What Happened in 1865

Historical Events

Events 1 - 100 of 183

  • Jan 1st -Apr 26th] Carolinas' campaign
  • Jan 3rd Con Orem & Hugh O'Neill box 193 rounds before darkness ends match
  • Jan 4th The New York Stock Exchange opens its first permanent headquarters at 10-12 Broad near Wall Street in New York City.
  • Jan 11th Battle of Beverly, WV
  • Jan 12th -13] Union fleet bombs Fort Fisher NC
  • Jan 13th -Jan 15th] BBT & CPT Ft Fisher, NC
  • Jan 15th Ft Fisher, NC, falls to Union troops
  • Jan 16th Drunken sailor attacks munitions at Ft Fisher NC, 40 die
  • Jan 16th Gen Wm Sherman issues Field Order #15 (land for blacks)
  • Jan 16th SF Dramatic Chronicle started
  • Jan 18th Battle of Ft Moultrie, SC
  • Jan 19th NV Suriname Bank established
  • Jan 19th Union occupies Fort Anderson, NC
  • Jan 23rd -Jan 25th) Battle of City Point, VA (James River, Trent's Reach)
  • Jan 25th CSS Shenandoah arrives in Melbourne, Australia

Person-of-interestPerson of Interest

Jan 28th Confederate President Jefferson Davis names 3 peace commissioners

President of the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis
  • Jan 31st Congress passes 13th Amendment, abolishing slavery in America (121-24)

Person-of-interestPerson of Interest

Jan 31st General Robert E. Lee named Commander-in-Chief of Confederate Armies during US Civil War

Confederate General Robert E. Lee
Confederate General
Robert E. Lee
  • Feb 1st 13th amendment approved (National Freedom Day)

Person-of-interestPerson of Interest

Feb 1st General Sherman's march through South Carolina begins

  • Feb 1st JS Rock, 1st black lawyer to practice in US Supreme Court, admitted to bar
  • Feb 3rd Hampton Roads Peace Conference, Lincoln & Stephens reach an impasse
  • Feb 4th Hawaiian Board of Education formed
  • Feb 4th Robert E. Lee is named general-in-chief of Confederate forces
  • Feb 5th Battle of Hatcher's Run, VA (Armstrong's Mill, Dabney's Mill)
  • Feb 6th 2nd day of battle at Dabney's Mills (Hatcher's Run)
  • Feb 8th 1st black major in US Army appointed during US Civil war - Martin Robison Delany
  • Feb 12th Henry Highland Garnet is 1st black to speak in US House of Reps
  • Feb 17th -18] Battle of Charleston SC
  • Feb 17th Columbia SC burns down during Civil War
  • Feb 18th Battle of Fort Moultrie, SC occupied by Federals
  • Feb 18th Evacuation of Charleston, SC
  • Feb 18th Union troops force Confederates to abandon Ft Anderson, NC
  • Feb 20th Massachusetts Institute of Technology forms 1st US collegiate architectural school
  • Feb 22nd Battle of Wilmington, NC (Fort Anderson) occupied by Federals
  • Feb 22nd Tennessee adopts a new constitution abolishing slavery
  • Feb 27th Civil War skirmish near Sturgeon, Missouri
  • Mar 2nd British newspaper "Morning Chronicle" begins publishing
  • Mar 2nd Freedman's Bureau founded for Black Education, 1865
  • Mar 2nd Conferate General Early's army is defeated at the battle of Waynesboro VA during American Civil War
  • Mar 2nd Second Taranaki War: The Volkner Incident in New Zealand.

Person-of-interestPerson of Interest

Mar 3rd US Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, & Abandoned Lands established by Abraham Lincoln to help destitute free blacks

US President Abraham Lincoln
US President
Abraham Lincoln
  • Mar 3rd Opening of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the founding member of the HSBC Group.
  • Mar 4th Confederate congress approves final design of "official flag"
  • Mar 4th Abraham Lincoln inaugurated for his 2nd term as US president
  • Mar 6th Battle of Natural Bridge, Florida
  • Mar 6th President Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Ball
  • Mar 7th -10] Battles round Kinston NC
  • Mar 8th Battle of Kingston, NC (Wilcox's ridge, Wise's Forks)
  • Mar 8th 27th Grand National: Capt. Henry Coventry aboard Alcibiade FRA wins
  • Mar 10th Battle of Monroe's Crossroads, NC
  • Mar 11th General William T. Sherman's Union forces occupies Fayetteville, NC
  • Mar 13th US Civil war: Confederate President Jefferson Davis signs bill authorizing use of slaves as soldiers
  • Mar 13th US Confederate Congress calls on black slaves for field service
  • Mar 16th Battle of Averasboro NC (1,500 casualities)
  • Mar 18th Battle of Wilson's raid to Selma, AL
  • Mar 18th Congress of Confederate States of American adjourns for last time
  • Mar 19th Battle of Bentonville-Confederates retreat from Greenville NC
  • Mar 20th 2nd day of Battle of Bentonville NC
  • Mar 20th Michigan authorizes workers' cooperatives
  • Mar 21st Battle of Bentonville ends, last Confederate effort to stop Sherman
  • Mar 22nd Raid at Wilson's: Chickaswas AL to Macon GA
  • Mar 23rd General Sherman/Cox' troops reach Goldsboro NC
  • Mar 25th Battle of Bluff Spring, FL
  • Mar 25th Battle of Fort Stedman, VA - in front of Petersburg
  • Mar 25th Battle of Mobile, AL (Spanish Fort, Fort Morgan, Fort Blakely)
  • Mar 25th SS General Lyon at Cape Hatteras catches fire & sinks, killing 400
  • Mar 27th Siege of Spanish Fort, AL-captured by Federals
  • Mar 29th -Apr 9th], Appomattox campaign, VA, 7582 killed
  • Mar 29th Battle of Quaker Road, VA
  • Mar 30th -4] Battle at 5 Forks Virginia
  • Mar 31st Battle of Boydton, VA (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie C H)
  • Mar 31st Gen Pickette moves to 5 Forks, abandoning the defense of Peterburg
  • Apr 1st -9] Battle at Blakely Alabama
  • Apr 1st Battle of 5 Forks Virginia, signalling end of Lee's army
  • Apr 2nd Battle of Petersburg, VA (Ft Gregg, Sutherland's Station)
  • Apr 2nd US Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis flees Confederate capital of Richmond, VA
  • Apr 2nd Battle of Ft Blakely AL & Selma AL
  • Apr 3rd Battle at Namozine Church, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign)
  • Apr 3rd Union forces occupy Confederate capital of Richmond Va & Petersberg
  • Apr 4th Lee's army arrives at Amelia Courthouse
  • Apr 5th Battle at Amelia Springs/Jetersville Va (Appomattox Campaign)
  • Apr 6th Battle of Sayler's Creek during US Civil War, 1/4rd of Lee's army cut off
  • Apr 6th Skirmish at High Bridge VA (Appomattox) during US Civil war;
  • Apr 7th Battle of Farmville VA
  • Apr 9th US Civil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee and 26,765 troops surrender at Appomattox Court House to US Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant
  • Apr 10th At Appomattox, General Robert E. Lee issues Gen Order #9, his last
  • Apr 11th Battle of Mobile, AL - evacuated by Confederates
  • Apr 11th Abraham Lincoln urges a spirit of generous conciliation during reconstruction
  • Apr 13th Battle of Raleigh, NC
  • Apr 13th Sherman's march through Georgia begins
  • Apr 14th Mobile, Alabama is captured
  • Apr 14th US Secret Service created to fight counterfeiting
  • Apr 14th U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward and his family are attacked in his home by Lewis Powell.
  • Apr 14th President Abraham Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater

Person-of-interestPerson of Interest

Apr 15th Otto Von Bismarck elevated to rank of Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen

German Statesman Otto Von Bismarck
German Statesman
Otto Von Bismarck
  • Apr 15th Abraham Lincoln is shot & killed while attending the play "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theatre
  • Apr 16th Battle of Columbus & West Point, GA (Ft Tyler)
  • Apr 17th Mary Surratt is arrested as a conspirator in Lincoln's assassination
  • Apr 18th Confederate Gen Johnson surrendered to General William T. Sherman in North Carolina

Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 155

  • Jan 1st Giuseppe Ferrata, composer
  • Jan 3rd Henry Lytton, British actor and opera singer (d. 1936)
  • Jan 5th Julio Garavito Armero, Colombian astronomer (d. 1920)
  • Jan 10th Mary Ingalls, sister of Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. 1928)
  • Jan 13th Princess Marie of Orléans (d. 1908)
  • Jan 17th Gen Sir Charles Fergusson, Governor-General of New Zealand (d. 1951)
  • Jan 20th Friedrich A H von Waldeck, brother of queen Emma/last ruler of Waldeck
  • Jan 22nd Friedrich Paschen, German physicist
  • Jan 23rd Benjamin Delmonte, theater director/actor (Black Haired Whore)
  • Jan 28th Lala Lajpat Rai, Indian freedom fighter (d. 1928)
  • Jan 28th Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg, first president of Finland (d. 1952)
  • Jan 30th Samuel Pl'h Naber, Dutch rear-admiral/librarian
  • Jan 31st Henri Desgrange, Founder of the Tour-de-France (d. 1940)
  • Jan 31st Shastriji Maharaj, Indian spiritual leader (d. 1951)
  • Feb 3rd Martinus Ballings, Flemish jesuit/author (Will Power)
  • Feb 4th Charles Bally, Swiss linguist (Le langage et la vie)
  • Feb 5th Harvey Worthington Loomis, composer
  • Feb 9th Erich von Drygalski, Germany, geographer/glaciologist/Antarctic expl
  • Feb 9th Mrs [Beatrice] Patrick Campbell, England, actress (Pygmalion)
  • Feb 12th Kazimierz P Tetmajer, Polish writer/poet (Young Poland)
  • Feb 19th Adrian van Oordt, Dutch writer (neo-romantic)
  • Feb 19th Sven Hedin, Sweden, scientist/explorer (Tibet)
  • Feb 21st John Haden Badley, English school founder (d. 1967)
  • Feb 22nd Otto Modersohn, German painter
  • Feb 23rd Barney Dreyfuss, baseball owner (Pittsburgh Pirates)
  • Feb 28th Arthur Symons, Welsh poet/critic/co-founder (Savoy)
  • Feb 28th Wilfred Grenfell, England, medical missionary
  • Mar 1st Gerard Vissering, Dutch banker/president (Bank of Java)
  • Mar 1st Abe Iso, Japanese politician (d. 1949)
  • Mar 3rd Alexander Gustav Adolfovich Winkler, composer
  • Mar 8th Frederick William Goudy, US, printer/type designer
  • Mar 9th Margaret Murray Washington, wife of Booker T/head (NACW 1896..1918)
  • Mar 10th Pim [Willem JH] Mulier, Dutch journalist/writer/sport-organizer
  • Mar 16th Patsy Donovan, Irish-American baseball player (d. 1953)
  • Mar 19th William Morton Wheeler, American entomologist, myrmecologist, pioneer in ethology (d. 1937)
  • Mar 22nd Theophile Ysaye, composer
  • Mar 25th Pierre Weiss, Mulhouse, France, French physicist (theory of ferromagnetism)
  • Mar 30th Heinrich Rubens, German physicist
  • Apr 1st Richard Zsigmondy, Germany, chemist (Nobel-1925)
  • Apr 8th Charles W. Woodworth, American entomologist (d. 1940)
  • Apr 9th Charles Proteus Steinmetz, Germany, experiment with AC electricity
  • Apr 9th Erich Ludendorff, general (Germany)
  • Apr 10th Jack Miner, Canadian conservationist (d. 1944)
  • Apr 13th Heinrich Reinhardt, composer
  • Apr 16th Henry George Chauvel, Australian general (d. 1945)
  • Apr 17th Ursula Julia Ledochowska, Polish-Austrian Catholic saint (d. 1939)
  • Apr 23rd Ali-Agha Shikhlinski, Russian-Azerbaijani general (d. 1943)
  • Apr 27th Emile Erens, Dutch Hagiographer (Pastor of Ars)
  • Apr 30th Max Nettlau, German anarchist (d. 1944)
  • May 2nd Clyde Fitch, American playwright (d. 1909)
  • May 5th Felicjan Szopski, composer
  • May 5th Nellie Bly, [Elizabeth Cochran Seaman], American journalist and writer (d. 1922)
  • May 9th August de Boeck, composer
  • May 15th Albert Verwey, Dutch poet/literature historian (Motion)
  • May 18th William Heinemann, England, publisher (Chemical Instrumental)
  • May 22nd Enrique Morera, composer
  • May 23rd Epitácio Pessoa, President of Brazil (d. 1942)
  • May 25th Frederick Augustus III, King of Saxon (1904-18)
  • May 25th John Raleigh Mott, organizer (YMCA, Nobel 1946)
  • May 25th Pieter Zeeman, Dutch physicist (Zeeman effect, Nobel 1902)
  • May 26th Akseli V Gallen-Kallela, Fins painter/graphic artist/illustrator
  • May 26th Robert W. Chambers, American artist (d. 1933)
  • May 28th Gerrit Grijns, Dutch physiologist (Vitamin E)
  • Jun 2nd George Lohmann, cricketer (England's great bowler late 19th cent)

Person-of-interestPerson of Interest

Jun 3rd George V, Saksen-Coburg [Windsor], King of Great Britain (1910-36)

King of the United Kingdom George V
King of the United Kingdom
George V
  • Jun 7th Guido Gasperini, composer
  • Jun 9th Carl Nielsen, Norre-Lyndelse Denmark, composer (Det Uuslukkelige)
  • Jun 9th Lucien-Denis-Gabriel-Alberic Magnard, French composer
  • Jun 10th Frederick A Cook, US, explorer (claimed falsely to be at North Pole)
  • Jun 11th Jan H Leopold, Dutch poet (translated Omar Khayyam)
  • Jun 13th William Butler Yeats, Ireland, poet (Wild Swans at Coole-Nobel 1923)
  • Jun 14th Auguste Jean Maria Charles Serieyx, composer
  • Jun 15th L H Perquin, Dutch religious radio speaker
  • Jun 15th Paul Gilson, composer
  • Jun 19th Alfred Hugenberg, German RC pres-dir of Krupp/media magnate
  • Jun 19th May Whitty, actress (Mrs Miniver, Suspicion), born in Liverpool, England
  • Jun 21st Albert Herbert Brewer, composer
  • Jun 24th Robert Henri, US painter, leader of Ashcan school of painting
  • Jun 26th Bernard Berenson, art critic (Italian Painters of the Renaissance)
  • Jun 26th Charles E Bonin, French explorer/diplomat (China)
  • Jun 26th George C Pearce, actor (Country Kid, British Agent, Valiant)
  • Jun 28th Otto Julius Bierbaum, German writer/journalist (Remarkable Stories)
  • Jun 29th Shigechiyo Izumi, once thought to be the world's oldest man ever but birth date now disputed (120 y 237 d)
  • Jun 29th William E Borah, lawyer/(Sen-R-Id)
  • Jul 2nd Lili Braun, Prussia, feminist/socialist writer (Im Schatten Titanen)
  • Jul 6th Emile Jaques-Dalcroze, Swiss musician (d. 1950)
  • Jul 10th Jan "Pa" van der Steur, Dutch philanthropist (Steurtjes)
  • Jul 14th Annie Jones, Virginia, bearded lady
  • Jul 15th Alfred Charles William Harmsworth, 1st viscount Northcliffe
  • Jul 15th Wilhelm Wirtinger, Austrian mathematician (d. 1945)
  • Jul 16th George A Birmingham, [Rev James Owen Hannay], novelist
  • Jul 18th Laurence Housman, England, author/playwright (Victoria Regina)
  • Jul 19th Charles Horace Mayo, surgeon/co-founder (Mayo Clinic)
  • Jul 21st Robert Kahn, composer
  • Jul 23rd Friedrich Aereboe, Dutch landlord (d. 1942)
  • Jul 23rd Max Heindel, Danish Christian occultist, astrologer, and mystic (d. 1919)
  • Jul 25th Jac[obus] P Thijsse, Dutch biologist/educator (Contact with Plants)
  • Jul 26th Philipp Scheidemann, German Parliament (SPD)/mayor of Kassel
  • Jul 29th Nicola Spinelli, composer
  • Aug 2nd Irving Babbitt, US writer (Rousseau & Romanticism)

Famous Weddings

  • Jan 16th Confederate soldier during US Civil War Brigadier General John Pegram marries Hetty Cary

HeartWedding of Interest

Sep 27th Physicist Johannes van der Waals (27) weds Anna Magdalena Smit (18)

Physicist/Nobel Laureate Johannes van der Waals
Physicist/Nobel Laureate
Johannes van der Waals

Famous Deaths

  • Jan 3rd Jozef Lies, Flemish painter, dies at 43
  • Jan 8th Aimé, duc de Clermont-Tonnerre, French general (b. 1779)
  • Jan 16th Edmond François Valentin About, French writer (b. 1828)
  • Jan 19th Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, French philosopher and anarchist (b. 1809)
  • Feb 6th John Pegram, US Confederate brig-gen, dies in battle at 33
  • Feb 7th John Henry Winder, US Confederate brig-gen/provost marshal, dies at 64
  • Feb 10th Heinrich Lenz, German physicist (b. 1804)
  • Feb 15th Nicholas Wiseman, 1st Archbishop of Westminster (1850-65), dies
  • Feb 24th Edmund John Armstrong, Irish poet, dies at 23
  • Feb 25th Otto Ludwig, German writer (Zwischen Himmel und Erde), dies at 47
  • Mar 1st Anna Paulowna Romanova, great monarch of Russia, dies at 70
  • Mar 2nd Carl Sylvius Völkner, German missionary to New Zealand (b. 1819)
  • Mar 10th William Henry "Little Billy" Chase Whiting, Confed gen-maj, dies at 48
  • Mar 20th Keisuke Yamanami, Japanese samurai (b. 1833)
  • Mar 26th Thomas Hancock, pioneer of rubber industry (Stoke Newington), dies
  • Mar 27th Petrus Hoffman Peerlkamp, Dutch scholar (b. 1786)
  • Mar 28th Albert G Bilders, Dutch landscape painter, dies at 26
  • Apr 1st Giuditta Pasta, Italian soprano (b. 1797)
  • Apr 2nd Ambrose Powell Hill, Confederate general, killed in action at 39
  • Apr 2nd Richard Cobden, founder Anti-Corn-Law League, dies at 60
  • Apr 6th John Austin Wharton, US Confederate general-major, dies at 36
  • Apr 6th Reuben B Boston, US Confederate cavalery colonel, dies in battle
  • Apr 8th John Park, composer, dies at 61
  • Apr 9th Thomas Alfred Smyth, Irish/US Union general-major, dies at 32

Person-of-interestPerson of Interest

Apr 15th Abraham Lincoln, 16th American president, dies from gunshot wound at 56

US President Abraham Lincoln
US President
Abraham Lincoln
  • Apr 16th Robert C Tyler, US Confederate brig-general, dies in battle
  • Apr 22nd Francis Washburn, US Union colonel/gen major, dies of injuries
  • Apr 23rd James Dearing, US Confederate brig-general, dies at 24
  • Apr 26th Charles J Sax, Belgium musician and father of Adolphe Sax inventor of the saxophone, dies at 74

Person-of-interestPerson of Interest

Apr 26th John Wilkes Booth, assassin, is shot dead near Bowling Green VA at 27

  • Apr 28th Samuel Cunard, Canadian-born British shipping magnate (b. 1787)
  • Apr 30th Robert Fitzroy, English admiral and meteorologist (b. 1805)
  • May 21st Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, Danish Archaeologist, created Stone, Bronze, Iron age system, dies at 76
  • May 30th William Clarke Quantrill, criminal/Confederate bushwhacker, dies at 27
  • Jun 2nd John E Feisser, founder (1st Dutch baptist church), dies at 59
  • Jun 2nd Ner Alexander Middleswarth, American politician (b. 1783)
  • Jun 3rd Okada Izō, Japanese samurai (b. 1838)
  • Jun 8th Joseph Paxton, designer (Crystal Palace), dies
  • Jun 13th Cleaveland J Campbell, Union brig-general, dies at about 29
  • Jun 15th Edmun Ruffin, US secessionist/writer, commits suicide
  • Jun 15th Jakob Zeugheer, composer, dies at 61
  • Jun 21st Frances Adeline Seward, wife of United States Secretary of State William H. Seward (b. 1824)
  • Jul 7th Mary Surratt, & 3 other Lincoln conspirators, hanged
  • Jul 7th Lewis Paine, Lincoln conspirator (b. 1844)
  • Jul 7th David Herold, Lincoln conspirator (b. 1842)
  • Jul 15th Reinier C Bakhuizen van de Brink, Dutch historian, dies at 55
  • Jul 24th Johan Filip von Schantz, composer, dies at 30
  • Jul 25th "James Barry", military surgeon, first womanin Great Britain to become a qualified medical doctor
  • Jul 30th George Wright, US Union brig-general, dies at 61
  • Aug 12th William Jackson Hooker, botanist, dies
  • Aug 13th Ignaz Semmelweis, gynecologist, dies at 47
  • Aug 17th Johann Nepomuk Poissl, composer, dies at 82
  • Aug 17th Mosby Munroe Parsons, US Confederate gen-maj, dies in battle
  • Aug 26th Johann F Encke, German astronomer (Comet Encke), dies at 73
  • Aug 26th Marcellus Monroe Crocker, US attorney/Union brig-general, dies at 35
  • Aug 27th Jozef Nowakowski, composer, dies at 64
  • Aug 29th John Brough, US publisher/(gov-R-Ohio), dies at about 54
  • Sep 11th Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière, French general (b. 1806)
  • Sep 16th Christian Julius De Meza, Danish general (b. 1792)
  • Sep 20th William H Revere Jr, US Union brig-general, dies
  • Sep 22nd Heinrich Christian Pander, Russian zoologist, dies at 71
  • Sep 24th Frantiszek Soltyk, composer, dies at 81
  • Sep 30th Samuel David Luzzatto, Italian-Jewish scholar (b. 1800)
  • Oct 8th Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst, composer, dies at 51
  • Oct 12th William Vincent Wallace, composer, dies at 53
  • Oct 16th Andrés Bello, Venezuelan poet, lawmaker, philosopher, and sociologist (b. 1781)
  • Oct 18th Lord Henry JT Palmerston, English Minister of Foreign affairs, dies at 80
  • Oct 20th Champ Ferguson, Confederate guerrilla (b. 1821)
  • Oct 31st William Parson, 3rd Earl of Rosse & maker of large telescopes, dies
  • Nov 6th Atale Therese Annette Wartel, composer, dies at 51
  • Nov 10th Henry Wards, Confederate prison supt, executed for excessive cruelty
  • Nov 12th Elizabeth Gaskell, English novelist (b. 1810)
  • Nov 17th James McCune Smith, African-American doctor and abolitionist (b. 1813)
  • Nov 23rd Josef Leopold Zvonar, composer, dies at 41
  • Nov 23rd René E de Russy, West Indian/US brig-general, dies at about 75
  • Nov 25th Heinrich Barth, German historian/geographer (Central Africa), dies
  • Nov 29th Herman van Sonsbeeck, Dutch lawyer/statesman, dies at 69
  • Dec 1st Constant van Crombrugghe, Flemish monastery founder, dies at 76
  • Dec 1st Abraham Emanuel Fröhlich, Swiss poet (b. 1796)
  • Dec 6th Sebastian de Iradier, Spanish composer (Arreglito), dies at 56
  • Dec 10th King Léopold I of Belgium (b. 1790)
  • Dec 14th Johan Georg Forchhammer, Danish geologist (b. 1794)
  • Dec 18th Francisco Manuel da Silva, composer, dies at 70
  • Dec 24th Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, British painter and writer (b. 1793)