What Happened in 1878

Historical Events

  • Jan 4th Sofia is emancipated from Ottoman rule.
  • Jan 8th Secret meeting of King Leopold II's agent & Henry Morton Stanley
  • Jan 9th Umberto I becomes King of Italy.
  • Jan 10th US Senate proposes female suffrage
  • Jan 14th US Supreme court rules race separation on trains unconstitutional
  • Jan 16th Captain Burago with a squadron of Russian Imperial army dragoons liberates Plovdiv from Ottoman rule.
  • Jan 24th Revolutionary Vera Zasulich shoots at Fyodor Trepov, Governor of Saint Petersburg.
  • Jan 28th 1st telephone exchange (New Haven, CT)
  • Jan 28th George W Coy hired as 1st full-time telephone operator
  • Jan 28th Yale Daily News published, 1st college daily newspaper
  • Feb 2nd Greece declares war on Turkey
  • Feb 10th Peace of Zanjón

Person-of-interestPerson of Interest

Feb 10th Peter Tchaikovsky's 4th Symphony in F premieres

  • Feb 11th 1st US bicycle club, Boston Bicycle Club, forms
  • Feb 11th 1st weekly weather report published in UK
  • Feb 12th Frederick Thayer patents catcher's mask (pat # 200,358)
  • Feb 16th Silver dollar became US legal tender
  • Feb 17th 1st telephone exchange in SF opens with 18 phones
  • Feb 18th John Tunstall is murdered by outlaw Jessie Evans, sparking the Lincoln County War in Lincoln County, New Mexico.

Person-of-interestPerson of Interest

Feb 19th Thomas Edison patents gramophone (phonograph)

Inventor Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
  • Feb 21st World's 1st telephone directory issued, 50 subscribers (New Harbor, Connecticut)
  • Feb 22nd Greenback Labor Party forms (Toledo Ohio)
  • Feb 28th US congress authorizes large-size silver certificate
  • Mar 1st First winter ascent of Aneto
  • Mar 3rd Bulgaria liberated from Turkey (Peace of San Stefano)
  • Mar 13th Oxford University defeats Cambridge University in their 1st golf match
  • Mar 24th British frigate Eurydice sunk; 300 lost
  • Mar 26th Hastings College of Law founded in California
  • Mar 26th Sabi Game Reserve, world's 1st official designated game reserve, opens
  • Mar 29th 39th Grand National: J. Jones aboard Shifnal wins
  • Apr 2nd 1st issue of Rotterdam's Newspaper
  • Apr 10th California St Cable Car RR Co starts service
  • Apr 15th Harley Procter introduces Ivory Soap
  • Apr 21st First Lady Lucy Hayes begins egg rolling contest on White House lawn
  • Apr 21st NY installs 1st firehouse pole
  • Apr 21st Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Inscrutabili
  • Apr 21st Ship Azor leaves Charleston with 206 blacks for Liberia
  • Apr 23rd 1st Dutch test drive of steam tram
  • May 2nd US stops minting 20 cent coin
  • May 4th Phonograph shown for 1st time at Grand Opera House
  • May 8th 1st unassisted triple play in organized baseball, by Paul Hines
  • May 14th Vaseline is granted a patent (U.S. Patent 127,568)
  • May 19th Blanche Kelso Bruce appointed register of treasury by President Garfield
  • May 21st 4th Kentucky Derby: Jimmy Carter aboard Day Star wins in 2:37.25
  • May 23rd Atty John Henry Smyth named minister to Liberia
  • May 24th CA Parker (Harvard) wins 1st American bike race, Beacon Park Boston
  • May 25th Gilbert & Sullivan's opera "HMS Pinafore" premieres in London
  • May 27th 6th Preakness: C Holloway aboard Duke of Magenta wins in 2:41.75
  • May 27th Australians Cricket 41 & 12-1 defeat MCC 33 & 19
  • May 31st German battleship SMS Grosser Kurfürst sinks, 284 killed
  • May 31st US Congress accepts decrease in dollar circulation
  • Jun 4th Cyprus ceded by Turkey to Britain for administrative purposes
  • Jun 8th 12th Belmont: L Hughes aboard Duke of Magenta wins in 2:43.5
  • Jun 11th DC is given a new government by Congress, 3 commissioners appointed by president (change in 1974)
  • Jun 13th Congress of Berlin meets to divide African colonization
  • Jun 15th 1st attempt at motion pictures (used 12 cameras, each taking 1 picture) done to see if all 4 of a horse's hooves leave the ground
  • Jul 1st Treaty of Berlin divides Africa for colonization
  • Jul 1st Canada joins the Universal Postal Union.
  • Jul 5th The coat of arms of the Baku governorate was established.
  • Jul 7th Social-Democratic United forms in Amsterdam
  • Jul 9th An improved corncob pipe patents by Henry Tibbe, Washington, Mo
  • Jul 12th Fever epidemic in New Orleans begin, it will kill 4,500
  • Jul 13th Congress of Berlin discussing division of African colonies ends
  • Jul 13th Treaty of Berlin amended terms of Treaty of San Stefano
  • Jul 17th Nqwiliso, tribal chief of Western Pondoland and eldest son of Ndamase, signs a treaty with H.G. Elliott ceding sovereign rights and shipping in the Umzimvubu River mouth to the Cape government, Southern Africa
  • Jul 20th 1st telephone introduced in Hawaii
  • Jul 20th 2nd Wimbledon Mens Tennis: Frank Hadow beats S Gore (7-5- 6-1 9-7)
  • Jul 26th In California, the poet and American West outlaw calling himself "Black Bart" makes his last clean getaway when he steals a safe box from a Wells Fargo stagecoach. The empty box will be found later with a taunting poem inside.
  • Jul 30th German anti-semitism begins during the Reichstag election
  • Jul 30th Russian assault on Plevna Turkey, 7,300 Russian casualties
  • Aug 21st American Bar Association organizes at Sarasota, NY
  • Aug 21st Edward Pooley completes record 8 stumpings in a cricket match
  • Sep 1st 1st female telephone operator starts work (Emma Nutt in Boston)
  • Sep 3rd British passenger paddle steamer Princess Alice sunk in a collision on the River Thames with the collier Bywell Castle; 645 die
  • Sep 12th Cleopatra Needle installed in London
  • Sep 25th British physician Dr. Charles Drysdale warns against the use of tobacco in a letter to The Times newspaper in one of the earliest public health announcements on the dangers of smoking
  • Sep 30th 1st Portuguese immigrants arrive in Hawaii
  • Sep 30th Great Flood hits New Zealand's South Island
  • Oct 4th 18th British Golf Open: Jamie Anderson shoots a 157 at Prestwick Golf Club
  • Oct 15th Edison Electric Light Company incorporated

Electoral-defeatElectoral Victory

Oct 17th After serving as the opposition for five years, John A. Macdonald is re-elected as Prime Minister of Canada

Prime Minister of Canada John A. Macdonald
Prime Minister of Canada
John A. Macdonald
  • Oct 18th Edison makes electricity available for household use

Person-of-interestPerson of Interest

Oct 21st German republic chancellor Bismarck delegates end of "Socialism"

German Statesman Otto Von Bismarck
German Statesman
Otto Von Bismarck
  • Oct 22nd The first rugby match under floodlights takes place in Salford, between Broughton and Swinton.
  • Nov 1st Edward Scripps & John Sweeney found Penny Press (Cleveland Press)
  • Nov 6th Henrik Ibsen's "Samfundets Stotter" premieres in Oslo
  • Nov 10th Aleksandr Ostrovsky's "Bespridannitsa" premieres in Moscow
  • Nov 17th First assassination attempt against Umberto I of Italy.
  • Dec 1st 1st White House telephone installed
  • Dec 3rd Settlers arrive at Petach Tikvah, Israel
  • Dec 9th Joseph Pulitzer buys St Louis Dispatch for $2,500
  • Dec 12th Joseph Pulitzer begins publishing "St Louis Dispatch"
  • Dec 18th French SS Byzantin sinks after collision in Dardanelles, 210 killed
  • Dec 18th John Kehoe, the last of the Molly Maguires, is executed in Pennsylvania.
  • Dec 26th 1st US store to install electric lights, Philadelphia
  • Dec 28th Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Quod apostolici muneris (socialism)

Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 197

  • Jan 1st Edwin Franko Goldman, composer
  • Jan 1st Agner Krarup Erlang, Danish scientist and engineer (d. 1929)
  • Jan 4th Alfred Edgar Coppard, England, writer (Black Dogs & Other Stories)
  • Jan 4th Augustus John, Welsh painter (d. 1961)
  • Jan 6th Carl Sandburg, US, poet/biographer of Lincoln (The People, Yes)
  • Jan 6th Dame Adeline Genée, Danish-British ballerina (d. 1970)
  • Jan 9th John Broadus Watson, Travelers Rest South Carolina, American Psychologist (behaviorism approach)
  • Jan 11th Theodorus Pangalos, Greek general/dictator (1926)
  • Jan 12th Ferenc Molnar, Hungarian/US playwright (A Pal Utrai Fiuk)
  • Jan 13th Lionel Groulx, Canadian nationalist (d. 1967)
  • Jan 14th Victor A D Segalen, [Max Anely], French writer
  • Jan 15th Johanna Muller-Hermann, composer
  • Jan 16th Harry Carey [Henry DeWitt Carey II], American actor (Aces Wild, Border Cafe, Air Force), born in The Bronx, New York
  • Jan 16th Robert Garbe, German poet (Gorniek)
  • Jan 17th Oscar Apfel, Cleve, actor (Abraham Lincoln, Inspiration, Before Dawn)
  • Jan 18th Hendrik Baels, Belgian politician
  • Jan 19th Herbert Chapman, English football player and manager (d. 1934)
  • Jan 20th Finlay Currie, Scotland, actor (Quo Vadis, Ivanhoe, Avengers)
  • Jan 21st Egon Friedell, Austria, journalist/actor/writer (Der Partylowe)
  • Jan 22nd Constance Collier, Windsor England, actress/writer (Kitty, Whirlpool)
  • Jan 22nd Francis Picabia, French painter/illustrator
  • Jan 23rd Oton Zupancic, Slovenian poet (Zimzelen pod Snegom)
  • Jan 23rd Rutland Boughton, composer
  • Jan 25th Ernst Alexanderson, Swedish-born television pioneer (d. 1975)
  • Jan 26th A W "Dave" Nourse, cricketer ("Grand Old Man" of South African cricket)
  • Jan 28th Walter Kollo [Kollodziepski], German composer (Der Juxbaron)
  • Jan 29th Barney Oldfield, Ohio, daredevil
  • Jan 30th Anton Hansen Tammsaare, Estonian author (d. 1940)
  • Jan 31st Willem J M van Eysinga, Dutch international law jurist
  • Feb 1st Hattie Wyatt Caraway, politician/teacher/1st woman elected to senate
  • Feb 1st Milan Hodža, Slovak politician (d. 1944)
  • Feb 2nd Christian Gauss, educator/writer (Phi Beta Kappa award namesake)
  • Feb 2nd Alfréd Hajós, Hungarian swimmer (d. 1955)
  • Feb 3rd Joseph Gordon Coates, PM of New Zealand (1925-28)
  • Feb 5th André Citroën, French automobile pioneer (d. 1935)
  • Feb 6th Waclaw Gieburowski, composer
  • Feb 7th Ossip Gabrilovich, composer
  • Feb 8th Martin Buber, German/Israeli philosopher/theologist (Ich und Du)
  • Feb 14th Julius Nieuwland, Hansbeke Belgium, Belgian-American Chemist (inventor of neoprene)
  • Feb 16th Selim Palmgren, Finnish pianist/composer/conductor (Peter Schlemihl)
  • Feb 21st Fritz Cortolezis, composer
  • Feb 21st The Mother, Indian spiritual leader (d. 1973)
  • Feb 22nd Walter Ritz, Swiss physicist (d. 1909)
  • Feb 23rd Kazimir Malevich, Ukrainian painter and art theorist (d. 1935)
  • Feb 27th Alvan T. Fuller, 50th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1958)
  • Feb 28th Pierre Fatou, French mathematician (d. 1929)
  • Feb 28th Artur Kapp, Estonian composer (d. 1952)
  • Mar 1st Gabriel Edouard Xavier Dupont, composer
  • Mar 2nd Wander J de Haas, Dutch physicist/son-in-law of Lorentz
  • Mar 2nd William Kissam Vanderbilt II, member of the Vanderbilt family (d. 1944)
  • Mar 4th Egbert Van Alstyne, American songwriter and pianist (d. 1951)
  • Mar 4th Peter D. Ouspensky, Russian philosopher (d. 1947)
  • Mar 7th Boris Kustodiev, Russian painter (d. 1927)
  • Mar 10th Karel van de Woestijne, Flemish writer/poet (God at Sea)
  • Mar 12th Gemma Galgani, Italian saint
  • Mar 12th Joseph Gustav Mraczek, composer
  • Mar 14th Carel T Scharten, Dutch poet/writer (Forces of the Future)
  • Mar 15th Hanson Carter, cricketer (Yorkshire Aussie WK of early 20th century)
  • Mar 15th Rezā Shāh Pahlavi [Rezā Khan], Shah of Iran (1925-41)
  • Mar 16th Clemens A Graaf von Galen, cardinal/bishop of Munster/anti-nazi
  • Mar 16th Henry B Walthall, Shelby City AL, actor (Birth of a Nation, Klondike)
  • Mar 21st Thurlow Weed Lieurance, composer
  • Mar 22nd Michel Théato, Luxembourgian athlete (d. 1919)
  • Mar 23rd Franz Schrecker, Austrian composer (Der ferne Klang, Der Schatzgräber)
  • Mar 24th Top Naeff, [Anthonetta van Rhijn-N-Naeff], Dutch writer
  • Mar 25th Henry graaf de Baillet-Latour, Belgian pres of IOC (1925-42)
  • Mar 25th Theodore Samuel Holland, composer
  • Mar 31st Jack Johnson,1st African American heavyweight boxing champ (1908-1915)
  • Apr 1st Carl Sternheim, German playwright (Hyperion/Tabula Rasa)
  • Apr 2nd Émilie Charmy, Saint-Etienne France, avant-garde artist
  • Apr 6th Carl Emil Theodor Ehrenberg, composer
  • Apr 6th Erich Mühsam, German author (d. 1934)
  • Apr 7th C M M Hathorn, cricketer (South African Test centurion in 1905-06)
  • Apr 7th Jozef C Bittremieux, Flemish theologist (Virgin & Mother of God)
  • Apr 8th Rudolf Nelson, composer
  • Apr 12th Richard B Goldschmidt, German/US zoologist
  • Apr 15th Robert Walser, writer
  • Apr 16th R E "Tip" Foster, cricketer (287 on debut England v Aust SCG 1903)
  • Apr 21st Albert Weisgerber, German painter/graphic artist
  • Apr 22nd Kitty Gordon, Folkestone England, entertainer
  • Apr 24th Jean Crotti, Swiss artist (d. 1958)
  • Apr 26th Ethel Griffies, actress (Billy Liar, Birds, We Live Again)
  • Apr 26th Saint Rafael Guízar Valencia, Mexican Catholic bishop
  • Apr 27th Frank Alvin Gotch, American professional wrestler (d. 1917)
  • Apr 28th Lionel Barrymore, [Blythe], Phila, actor (Free Soul, Dr Kildare)
  • May 10th Gustav Stresemann, German chancellor (1923, Nobel 1926)
  • May 11th Jan Machiel Reyskens, oldest male resident of the Netherlands, (d. 1990 aged 111)
  • May 14th James L. Wilkinson, American baseball executive (d. 1964)
  • May 15th Francisco Pujol, composer
  • May 16th Taylor Holmes, Newark NJ, actor (Tobor the Great, Beware My Lovely)
  • May 19th Adam von Ahn Carse, composer
  • May 21st Glenn Hammond Curtiss, US, inventor (hydroplane)
  • May 21st Louis L H de Visser, Dutch MP (CPN)
  • May 24th Lillian Moller Gilbreth, engineer (CIOS Gold Medal-1954)
  • May 25th Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, actor (Stormy Weather, Little Colonel)
  • May 28th Paul Pelliot, French sinologist (d. 1945)
  • May 30th Mike Donlin, American baseball player (d. 1933)
  • Jun 1st John Masefield, England, 15th poet laureate (Salt-Water Ballads)
  • Jun 4th Frank N D Buchman, US theologist (Moral Rearmament)
  • Jun 5th Franklyn Farnum, actor (Cowboy & Bandit, Scarlet Car, Frontier Days)

Famous Weddings

HeartWedding of Interest

Dec 4th Novelist Bram Stoker (31) weds Florence Balcombe (20) in Dublin, Ireland

Novelist Bram Stoker
Bram Stoker

Famous Deaths

  • Jan 7th François-Vincent Raspail, French chemist (b. 1794)

Person-of-interestPerson of Interest

Jan 9th Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia (1849-61) and Italy (1861-78), dies at 57

King of Sardinia and Italy Victor Emmanuel II
King of Sardinia and Italy
Victor Emmanuel II
  • Jan 18th Antoine César Becquerel, French physicist (b. 1788)
  • Jan 19th Henri V Regnault, French physicist/chemist, dies at 67
  • Feb 1st George Cruikshank, English illustrator (Grimm), dies at 85
  • Feb 7th Pius IX, "Pio Nono", [Giovanni Ferretti], Pope (1846-78), dies at 85
  • Feb 8th Elias M Fries, Swedish botanist (mycologicum), dies at 83
  • Feb 17th Jose Amador de los Rios, Spanish historian/poet, dies at 59
  • Feb 18th Peter D Regout, industrialist (Sphinx, Maastricht), dies at 76
  • Feb 19th Charles F Daubigny, French restaurateur/painter, dies at 61
  • Feb 22nd Franz Hunten, composer, dies at 84
  • Mar 16th William Banting, English undertaker, dies
  • Mar 20th Julius Robert von Mayer, German physician and physicist (b. 1814)
  • Mar 24th Albin Masek, composer, dies at 73
  • Mar 27th Dobri Voynikov, composer, dies at 44
  • Mar 27th George Gilbert Scott, architect, dies
  • Apr 1st Eugene Gautier, composer, dies at 56
  • Apr 1st John Corry Wilson Daly, Canadian politician (b. 1796)
  • Apr 4th Richard Brewer, American gunslinger/cowboy (b. 1850)
  • Apr 5th Wilhelm Speyer, composer, dies at 87

Person-of-interestPerson of Interest

Apr 12th William M "Boss" Tweed, NY politician, dies

Politician Boss Tweed
Boss Tweed
  • Apr 21st Temistocle Solera, composer, dies at 62
  • Apr 23rd Friedrich Preller, landscape painter, dies
  • Apr 25th Anna Sewell, English author (Black Beauty), dies at 58
  • May 14th Ookubo Toshimichi, Japanese statesman, samurai, and one of the three great nobles who led the Meiji Restoration (b. 1830)
  • May 22nd Franz von Holstein, composer, dies at 52
  • May 27th Carlo Marsili, composer, dies at 49
  • May 28th John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1792)
  • Jun 6th Gottfried Herrmann, composer, dies at 70
  • Jun 6th Robert Stirling, Scottish inventor (b. 1790)
  • Jun 12th Hendrik J Jut, Dutch murderer [Head of Jut], dies at 26
  • Jun 12th William Cullen Bryant, American poet, dies at 83
  • Jun 16th Crawford Long, American physician (b. 1815)
  • Jun 23rd George Backing, English sea officer/explorer (B's River), dies at 81
  • Jun 26th Mercedes of Orleans, queen of Spain (b. 1860)
  • Jul 2nd Francois-Emmanuel-Joseph Bazin, composer, dies at 61
  • Jul 7th Yegor Ivanovich Zolotarev, Russian mathematician (b. 1847)
  • Jul 17th Aleardo [Gaetano] Aleardi, Italian/Aust poet (Tre Fiumi), dies at 65
  • Jul 23rd Miguel Hilarion Eslava y Elizondo, composer, dies at 70
  • Jul 23rd Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, Bohemian physician (b. 1804)
  • Jul 28th George Law Curry, Newspaper publisher and Governor of Oregon (b. 1820)
  • Aug 17th Richard Upjohn, US architect, died
  • Aug 23rd Adolf Fredrik Lindblad, composer, dies at 77
  • Sep 9th Jacobo Ficher, composer, dies at 18
  • Sep 12th Friedrich August von Alberti, geologist (Triasic Age), dies at 83
  • Oct 25th Ludwig Wilhelm Maurer, composer, dies at 89
  • Nov 28th Marco Aurelio Zani de Ferranti, composer, dies at 78
  • Nov 28th Orson Hyde, American religious leader (b. 1805)
  • Dec 19th Bayard Taylor, American author and poet (b. 1825)
  • Dec 25th Anna Claypoole Peale, US painter of miniatures, dies
  • Dec 28th Jose Bernardo Alcedo, composer, dies at 90