What Happened in 1851

Historical Events

  • Jan 1 City of Glasgow steamer inaugurates Philadelphia-Liverpool line
  • Jan 15 Gen Arista replaces Mexican President Herrera
  • Jan 28 Northwestern University (Chicago) chartered
  • Jan 31 Gail Borden announces invention of condensed milk
  • Jan 31 SF Orphan's Asylum, 1st in California, founded
  • Feb 6 Robert Schumann's 3rd Symphony "Rhenisch" premieres in Dusseldorf
  • Feb 11 1st cricket 1st-class game in Australia, Tasmania v Vic, Launceston
  • Feb 15 Black abolitionists invade Boston courtroom rescuing a fugitive slave
  • Feb 26 13th Grand National: T. Abbott aboard Abd-El-Kader IRE wins
  • Mar 3 Congress authorizes smallest US silver coin (3 cent piece)
  • Mar 6 Dion Boucicault's "Love in a Maze" premieres in London
  • Mar 7 Poll tax levied on Russo-Polish Jews entering Austrian Galicia ends

Music releaseMusic Premiere

Mar 11 Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Rigoletto" premieres in Venice

Composer Giuseppe Verdi
Composer
Giuseppe Verdi
  • Mar 25 Yosemite Valley discovered in California
  • Apr 15 Earl G Andressy sentenced to death in Hungary
  • Apr 23 Canada issues its 1st postage stamps
  • May 1 Great Exhibition opens in the Crystal Palace, London
  • May 3 Most of San Francisco destroyed by fire; 30 die
  • May 4 First major San Francisco fire destroys a quarter of the city
  • May 6 Dr John Gorrie patents a "refrigeration machine"
  • May 6 Linus Yale patents Yale lock
  • May 6 New slave regulations go into effect in Suriname
  • May 6 San Francisco Chamber of Commerce starts
  • May 15 Rama IV, [Phra Chomklao Chaoyuhua], king of Thai (1851-68), crowned
  • May 18 Amsterdam-Nieuwediep telegraph connection linked

Conference meetingConference of Interest

May 29 Sojourner Truth addresses 1st Black Women's Rights Convention (Akron)

Abolitionist and Women's Rights Advocate Sojourner Truth
Abolitionist and Women's Rights Advocate
Sojourner Truth
  • Jun 2 1st US alcohol prohibition law enacted (Maine)
  • Jun 3 1st baseball uniforms worn, NY Knickerbockers wear straw hat, white shirt & blue long trousers
  • Jun 9 SF Committee of Vigilance forms (1st time)
  • Jun 15 Jacob Fussell, Baltimore dairyman, sets up 1st ice-cream factory
  • Jun 22 Fire destroys part of San Francisco, including City hall and Jenny Lind Theatre
  • Jun 30 Battle of Viervoet (Basotho-British war)
  • Jul 13 John F Loudon discovers tin on East Indian Island of Billiton
  • Jul 23 Treaty of Traverse des Sioux signed by Sioux Indians & US
  • Jul 24 Window tax abolished in Britain
  • Jul 28 Total solar eclipse captured on a daguerreotype photograph
  • Jul 29 Annibale de Gasparis discovers asteroid 15 Eunomia
  • Aug 12 1st America's Cup - US schooner America beats British yacht Aurora after race around the Isle of Wight
  • Aug 12 American inventor Isaac Singer patents the sewing machine
  • Aug 22 Gold fields discovered in Australia
  • Aug 22 Yacht "America" wins 1st Royal Yacht Squadron Cup (America's Cup)
  • Sep 15 Saint Joseph's University is founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • Sep 18 New York Times starts publishing (2 cents a copy)
  • Sep 22 The city of Des Moines, Iowa was incorporated as Fort Des Moines.
  • Oct 1 1st Hawaiian stamps issued
  • Oct 2 The pasilalinic-sympathetic compass is demonstrated but proves to be a fake.
  • Oct 24 William Lassell discovers Ariel & Umbriel, satellites of Uranus
  • Oct 30 Alfred de Musset's "Bettine" premieres in Paris
  • Nov 9 Kentucky marshals abduct abolitionist minister Calvin Fairbank from Jeffersonville, Indiana, and take him to Kentucky to stand trial for helping a slave escape.
  • Nov 11 Alvan Clark patents telescope
  • Nov 13 1st meeting of anti-revolutionary "Netherlands & Orange"
  • Nov 13 Telegraph connection between London-Paris linked
  • Nov 13 The Denny Party lands at Alki Point, the first settlers of what would become Seattle, Washington.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Nov 14 "Moby-Dick" by Herman Melville first published by Harper and Brothers in the US

Moby Dick Author Herman Melville
Moby Dick Author
Herman Melville
  • Nov 22 Opera "La Perle Du Brésil" is produced (Paris)
  • Dec 2 French President Charles Louis Bonaparte in a Coup d'etat overthrows the Second Republic establishing himself as Emperor.
  • Dec 4 Pres Louis Napoleon Boaparte's forces crush an attempted coup d'etat in France
  • Dec 9 1st Young Men's Christian Association in North America set up in Montreal
  • Dec 22 The first freight train is operated in Roorkee, India.
  • Dec 24 Fire devastates US Library of Congress in Washington, destroys 35,000 volumes
  • Dec 29 1st American Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) chapter opened in Boston Massachusetts.

Famous Birthdays

  • Jan 9 Giuseppi Gallignani, composer
  • Jan 14 Theophile EA de Bock, Dutch painter/etcher/drawer
  • Jan 17 A. B. Frost, American illustrator (d. 1928)
  • Jan 19 David Starr Jordan, NY, biologist/university pres (Leland Stanford)
  • Jan 19 Johannes C Kapteyn, Dutch astronomer
  • Jan 25 Arne Garborg, Norwegian playwright (Bondestudentar)
  • Jan 25 Jan Blockx, Belgium, opera composer (Sea Bride princess of Herberg)
  • Jan 27 Rafael Obligado, Argentina, writer (Santos Vega)
  • Feb 1 Durham Stevens, American diplomat (d. 1908)
  • Feb 2 José Guadalupe Posada, Mexican artist (d. 1913)
  • Feb 3 Johannes B van Heutsz, lt-gen/gov-gen Dutch East Indies
  • Feb 3 Lord Harris, cricketer (4 Tests for England MCC big-wig)
  • Feb 8 Kate O'Flaherty Chopin, writer, born in St. Louis, Missouri (d. 1904)
  • Feb 28 Samuel W. McCall, 47th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1923)
  • Mar 3 Alexandros Papadiamantis, Greek author (d. 1911)
  • Mar 15 Jozef Surzynski, composer
  • Mar 16 Martinus Beijerinck, Dutch microbiologist and botanist (d. 1931)
  • Mar 19 Roque Saenz Pena, President of Argentina (1910-14)
  • Mar 19 William Henry Stark, American business leader (d. 1936)
  • Mar 27 Ruperto Chapi y Lorente, composer
  • Mar 27 Vincent d'Indy, French composer and teacher (d. 1931)
  • Mar 28 Bernardino Machado, Portuguese politician (d. 1944)
  • Apr 6 Guillaume Bigourdan, French astronomer (d. 1932)
  • Apr 7 Otto Adolf Klauwell, composer
  • Apr 9 C E Arthur Wichmann, German/Dutch geologist (Neth Indies)
  • Apr 12 Emil Liebling, composer
  • Apr 13 Robert Abbe, American surgeon (d. 1928)
  • Apr 16 Ernst Josephson, Sweden, artist
  • Apr 20 Young Tom Morris, Scottish golfer (d. 1875)
  • Apr 21 Charles Barrois, French geologist (d. 1939)
  • Apr 24 Eduardo Acevedo Diaz, Uruguaian writer (Ismael, Grito de Gloria)
  • Apr 25 Leopoldo Alas y Ureña, a.k.a. "Clarín", Spanish novelist (d. 1901)
  • May 1 Laza Lazarević, Serbian writer and psychiatrist (d. 1891)
  • May 18 James Budd, Governor of California (d. 1908)
  • May 20 Emile Berliner, Germany, inventor (flat phonograph record)
  • May 20 Rose Hawthorne Lathrop, US, nun/daughter of Nathaniel Hawthorne
  • May 21 Leon Bourgeois, France, politician, internationalist (Nobel 1920)
  • May 23 Antoni Stolpe, composer
  • May 28 Dick Barlow, cricketer (immortal England all-rounder of 1880s)
  • May 29 Leon VA Bourgeois, French premier (1895-96, Nobel 1920)
  • Jun 8 Jacques-Arsène d'Arsonval, French physicist (d. 1940)
  • Jun 9 Charles Joseph Bonaparte, French politician (d. 1921)
  • Jun 12 Oliver Joseph Lodge, England, early radio pioneer
  • Jun 19 Billy Midwinter, Australian cricketer (d. 1890)
  • Jun 21 Daniel Carter Beard, US, organized 1st boy scout troop
  • Jul 7 Lillien Jane Martin, psychologist, found gerontology clinic
  • Jul 7 Charles Tindley, American gospel music composer (d. 1933)
  • Jul 8 Arthur J Evans, English archaeologist (Crete)
  • Jul 11 Millie & Christine McCoy, American siamese twins born slaves in Whiteville, North Carolina (d.1912)
  • Jul 15 Eduardo Gutiérrez, Argentinian author (d. 1889)
  • Jul 19 Hendrik J Jut, Dutch murderer (head of Jut)
  • Jul 23 Charles Bannerman, Aussie cricket batsman (1st centurion)
  • Jul 24 Friedrich Schottky, German mathematician (d. 1935)
  • Aug 3 Isabella Caroline Somerset, temperance leader
  • Aug 13 John Lincoln Clem, Drummer (Union volunteers), (d. 1937)
  • Aug 13 Felix Adler, German-born educator (d. 1933)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Aug 14 Doc Holliday, American gambler, dentist and gunfighter (Gunfight at the O.K. Corral), born in Griffin, Georgia (d. 1887)

Gunfighter in the American Old West Doc Holliday
Gunfighter in the American Old West
Doc Holliday
  • Aug 15 [Georgette A] Helena Amelung, Dutch actress (Scapegoat)
  • Aug 17 Henry Drummond, Scottish geologist/evangelist
  • Aug 19 Frans Schollaert, Belgian premier (1908-11)
  • Aug 19 Charles Hires, American Inventor and Manufacturer of the Hires Root Beer beverage, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Aug 24 Tom Kendall, Australian cricketer (d. 1924)
  • Aug 25 [Willem] Alexander KHF, prince of Orange/Netherlands
  • Aug 29 Willem M d'Ablaing, Dutch lawyer
  • Sep 3 Olga Konstantinovna of Russia, Queen of Greece (d. 1926)
  • Sep 4 John Dillon, Irish nationalist, British Lower house member
  • Sep 7 Edward Ashael Birge, American pioneer in limnology (d. 1950)
  • Sep 13 Walter Reed, US Army Surgeon, proved mosquitoes transmit yellow fever
  • Sep 15 Emilia Pardo Bazan, Spanish countess/writer (Sirena Negra)
  • Sep 15 Josif Marinkovic, composer
  • Sep 28 Henry Arthur Jones, English playwright (Judah)
  • Oct 2 Ferdinand Foch, France, Allied military commander and hero during WW I
  • Oct 15 George F Moore, US theologist (Hebrews, Old Testament)
  • Oct 16 James Ten Eyck, champion rower/coach (Ten Eyck Trophy namesake)
  • Oct 19 Empress Myeongseong, Empress of Korea (d. 1895)
  • Oct 21 George Ulyett, cricketer (great Yorkshire all-rounder 1873-93)
  • Oct 23 Guillaume Couture, composer
  • Oct 31 Lovisa of Sweden, queen of Denmark (d. 1926)
  • Nov 5 Charles Dupuy, French prime minister (d. 1923)
  • Nov 6 Charles Dow, American journalist and economist (co-founded Dow Jones/1st editor of Wall St Journal) (d. 1902)
  • Nov 7 Chris von der Ahe, German born entrepreneur (d. 1913)
  • Nov 20 Queen Margherita of Italy (d. 1926)
  • Nov 21 Desire J Mercier, Belgian philosopher/cardinal
  • Dec 10 Melvil[le Louis K] Dewey, created Dewey Decimal System for libraries
  • Dec 16 Theodoor H de Meester, Dutch premier (1905-08)
  • Dec 18 Graciano Lopez Jaena, Filipino hero, orator and satirist (d. 1896)
  • Dec 21 Thomas Chipman McRae, American politician, 34th Governor of Arkansas (d. 1929)
  • Dec 30 Asa Griggs Candler, developed Coca-Cola

Famous Deaths

  • Jan 10 Karl Freiherr von Müffling, Prussian field marshal (b. 1775)
  • Jan 12 Johan Herman Koekkoek, painter, dies at 72
  • Jan 19 Esteban Echeverría, Argentine writer (b. 1805)
  • Jan 21 Gustav Albert Lortzing, composer, dies at 49
  • Jan 24 Gaspare Luigi Pacifico Spontini, Italian composer, dies at 76

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jan 27 John James Audubon, conservationist (Audubon Society), dies at 65

Ornithologist John James Audubon
Ornithologist
John James Audubon
  • Jan 27 Karl Moser, German composer, dies at 77

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Feb 1 Mary Shelley, novelist (Frankenstein), dies of a brain tumour at 53

Frankenstein Author Mary Shelley
Frankenstein Author
Mary Shelley
  • Feb 16 Anne Nagell van Ampsen, Dutch politician, dies at 95
  • Feb 18 Carl Gustav Jakob Jacobi, German mathematician (b. 1804)
  • Feb 20 Josef Alois Ladurner, composer, dies at 81
  • Feb 25 Ferdinand Simon Gassner, composer, dies at 53
  • Mar 4 Michael Henkel, composer, dies at 70
  • Mar 4 James Richardson, British explorer (b. 1809)
  • Mar 6 Alexander Aliabiev, composer, dies at 63

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 9 Hans Christian Oersted, Danish physicist, dies at 73

Physicist/Chemist Hans Oersted
Physicist/Chemist
Hans Oersted
  • Mar 11 George McDuffie, Governor of South Carolina (b. 1790)
  • Apr 8 John Parry [Bardd Alaw], Welsh composer and harpist, dies at 75
  • Apr 9 Antoine-Charles Glachant, composer, dies at 80
  • May 17 Jean E "Adrian" van Bevervoorde, journalist (Treason), dies at 31
  • May 22 Mordecai Manuel Noah, American writer, journalist (b. 1755)
  • May 23 Lucas Pieter Roodbaard, architect, dies at 69
  • May 24 Stanko Vraz, [Jakob Frass], Slavic poet (Grammatica), dies at 40
  • Jul 4 Martin-Joseph Mengal, composer, dies at 67
  • Jul 5 Juanita, Mexican, lynched by California gold diggers

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 10 Louis Daguerre, French inventor and photographer (b. 1787)

Photographer and Inventor Louis-Jacques Daguerre
Photographer and Inventor
Louis-Jacques Daguerre
  • Jul 17 Beni Egressy, composer, dies at 37
  • Aug 1 William Joseph Behr, German writer (b. 1775)
  • Aug 11 Lorenz Oken, German naturalist (b. 1779)
  • Aug 19 Gioseffo Catrufo, composer, dies at 80
  • Sep 10 Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, American educator (b. 1787)
  • Sep 11 Sylvester Graham, American nutritionist and minister (Graham cracker) (b. 1794)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Sep 14 James Fenimore Cooper, American author (Last of Mohicans), dies of dropsy at 61

  • Oct 4 Manuel de Godoy, Spanish statesman (b. 1767)
  • Oct 19 Marie Thérèse Charlotte (b. 1778)
  • Oct 31 Peter II Petrovic Njegos, bishop of Montenegro (1830-51), dies at 37
  • Nov 18 Ernst August, duke of Cumberland/king of Hanover (1837-51), dies at 80
  • Nov 20 Wenzel Sedlak, composer, dies at 75
  • Nov 26 Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, French marshal (b. 1769)
  • Dec 19 J M William Turner, British painter (Rain, Steam & Speed), dies at 76