jul 31 Ignazio Guidi, Italian orientalist/archaeologist
  • Aug 6 Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (d. 1900)
  • Aug 7 Auguste Michel-Lévy, French geologist (d. 1911)
  • Aug 17 Menelik II, King of Ethiopia (1896-1913)
  • Aug 22 George Washington De Long, American Arctic Explorer whose disastrous expedition provided evidence to support the theory of trans-Arctic oceanic drift, born in New York City
  • Aug 29 Edward Carpenter, English poet (d. 1929)
  • Aug 30 Friedrich Ratzel, German social-geographer (Lebensraum)
  • Sep 10 Abel Hoadley, Australian confectioner (d. 1918)
  • Sep 11 George Martin, English composer and organist, born in Lambourn, Berkshire (d. 1916)
  • Sep 20 William H. Illingworth, American photographer (d. 1893)
  • Sep 28 Michael Hertz, composer
  • Sep 28 Robert Stout, Shetland Islands Scotland, NZ prime minister (1884-87)
  • Oct 3 Patrick Manson, "Father of tropical medicine"
  • Oct 5 Francis William Reitz, State President of the Orange Free State (d. 1934)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Oct 11 Henry John Heinz, founded prepared-foods company (Heinz-57 varieties), born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (d. 1919)

Founder of Heinz Henry John Heinz
Founder of Heinz
Henry John Heinz
  • Oct 12 George W Cable, American writer (Northampton Years)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Oct 15 Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher and philologist (Beyond Good and Evil), born in Röcken, Saxony, Prussia (d. 1900)

Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
  • Oct 17 Miguel Nieto, composer
  • Oct 18 Emille-Louis-Victor Mathieu, composer

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Oct 23 Louis Riel, Canadian politician, founder of the province of Manitoba and leader of the Métis people of the Canadian prairies, born in Red River Colony, Rupert's Land, British North America (d. 1885)

Politician Louis Riel
Louis Riel
  • Oct 23 Robert S Bridges, England, poet laureate (Eros & Psyche)
  • Oct 23 Robert Bridges, English poet, British Poet Laureate (1913-30), born in Walmer, Kent (d. 1930)
  • Oct 24 Karl Lueger, anti semitic mayor of Vienna
  • Oct 27 Klas Arnoldson, Sweden, politician/pacifist (Nobel 1908)
  • Oct 29 Albert von Rothschild, Austrian banker
  • Oct 30 Harvey W. Wiley, American chemist (d. 1930)
  • Nov 3 Mehmed V Reshad, sultan of Turkey (1909-18)
  • Nov 10 Henry Eyster Jacobs, American theologian (d. 1932)
  • Nov 12 Octave Fouque, composer

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Nov 25 Karl Benz, German inventor, engine designer and automobile manufacturer (Mercedes-Benz), born in Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg (d. 1929)

Automobile Engineer and Inventor Karl Benz
Automobile Engineer and Inventor
Karl Benz
  • Dec 1 Alexandra, Danish princess/Queen of Great Britain/Ireland
  • Dec 1 Alfred Cellier, composer
  • Dec 4 Franz Xavier Wernz, German Superior General of the Society of Jesus (d. 1914)
  • Dec 5 John Frederick Bridge, composer
  • Dec 18 Lujo [Ludwig J von] Brentano, German economist
  • Dec 22 Izydor Lotto, composer

Famous Weddings

HeartWedding of Interest

Jun 26 10th US President John Tyler marries 2nd wife Julia Gardiner in NYC, 1st president to marry while in office

10th US President John Tyler
10th US President
John Tyler

HeartWedding of Interest

Sep 29 Politician Boss Tweed (21) weds Mary Jane C Skaden

Politician Boss Tweed
Boss Tweed

Famous Deaths

  • Jan 15 Joseph Mazzinghi, composer, dies at 78
  • Jan 31 Henri Gratien, Comte Bertrand, French general (b. 1773)
  • Feb 4 Willem de Clerq, Dutch merchant/literary, dies at 49
  • Feb 15 Henry Addington Lord Sidmouth, British premier (1801-04), dies at 86
  • Feb 16 Joseph Crosfield, English soap and alkali manufacturer (b. 1792)
  • Feb 27 Nicholas Biddle, US lawyer/diplomat/statesman/financier, dies at 85
  • Feb 28 Abel P Upshur, Secretary of State, dies in explosion on USS Princeton
  • Feb 28 Thommas W Gilmer, Navy Secretary, dies in explosion on USS Princeton
  • Feb 29 Thaddaus Weigl, composer, dies at 67
  • Mar 7 John Wedgwood, ceramicist and founder of the Royal Horticulture Society, dies
  • Mar 8 Charles XIV John of Sweden (b. 1763)
  • Mar 21 Leopold F J J J van Sassen Ysselt, Dutch politician, dies at 65
  • Mar 24 Bertel Thorvaldsen, Danish sculptor (Dying Lion), dies at 73
  • Apr 4 Charles Bulfinch, 1st US pro architect (Mass State House), dies at 80
  • Apr 8 Ignaz Franz von Mosel, composer, dies at 72
  • Apr 22 Henri-Montan Berton, composer, dies at 76
  • May 8 Charles XIV Johan, [Jean B Bernadotte], King of Sweden/Norway, dies
  • May 18 Richard McCarty, American politician (b. 1780)
  • May 21 Guiseppi Baini, composer, dies at 68
  • May 24 William Crockford, clubman/gambler, dies
  • Jun 3 Louis-Antoine Bourbon, French duke of Angouleme, dies
  • Jun 15 Thomas Campbell, poet (Ye Mariners of England), dies at 66
  • Jun 19 Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, French naturalist (b. 1772)
  • Jun 27 Hyrum Smith, founder/leader (Mormon Church), shot by mob in Carthage Ill

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jun 27 Joseph Smith Jr, founder/leader (Mormon Church), shot by mob at 38

Religious Leader Joseph Smith Jr
Religious Leader
Joseph Smith Jr
  • Jul 11 Evgeny Baratynsky, Russian poet (b. 1800)
  • Jul 12 Charles-Louis Panckoucke, French publisher, dies at 63
  • Jul 13 Johann Gansbacher, composer, dies at 66
  • Jul 15 Claude Charles Fauriel, French historian (b. 1772)
  • Jul 19 Heinrich Domnich, composer, dies at 77
  • Jul 23 Christian Gobrecht, 4th US chief engraver (1840-44), dies in office
  • Jul 27 John Dalton, Engl physicist/chemist (molecular theorist), dies at 77
  • Jul 28 Joseph Bonaparte, older brother of Napoleon I and King of Naples and Spain (b. 1768)
  • Jul 29 Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart, composer, dies at 53
  • Aug 4 Jakob Aall, Norwegian journalist and statesman (b. 1773)
  • Aug 11 Jernej Kopitar, filmologist/censor (Slavic Grammatica), dies at 63
  • Aug 14 Henry Francis Cary, translator (Dante), dies
  • Aug 29 Edmund Ignatius Rice, Irish founder of the Christian Brothers and Presentation Brothers (b. 1762)
  • Aug 30 Francis Baily, English astronomer/mathematician (Baily's Beads), dies
  • Sep 14 Oliver Holden, composer, dies at 78
  • Sep 23 Alexander von Benckendorff, Russian general and statesman (b. 1783)
  • Sep 27 Charles Nodier, French writer (History du chien the Brisquet), dies
  • Sep 28 Pyotr Aleksandrovich Tolstoy, Russian general and statesman (b. 1769)
  • Oct 12 Claude Tillier, French journalist/writer (My Uncle Benjamin), dies
  • Nov 1 August Ferdinand Haeser, composer, dies at 45
  • Nov 14 Flora Tristan, French writer and social activist, dies at 41
  • Nov 14 John Abercrombie, British physician (b. 1780)
  • Nov 21 Ivan Krylov, Russian fabulist (b. 1769)
  • Dec 2 Eustachy Erazm Sanguszko, Polish general and politician (b. 1768)