What Happened in 1851

Historical Events

  • Jan 1st City of Glasgow steamer inaugurates Philadelphia-Liverpool line
  • Jan 15th Gen Arista replaces Mexican President Herrera
  • Jan 28th Northwestern University (Chicago) chartered
  • Jan 31st Gail Borden announces invention of condensed milk
  • Jan 31st SF Orphan's Asylum, 1st in California, founded
  • Feb 6th Robert Schumann's 3rd Symphony "Rhenisch" premieres in Dusseldorf
  • Feb 11th 1st cricket 1st-class game in Australia, Tasmania v Vic, Launceston
  • Feb 15th Black abolitionists invade Boston courtroom rescuing a fugitive slave
  • Feb 26th 13th Grand National: T. Abbott aboard Abd-El-Kader IRE wins
  • Mar 3rd Congress authorizes smallest US silver coin (3 cent piece)
  • Mar 6th Dion Boucicault's "Love in a Maze" premieres in London
  • Mar 7th Poll tax levied on Russo-Polish Jews entering Austrian Galicia ends

Music releaseMusic Premiere

Mar 11th Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Rigoletto" premieres in Venice

Composer Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
  • Mar 25th Yosemite Valley discovered in California
  • Apr 15th Earl G Andressy sentenced to death in Hungary
  • Apr 23rd Canada issues its 1st postage stamps
  • May 1st Great Exhibition opens in the Crystal Palace, London
  • May 3rd Most of San Francisco destroyed by fire; 30 die
  • May 4th First major San Francisco fire destroys a quarter of the city
  • May 6th Dr John Gorrie patents a "refrigeration machine"
  • May 6th Linus Yale patents Yale lock
  • May 6th New slave regulations go into effect in Suriname
  • May 6th San Francisco Chamber of Commerce starts
  • May 15th Rama IV, [Phra Chomklao Chaoyuhua], king of Thai (1851-68), crowned
  • May 18th Amsterdam-Nieuwediep telegraph connection linked

Conference meetingConference of Interest

May 29th Sojourner Truth addresses 1st Black Women's Rights Convention (Akron)

Abolitionist and Women's Rights Advocate Sojourner Truth
Abolitionist and Women's Rights Advocate
Sojourner Truth
  • Jun 2nd 1st US alcohol prohibition law enacted (Maine)
  • Jun 3rd 1st baseball uniforms worn, NY Knickerbockers wear straw hat, white shirt & blue long trousers
  • Jun 9th SF Committee of Vigilance forms (1st time)
  • Jun 15th Jacob Fussell, Baltimore dairyman, sets up 1st ice-cream factory
  • Jun 22nd Fire destroys part of San Francisco, including City hall and Jenny Lind Theatre
  • Jun 30th Battle of Viervoet (Basotho-British war)
  • Jul 13th John F Loudon discovers tin on East Indian Island of Billiton
  • Jul 23rd Treaty of Traverse des Sioux signed by Sioux Indians & US
  • Jul 24th Window tax abolished in Britain
  • Jul 28th Total solar eclipse captured on a daguerreotype photograph
  • Jul 29th Annibale de Gasparis discovers asteroid 15 Eunomia
  • Aug 12th 1st America's Cup - US schooner America beats British yacht Aurora after race around the Isle of Wight
  • Aug 12th American inventor Isaac Singer patents the sewing machine
  • Aug 22nd Gold fields discovered in Australia
  • Aug 22nd Yacht "America" wins 1st Royal Yacht Squadron Cup (America's Cup)
  • Sep 15th Saint Joseph's University is founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • Sep 18th New York Times starts publishing (2 cents a copy)
  • Sep 22nd The city of Des Moines, Iowa was incorporated as Fort Des Moines.
  • Oct 1st 1st Hawaiian stamps issued
  • Oct 2nd The pasilalinic-sympathetic compass is demonstrated but proves to be a fake.
  • Oct 24th William Lassell discovers Ariel & Umbriel, satellites of Uranus
  • Oct 30th Alfred de Musset's "Bettine" premieres in Paris
  • Nov 9th Kentucky marshals abduct abolitionist minister Calvin Fairbank from Jeffersonville, Indiana, and take him to Kentucky to stand trial for helping a slave escape.
  • Nov 11th Alvan Clark patents telescope
  • Nov 13th 1st meeting of anti-revolutionary "Netherlands & Orange"
  • Nov 13th Telegraph connection between London-Paris linked
  • Nov 13th The Denny Party lands at Alki Point, the first settlers of what would become Seattle, Washington.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Nov 14th "Moby-Dick" by Herman Melville first published by Harper and Brothers in the US

Moby Dick Author Herman Melville
Moby Dick Author
Herman Melville
  • Nov 22nd Opera "La Perle Du Brésil" is produced (Paris)
  • Dec 2nd French President Charles Louis Bonaparte in a Coup d'etat overthrows the Second Republic establishing himself as Emperor.
  • Dec 4th Pres Louis Napoleon Boaparte's forces crush an attempted coup d'etat in France
  • Dec 9th 1st Young Men's Christian Association in North America (Montreal)
  • Dec 22nd The first freight train is operated in Roorkee, India.
  • Dec 24th Fire devastates US Library of Congress in Washington, destroys 35,000 volumes
  • Dec 29th 1st American Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) chapter opened in Boston Massachusetts.

Famous Birthdays

  • Jan 9th Giuseppi Gallignani, composer
  • Jan 14th Theophile EA de Bock, Dutch painter/etcher/drawer
  • Jan 17th A. B. Frost, American illustrator (d. 1928)
  • Jan 19th David Starr Jordan, NY, biologist/university pres (Leland Stanford)
  • Jan 19th Johannes C Kapteyn, Dutch astronomer
  • Jan 25th Arne Garborg, Norwegian playwright (Bondestudentar)
  • Jan 25th Jan Blockx, Belgium, opera composer (Sea Bride princess of Herberg)
  • Jan 27th Rafael Obligado, Argentina, writer (Santos Vega)
  • Feb 1st Durham Stevens, American diplomat (d. 1908)
  • Feb 2nd José Guadalupe Posada, Mexican artist (d. 1913)
  • Feb 3rd Johannes B van Heutsz, lt-gen/gov-gen Dutch East Indies
  • Feb 3rd Lord Harris, cricketer (4 Tests for England MCC big-wig)
  • Feb 8th Kate O'Flaherty Chopin, writer, born in St. Louis, Missouri (d. 1904)
  • Feb 28th Samuel W. McCall, 47th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1923)
  • Mar 3rd Alexandros Papadiamantis, Greek author (d. 1911)
  • Mar 15th Jozef Surzynski, composer
  • Mar 16th Martinus Beijerinck, Dutch microbiologist and botanist (d. 1931)
  • Mar 19th Roque Saenz Pena, President of Argentina (1910-14)
  • Mar 19th William Henry Stark, American business leader (d. 1936)
  • Mar 27th Ruperto Chapi y Lorente, composer
  • Mar 27th Vincent d'Indy, French composer and teacher (d. 1931)
  • Mar 28th Bernardino Machado, Portuguese politician (d. 1944)
  • Apr 6th Guillaume Bigourdan, French astronomer (d. 1932)
  • Apr 7th Otto Adolf Klauwell, composer
  • Apr 9th C E Arthur Wichmann, German/Dutch geologist (Neth Indies)
  • Apr 12th Emil Liebling, composer
  • Apr 13th Robert Abbe, American surgeon (d. 1928)
  • Apr 16th Ernst Josephson, Sweden, artist
  • Apr 20th Young Tom Morris, Scottish golfer (d. 1875)
  • Apr 21st Charles Barrois, French geologist (d. 1939)
  • Apr 24th Eduardo Acevedo Diaz, Uruguaian writer (Ismael, Grito de Gloria)
  • Apr 25th Leopoldo Alas y Ureña, a.k.a. "Clarín", Spanish novelist (d. 1901)
  • May 1st Laza Lazarević, Serbian writer and psychiatrist (d. 1891)
  • May 18th James Budd, Governor of California (d. 1908)
  • May 20th Emile Berliner, Germany, inventor (flat phonograph record)
  • May 20th Rose Hawthorne Lathrop, US, nun/daughter of Nathaniel Hawthorne
  • May 21st Leon Bourgeois, France, politician, internationalist (Nobel 1920)
  • May 23rd Antoni Stolpe, composer
  • May 28th Dick Barlow, cricketer (immortal England all-rounder of 1880s)
  • May 29th Leon VA Bourgeois, French premier (1895-96, Nobel 1920)
  • Jun 8th Jacques-Arsène d'Arsonval, French physicist (d. 1940)
  • Jun 9th Charles Joseph Bonaparte, French politician (d. 1921)
  • Jun 12th Oliver Joseph Lodge, England, early radio pioneer
  • Jun 19th Billy Midwinter, Australian cricketer (d. 1890)
  • Jun 21st Daniel Carter Beard, US, organized 1st boy scout troop
  • Jul 7th Lillien Jane Martin, psychologist, found gerontology clinic
  • Jul 7th Charles Tindley, American gospel music composer (d. 1933)
  • Jul 8th Arthur J Evans, English archaeologist (Crete)
  • Jul 11th Millie & Christine, NC, siamese twins
  • Jul 15th Eduardo Gutiérrez, Argentinian author (d. 1889)
  • Jul 19th Hendrik J Jut, Dutch murderer (head of Jut)
  • Jul 23rd Charles Bannerman, Aussie cricket batsman (1st centurion)
  • Jul 24th Friedrich Schottky, German mathematician (d. 1935)
  • Aug 3rd Isabella Caroline Somerset, temperance leader
  • Aug 13th John Lincoln Clem, Drummer (Union volunteers), (d. 1937)
  • Aug 13th Felix Adler, German-born educator (d. 1933)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Aug 14th Doc Holliday, American gambler, dentist and gunfighter (Gunfight at the O.K. Corral), born in Griffin, Georgia (d. 1887)

Gunfighter in the American Old West Doc Holliday
Gunfighter in the American Old West
Doc Holliday
  • Aug 15th [Georgette A] Helena Amelung, Dutch actress (Scapegoat)
  • Aug 17th Henry Drummond, Scottish geologist/evangelist
  • Aug 19th Frans Schollaert, Belgian premier (1908-11)
  • Aug 19th Charles Hires, American Inventor and Manufacturer of the Hires Root Beer beverage, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Aug 24th Tom Kendall, Australian cricketer (d. 1924)
  • Aug 25th [Willem] Alexander KHF, prince of Orange/Netherlands
  • Aug 29th Willem M d'Ablaing, Dutch lawyer
  • Sep 3rd Olga Konstantinovna of Russia, Queen of Greece (d. 1926)
  • Sep 4th John Dillon, Irish nationalist/British Lower house member
  • Sep 7th Edward Ashael Birge, American pioneer in limnology (d. 1950)
  • Sep 13th Walter Reed, US Army Surgeon, proved mosquitoes transmit yellow fever
  • Sep 15th Emilia Pardo Bazan, Spanish countess/writer (Sirena Negra)
  • Sep 15th Josif Marinkovic, composer
  • Sep 28th Henry Arthur Jones, English playwright (Judah)
  • Oct 2nd Ferdinand Foch, France, Allied military commander and hero during WW I
  • Oct 15th George F Moore, US theologist (Hebrews, Old Testament)
  • Oct 16th James Ten Eyck, champion rower/coach (Ten Eyck Trophy namesake)
  • Oct 19th Empress Myeongseong, Empress of Korea (d. 1895)
  • Oct 21st George Ulyett, cricketer (great Yorkshire all-rounder 1873-93)
  • Oct 23rd Guillaume Couture, composer
  • Oct 31st Lovisa of Sweden, queen of Denmark (d. 1926)
  • Nov 5th Charles Dupuy, French prime minister (d. 1923)
  • Nov 6th Charles Dow, American journalist and economist (co-founded Dow Jones/1st editor of Wall St Journal) (d. 1902)
  • Nov 7th Chris von der Ahe, German born entrepreneur (d. 1913)
  • Nov 20th Queen Margherita of Italy (d. 1926)
  • Nov 21st Desire J Mercier, Belgian philosopher/cardinal
  • Dec 10th Melvil[le Louis K] Dewey, created Dewey Decimal System for libraries
  • Dec 16th Theodoor H de Meester, Dutch premier (1905-08)
  • Dec 18th Graciano Lopez Jaena, Filipino hero, orator and satirist (d. 1896)
  • Dec 21st Thomas Chipman McRae, American politician, 34th Governor of Arkansas (d. 1929)
  • Dec 30th Asa Griggs Candler, developed Coca-Cola

Famous Deaths

  • Jan 10th Karl Freiherr von Müffling, Prussian field marshal (b. 1775)
  • Jan 12th Johan Herman Koekkoek, painter, dies at 72
  • Jan 19th Esteban Echeverría, Argentine writer (b. 1805)
  • Jan 21st Gustav Albert Lortzing, composer, dies at 49
  • Jan 24th Gaspare Luigi Pacifico Spontini, Italian composer, dies at 76

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jan 27th John James Audubon, conservationist (Audubon Society), dies at 65

Ornithologist John James Audubon
John James Audubon
  • Jan 27th Karl Moser, German composer, dies at 77

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Feb 1st Mary Shelley, novelist (Frankenstein), dies of a brain tumour at 53

Frankenstein Author Mary Shelley
Frankenstein Author
Mary Shelley
  • Feb 16th Anne Nagell van Ampsen, Dutch politician, dies at 95
  • Feb 18th Carl Gustav Jakob Jacobi, German mathematician (b. 1804)
  • Feb 20th Josef Alois Ladurner, composer, dies at 81
  • Feb 25th Ferdinand Simon Gassner, composer, dies at 53
  • Mar 4th Michael Henkel, composer, dies at 70
  • Mar 4th James Richardson, British explorer (b. 1809)
  • Mar 6th Alexander Aliabiev, composer, dies at 63

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 9th Hans Christian Oersted, Danish physicist, dies at 73

Physicist/Chemist Hans Oersted
Hans Oersted
  • Mar 11th George McDuffie, Governor of South Carolina (b. 1790)
  • Apr 8th John Parry [Bardd Alaw], Welsh composer and harpist, dies at 75
  • Apr 9th Antoine-Charles Glachant, composer, dies at 80
  • May 17th Jean E "Adrian" van Bevervoorde, journalist (Treason), dies at 31
  • May 22nd Mordecai Manuel Noah, American writer, journalist (b. 1755)
  • May 23rd Lucas Pieter Roodbaard, architect, dies at 69
  • May 24th Stanko Vraz, [Jakob Frass], Slavic poet (Grammatica), dies at 40
  • Jul 4th Martin-Joseph Mengal, composer, dies at 67
  • Jul 5th Juanita, Mexican, lynched by California gold diggers

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 10th Louis Daguerre, French inventor and photographer (b. 1787)

Photographer and Inventor Louis-Jacques Daguerre
Photographer and Inventor
Louis-Jacques Daguerre
  • Jul 17th Beni Egressy, composer, dies at 37
  • Aug 1st William Joseph Behr, German writer (b. 1775)
  • Aug 11th Lorenz Oken, German naturalist (b. 1779)
  • Aug 19th Gioseffo Catrufo, composer, dies at 80
  • Sep 10th Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, American educator (b. 1787)
  • Sep 11th Sylvester Graham, American nutritionist and minister (Graham cracker) (b. 1794)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Sep 14th James Fenimore Cooper, American author (Last of Mohicans), dies of dropsy at 61

  • Oct 4th Manuel de Godoy, Spanish statesman (b. 1767)
  • Oct 19th Marie Thérèse Charlotte (b. 1778)
  • Oct 31st Peter II Petrovic Njegos, bishop of Montenegro (1830-51), dies at 37
  • Nov 18th Ernst August, duke of Cumberland/king of Hanover (1837-51), dies at 80
  • Nov 20th Wenzel Sedlak, composer, dies at 75
  • Nov 26th Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, French marshal (b. 1769)
  • Dec 19th J M William Turner, British painter (Rain, Steam & Speed), dies at 76