What Happened in 1860

Historical Events

  • Jan 1 Slavery ends of in Neth Indies
  • Jan 20 Dutch troops conquer Watampone in Celebes
  • Jan 28 Britain formally returns Mosquito Coast to Nicaragua
  • Jan 29 American College established in Rome by Pope Pius IX
  • Feb 1 1st rabbi to open House of Representatives, Morris Raphall of NYC
  • Feb 3 Thomas Clemson takes office as 1st US superintendent of agriculture
  • Feb 10 John Brahms' 2nd Serenade in A, premieres
  • Feb 13 King Basse Kajuara departs Boni South-Celebes
  • Feb 16 Dutch Rochussen/Van Bosse government resigns
  • Feb 22 Organized baseball played in SF for 1st time
  • Feb 22 Shoe-making workers of Lynn, Ms, strike successfully for higher wages

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 27 Abraham Lincoln makes a speech at Cooper Union in the city of New York that is largely responsible for his election to the Presidency.

US President Abraham Lincoln
US President
Abraham Lincoln
  • Mar 5 Parma, Tuscany, Modena and Romagna vote in referendums to join the Kingdom of Sardinia.
  • Mar 7 22nd Grand National: Mr Tommy Pickernell aboard Anatis IRE wins
  • Mar 9 1st Japanese ambassador arrives in SF en route to Washington
  • Mar 12 Congress accepts Pre-emption Bill: free land in West for colonists
  • Mar 17 Japanese embassy arrives aboard Candinmarruh [sic]
  • Mar 21 US extradition treaty with Sweden
  • Mar 24 Clipper Andrew Jackson arrives in SF, 89 days out of NY
  • Mar 27 M L Byrn patents "covered gimlet screw with a 'T' handle" (corkscrew)
  • Mar 28 First Taranaki War: The Battle of Waireka begins (New Zealand).
  • Mar 29 Dion Boucicault's "Colleen Bawn" premieres in NYC
  • Apr 2 1st Italian Parliament met at Turin
  • Apr 3 Pony Express began between St Joseph Mo & Sacramento Calif
  • Apr 6 Joseph Smith III, creates the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints by reorganizing the previous church organized by his father, Joseph Smith, Jr.
  • Apr 7 Grand duke Frederik I liberalizes laws in Bathe
  • Apr 13 1st Pony Express reaches Sacramento, California
  • Apr 14 1st Pony Express rider arrives in SF from St Joseph, Mo
  • Apr 23 Democratic convention in Charleston SC divided over slavery

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 27 Thomas Jackson is assigned to command Harpers Ferry

Confederate General Stonewall Jackson
Confederate General
Stonewall Jackson
  • Apr 30 Navaho indians attack Fort Defiance (Canby)
  • May 3 Charles XV of Sweden-Norway is crowned king of Sweden.
  • May 6 SF Olympic Club, 1st US athletic club forms

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 6 Giuseppe Garibaldi's Mille sets sail from Genoa to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Unifier of Italy Giuseppe Garibaldi
Unifier of Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldi
  • May 16 -18] Chicago: Republican convention selects Abraham Lincoln as candidate
  • May 17 German football club TSV 1860 München is founded
  • May 18 Republican Party nominates Abraham Lincoln for president
  • May 26 Giuseppe Garibaldi occupies Palermo, Italy
  • Jun 3 Comanche, Iowa, completely destroyed by one of a series of tornadoes
  • Jun 7 Workmen start laying track for Market Street Railroad, SF
  • Jun 9 1st US "dime novel" published: "Malaseka, The Indian Wife of the White Hunter," by Mrs Ann Stevens
  • Jun 12 The State Bank of the Russian Empire is established.
  • Jun 15 1st White settlement in Idaho (Franklin)
  • Jun 23 Congress establishes Government Printing Office

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jun 30 Famous debate on Charles Darwin's theory of evolution held at the Oxford University Museum and dominated by arguments between Thomas Henry Huxley and Bishop Samuel Wilberforce

Naturalist Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
  • Jul 9 Temperature hits 115°F in Ft Scott & 112°F in Topeka Kansas
  • Jul 19 1st railroad reaches Kansas
  • Jul 25 1st US intercollegiate billiard match (Harvard vs Yales)
  • Aug 3 American Canoe Association founded at Lake George NY
  • Aug 3 The Second Maori War begins in New Zealand.
  • Aug 5 Carl IV of Sweden-Norway is crowned king of Norway in Trondheim.
  • Aug 8 Queen of Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) arrives in NYC
  • Aug 11 US's 1st successful silver mill (Virginia City, Nev)
  • Aug 30 1st British tram opens (Birkenhead)
  • Sep 7 Excursion steamer "Lady Elgin" drowns 340 in Lake Michigan
  • Sep 8 Loss of paddle steamer "Lady Elgin" on Lake Michigan approximately 300 people drowned
  • Sep 20 First British royalty to visit US, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII)
  • Sep 21 In the Second Opium War, an Anglo-French force defeats Chinese troops at the Battle of Baliqiao.
  • Oct 8 Telegraph line between LA & SF opens
  • Oct 12 British & French troops capture Beijing
  • Oct 13 1st aerial photo taken in US (from a balloon), Boston
  • Oct 15 11-year-old Grace Bedell writes to Lincoln, tells him to grow a beard
  • Oct 17 1st British Golf Open: Willie Park Snr shoots a 164 at Prestwick Club, Scotland
  • Oct 18 The Second Opium War finally ends at the Convention of Peking with the ratification of the Treaty of Tientsin, an unequal treaty.
  • Nov 6 Abraham Lincoln (Rep-R-Ill) elected 16th American President
  • Dec 17 Anaheim Township created in Los Angeles County
  • Dec 20 South Carolina secedes from the Union (US Civil War)
  • Dec 24 Joseph Jefferson's "Rip Van Winkle" premieres in NYC
  • Dec 26 Maiden voyage of 1st steamship owned by 1 man (C Vanderbilt)
  • Dec 26 Major Robert Anderson, under cover of darkness, concentrated his small force at Ft Sumter
  • Dec 26 The first ever inter-club football match takes place between Hallam F.C. and Sheffield F.C. at the Sandygate Road ground in Sheffield, England.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Dec 28 Harriet Tubman arrives in Auburn NY, on her last mission to free slaves, evading capture for 8 years on the Underground Railroad

Abolitionist Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman
  • Dec 29 The first British seagoing iron-clad warship, HMS Warrior is launched.

Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 135

  • Jan 2 William C Mills, museum curator (excavated Ohio Indian mounds)
  • Jan 7 Emanuil Manolov, composer
  • Jan 8 Nancy Jones, US African American missionary in Africa
  • Jan 11 Marie Bashkirtseff, Russian/French painter/author (Journal)
  • Jan 12 Henry Larkin, American baseball player (d. 1942)
  • Jan 17 Douglas Hyde, President of Ireland (d. 1949)
  • Jan 21 Karl Staaff, Prime Minister of Sweden (d. 1915)
  • Jan 25 Charles Curtis, (R) 31st US VP (1929-33)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jan 29 Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, Tagarov Russia, playwright (Cherry Orchard)

Author and Playwright Anton Chekhov
Author and Playwright
Anton Chekhov
  • Feb 2 Curtis Guild, Jr., 43rd Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1915)
  • Feb 6 Johan [Eliza J] de Meester, Dutch journalist/writer (Geertje)
  • Feb 11 Rachilde, [Marguerite Vallette-Eymery], French author (Monsieur Venus)
  • Feb 14 Eugen Schiffer, German politician (d. 1954)
  • Feb 14 Waldemar Lindgren, Kalmar, Swedish-American Geologist (economic geology, ore classification)
  • Feb 18 Anders Zorn, Swedish painter/etcher/sculptor (Gustavus Vasa)
  • Feb 21 Karel Matěj Čapek-Chod, Czech journalist (d. 1927)
  • Feb 21 Goscombe John, Welsh sculptor (d. 1952)
  • Feb 24 Daniel Berkeley Updike, printer/publisher/writer (Printing Types)
  • Feb 25 Menso Kamerlingh Onnes, painter/water colors painter
  • Feb 25 William James Ashley, English economic-historian
  • Feb 29 Herman Hollerith, inventor (1st electric tabulating machine)
  • Mar 2 Susanna M. Salter, 1st American female mayor and temperance leader (d. 1961)
  • Mar 3 John Montgomery Ward, American baseball player (d. 1925)
  • Mar 11 Thomas Hastings, architect (NY Public Library), born in NYC, New York
  • Mar 12 Salvatore Di Giacomo, composer
  • Mar 13 Hugo Wolf, Austrian composer (d. 1903)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 19 William Jennings Bryan, American orator and statesman known as "The Great Commoner", born in Salem, Illinois (d. 1925)

US Politician William Jennings Bryan
US Politician
William Jennings Bryan
  • Mar 22 Alfred Ploetz, German physician (d. 1940)
  • Mar 27 Frank Frost Abbott, American classical scholar (d. 1924)
  • Mar 31 Isidor Traube, Hildesheim Hanover, German Chemist (founded capillary chemistry, research on liquids)
  • Apr 3 Frederik W van Eeden, Dutch utopian writer (Walden)
  • Apr 6 René Lalique, French jewel designer
  • Apr 7 Will Keith Kellogg, American cereal manufacturer (d. 1951)
  • Apr 13 James Ensor, Flemish painter/etcher (De lampenjongen)
  • Apr 20 Charles Gordon Curtis, US attorney/inventor (Curtis Turbine)
  • Apr 20 Pieter Jelles Troelstra, Dutch MP (SDAP)
  • Apr 22 Ada Rehan, American stage actress (d. 1916)
  • Apr 26 Alphonse M A J Ariëns, Dutch pastor
  • Apr 29 Lorado Taft, US, sculptor (Black Hawk)
  • May 2 D'Arcy Thompson, zoologist/classicist (On Growth & Form)
  • May 2 Theodor Herzl, Austria, journalist/founder (Zionist movement)
  • May 3 John Scott Haldane, Scottish physiologist (d. 1936)
  • May 3 Vito Volterra, Italian mathematician (d. 1940)
  • May 4 Emil Nikolaus von Reznicek, composer (Donna Diana), born in Vienna, Austria
  • May 9 J.M. [James Matthew] Barrie, Scottish novelist and playwright (Peter Pan), born in Kirriemuir, Angus (d. 1937)
  • May 15 Ellen Louise Axson Wilson, 1st wife of US President Woodrow Wilson
  • May 16 Herman Webster Mudgett, American Serial Killer (d. 1896)
  • May 19 Victor E Orlando, Italy's premier (1917-19)
  • May 20 Eduard Buchner, German chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1917)
  • May 21 Willam Einthoven, Dutch physiologist/inventor (electrocardiograph)
  • May 25 James McKeen Cattell, American psychologist (d. 1944)
  • May 27 Manuel Teixeira Gomes, 7th President of Portugal (d. 1941)
  • May 29 Isaac Albéniz, Spanish composer (d. 1909)
  • May 31 Walter Richard Sickert Munich, Danish/English painter (The Miner)
  • Jun 6 William R Inge, English theologist/Deacon St Paul's Cathedral
  • Jun 8 Alicia Boole Stott, Irish mathematician (d. 1940)
  • Jun 18 Hugo Loudon, CEO (Royal Dutch Oil [Shell])
  • Jun 20 Jack Worrall, Australian cricketer, footballer, and coach (d. 1937)
  • Jun 24 Mercedes of Orleans, queen of Spain (d. 1878)
  • Jun 25 Gustave Charpentier, French composer (opera Louise)
  • Jun 30 Gyula Andressy Jr, Hungarian minister of Foreign affairs (1918-20)
  • Jul 3 Charlotte Perkins Gilman, American feminist, writer and lecturer for social reform, born in Hartford, Connecticut (d. 1935)
  • Jul 3 William Wallace, composer
  • Jul 5 Robert Bacon, American politician (d. 1919)
  • Jul 7 Gustav Mahler, Kalischat Bohemia Austria, composer/conductor (Titan)
  • Jul 11 Johannis J van Laar, Dutch chemist (thermodynamics)
  • Jul 16 Jens Otto Harry Jespersen, linguist/philologist

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 19 Lizzie Borden, American woman acquitted of the murder of her parents (gave her mother forty whacks), born in Fall River, Massachusetts

Acquitted Murderer Lizzie Borden
Acquitted Murderer
Lizzie Borden
  • Jul 20 Johannes Walter, German geologist (Denudation of the Wilderness)
  • Jul 24 Alfons Mucha, Czech artist (d. 1939)
  • Jul 25 Princess Louise Margaret, Duchess of Connaught (d. 1917)
  • Jul 26 Philippe J Bunau-Varilla, French engineer (Colombia-Panama)
  • Jul 28 Elias M. Ammons, governor of Colorado (d. 1925)
  • Jul 28 Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia (d. 1922)
  • Jul 31 Mary Vaux Walcott, American artist and naturalist (d. 1940)
  • Aug 3 W. K. Dickson, Scottish inventor (d. 1935)
  • Aug 7 Alan Leo, British astrologer (d. 1917)
  • Aug 10 Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, Indian musician (d. 1936)
  • Aug 11 Alfred Coville, French historian (Lesson etats de Normandie)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Aug 13 Annie Oakley [Phoebe Ann Moses], American sharp shooter (Buffalo Bill's Wild West), born in North Star, Ohio (d. 1926)

Sharp Shooter Annie Oakley
Sharp Shooter
Annie Oakley
  • Aug 14 Ernest T Seton, naturalist/painter/author (Buffalo Wind-1938)
  • Aug 15 Florence Harding [DeWolfe], US 1st lady (1921-23), born in Marion, Ohio (d. 1924)
  • Aug 15 Roosje Vos, Dutch union organizer
  • Aug 15 Henrietta Vinton Davis, American elocutionist (d. 1941)
  • Aug 16 Jules Laforgue, Uruguay, French poet (Les Complaintas)
  • Aug 16 Lord Hawke, cricketer (England batsman 1890's, many official posts)
  • Aug 19 John Kane, Scottish-born US primitivist painter (Self-Portrait)
  • Aug 20 Raymond Poincaré, France, president/PM (1912)
  • Aug 22 Paul G Nipkow, German TV pioneer (Nipkow Award)
  • Aug 22 Eleonore of Reuss-Köstritz, tsaritsa of Bulgaria (d. 1917)
  • Aug 25 George Fawcett, US actor (Intolerance)
  • Aug 28 Marianne V von Werefkin, Russian/German/Swiss painter [OS]
  • Aug 30 Isaac Levitan, Russian artist (d. 1900)
  • Sep 3 Edward Albert Filene, merchant, established US credit union movement

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Sep 6 Jane Addams, American pacifist, social worker and feminist (Nobel 1931), born in Cedarville, Illinois (d. 1935)

Social Worker and Nobel Laureate Jane Addams
Social Worker and Nobel Laureate
Jane Addams

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Sep 7 Grandma Moses [Anna Maria], American primitive painter (Old Oaken Bucket), born in Greenwich, New York (d. 1961)

Primitive Painter Grandma Moses
Primitive Painter
Grandma Moses
  • Sep 7 Willem H Nolens, priest/Dutch ambassador to Vatican
  • Sep 11 Marianne V von Werefkin, Russian/German/Swiss painter [NS]
  • Sep 11 James Allan, former All Black (d. 1934)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Sep 13 John J. Pershing [Blackjack], American general and WWI commander, born in Laclede, Missouri (d. 1948)

US WW1 Commander John J. Pershing
US WW1 Commander
John J. Pershing

Famous Weddings

HeartWedding of Interest

May 22 Major General George McClellan (33) weds Mary Ellen at Calvary Church in NYC, New York

Union General George McClellan
Union General
George McClellan
  • Nov 11 1st Jewish wedding in Buenos Aires Argentina

Famous Deaths

  • Jan 5 St John Nepomucene Neumann, 1st male US saint, dies
  • Jan 12 Martinus J Niewindt, bishop on Curacao (christened slaves), dies at 63
  • Jan 13 William Mason, American politician (b. 1786)
  • Jan 27 János Bolyai, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1802)
  • Jan 30 Francesco Antonio Norberto Pinto, composer, dies at 44
  • Feb 9 Eduard W van Dam van Isselt, Dutch milt/liberal politician, dies at 63
  • Feb 20 Henry Drummond, English banker/religious leader, dies at 69
  • Feb 25 Chauncey Allen Goodrich, American clergyman, educator, and lexicographer (b. 1790)
  • Mar 6 Justus Johann Friedrich Dotzauer, German cellist and composer (b. 1783)
  • Mar 25 James Braid, Scottish surgeon (b. 1795)
  • Mar 28 Johann Ludwig Bohner, composer, dies at 73
  • Apr 16 Carolina, duchess of Berry/daughter of crown prince of Naples, dies
  • May 12 Charles Barry, English architect (b. 1795)
  • May 14 Ludwig Bechstein, German writer (b. 1801)
  • May 21 Johannes Frederick Frohlich, composer, dies at 53
  • May 23 Albert Richard Smith, author/lecturer, dies
  • Jun 25 Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, The Māori King, Waikato, New Zealand
  • Jun 29 Thomas Addison, English physician (A-Biermer Disease), dies at 67

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 1 Charles Goodyear, American inventor (vulcanization process for rubber), dies at 59

  • Jul 6 Alexandre Edouard Goria, composer, dies at 37
  • Jul 13 John Ackersdijk, Dutch state house builder, dies at 69
  • Aug 11 James Wilson, politician
  • Aug 13 Danillo II, ruler of Montenegro, dies
  • Aug 14 André Marie Constant Duméril, French zoologist (b. 1774)
  • Aug 26 Philipp Friedrich Silcher, German composer, dies at 71
  • Sep 3 Aleksey Khomyakov, Russian poet (b. 1804)
  • Sep 18 Casimiro de Abreu, Brazilians poet (Primaveras), dies
  • Sep 18 Joseph Locke, railway engineer, dies
  • Sep 21 Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher (b. 1788)
  • Sep 25 Carl Friedrich Zollner, composer, dies at 60
  • Oct 2 Louis Hersent, painter, dies
  • Oct 6 Stephen Elvey, composer, dies at 55
  • Oct 12 Henry G W Smith, leader of British-Indian forces, dies at 73
  • Oct 24 Elie Decazes, French Bourbon Restoration politician, dies at 80
  • Oct 31 Johan Nathan, murderer, hanged
  • Oct 31 Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, British admiral (b. 1775)
  • Nov 5 Carl Binder, Austrian composer, dies at 43
  • Nov 8 Charles Fellows, English Archaeologist who discovered ruins of the cities of ancient Lycia and brought to Lycian marbles to England, dies
  • Nov 14 Feliks Ostrowski, composer, dies at 58
  • Nov 28 Heinrich FL Rellstab, German music theorist, dies
  • Dec 2 Alfred Bunn, British theatrical manager (b. 1796)
  • Dec 7 Constantine S Aksakov, Russian historian/poet, dies at 43
  • Dec 17 Désirée Clary, Queen of Sweden and Norway (b. 1777)
  • Dec 28 Cornelius Broere, Dutch RC clergyman/poet, dies at 57