What Happened in 1878

Historical Events

  • Jan 4 Sofia is emancipated from Ottoman rule.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 8 Secret meeting of King Leopold II's agent & Henry Morton Stanley

Journalist and Explorer Henry Morton Stanley
Journalist and Explorer
Henry Morton Stanley
  • Jan 9 Umberto I becomes King of Italy.
  • Jan 10 US Senate proposes female suffrage
  • Jan 14 US Supreme court rules race separation on trains unconstitutional
  • Jan 16 Captain Burago with a squadron of Russian Imperial army dragoons liberates Plovdiv from Ottoman rule.
  • Jan 24 Revolutionary Vera Zasulich shoots at Fyodor Trepov, Governor of Saint Petersburg.
  • Jan 28 1st telephone exchange (New Haven, CT)
  • Jan 28 George W Coy hired as 1st full-time telephone operator
  • Jan 28 Yale Daily News published, 1st college daily newspaper
  • Feb 2 Greece declares war on Turkey
  • Feb 10 Peace of Zanjón signed between Chileans and the Spanish brings 10 Years War to an end

Music releaseMusic Premiere

Feb 10 Peter Tchaikovsky's 4th Symphony in F premieres

  • Feb 11 1st US bicycle club, Boston Bicycle Club, forms
  • Feb 11 1st weekly weather report published in UK
  • Feb 12 Frederick Thayer patents catcher's mask (pat # 200,358)
  • Feb 16 Silver dollar became US legal tender
  • Feb 17 1st telephone exchange in SF opens with 18 phones
  • Feb 18 John Tunstall is murdered by outlaw Jessie Evans, sparking the Lincoln County War in Lincoln County, New Mexico.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 19 Thomas Edison patents the gramophone (phonograph)

Inventor Thomas Edison
Inventor
Thomas Edison
  • Feb 21 World's 1st telephone directory issued, 50 subscribers (New Harbor, Connecticut)
  • Feb 22 Greenback Labor Party forms (Toledo Ohio)
  • Feb 28 US congress authorizes large-size silver certificate
  • Mar 1 First winter ascent of Aneto
  • Mar 3 Bulgaria liberated from Turkey (Peace of San Stefano)
  • Mar 13 Oxford University defeats Cambridge University in their 1st golf match
  • Mar 24 British frigate Eurydice sunk; 300 lost
  • Mar 26 Hastings College of Law founded in California
  • Mar 26 Sabi Game Reserve, world's 1st official designated game reserve, opens
  • Mar 29 39th Grand National: J. Jones aboard Shifnal wins
  • Apr 2 1st issue of Rotterdam's Newspaper
  • Apr 10 California St Cable Car RR Co starts service
  • Apr 15 Harley Procter introduces Ivory Soap
  • Apr 21 First Lady Lucy Hayes begins egg rolling contest on White House lawn
  • Apr 21 NY installs 1st firehouse pole
  • Apr 21 Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Inscrutabili
  • Apr 21 Ship Azor leaves Charleston with 206 blacks for Liberia
  • Apr 23 1st Dutch test drive of steam tram
  • May 2 US stops minting 20 cent coin
  • May 4 Phonograph shown for 1st time at Grand Opera House
  • May 8 1st unassisted triple play in organized baseball, by Paul Hines
  • May 14 Vaseline is granted a patent (U.S. Patent 127,568)
  • May 19 Blanche Kelso Bruce appointed register of treasury by President Garfield
  • May 21 4th Kentucky Derby: Jimmy Carter aboard Day Star wins in 2:37.25
  • May 23 Atty John Henry Smyth named US minister to Liberia
  • May 24 CA Parker (Harvard) wins 1st American bike race, Beacon Park Boston
  • May 25 Gilbert & Sullivan's opera "HMS Pinafore" premieres in London
  • May 27 6th Preakness: C Holloway aboard Duke of Magenta wins in 2:41.75
  • May 27 Australians Cricket 41 & 12-1 defeat MCC 33 & 19
  • May 31 German battleship SMS Grosser Kurfürst sinks, 284 killed
  • May 31 US Congress accepts decrease in dollar circulation
  • Jun 4 Cyprus ceded by Turkey to Britain for administrative purposes
  • Jun 8 12th Belmont: L Hughes aboard Duke of Magenta wins in 2:43.5
  • Jun 11 DC is given a new government by Congress, 3 commissioners appointed by president (change in 1974)
  • Jun 13 Congress of Berlin redraws the terms of Treaty of San Stefano to give Russia less influence in old Ottoman empire
  • Jun 15 1st attempt at motion pictures (used 12 cameras, each taking 1 picture) done to see if all 4 of a horse's hooves leave the ground
  • Jul 1 Canada joins the Universal Postal Union.
  • Jul 5 The coat of arms of the Baku governorate was established.
  • Jul 7 Social-Democratic United forms in Amsterdam
  • Jul 9 An improved corncob pipe patents by Henry Tibbe, Washington, Mo
  • Jul 12 Fever epidemic in New Orleans begin, it will kill 4,500
  • Jul 13 Congress of Berlin discussing division of African colonies ends
  • Jul 13 Treaty of Berlin amended terms of Treaty of San Stefano
  • Jul 17 Nqwiliso, tribal chief of Western Pondoland and eldest son of Ndamase, signs a treaty with H.G. Elliott ceding sovereign rights and shipping in the Umzimvubu River mouth to the Cape government, Southern Africa
  • Jul 20 1st telephone introduced in Hawaii
  • Jul 20 2nd Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Frank Hadow beats S Gore (7-5- 6-1 9-7)
  • Jul 26 In California, the poet and American West outlaw calling himself "Black Bart" makes his last clean getaway when he steals a safe box from a Wells Fargo stagecoach. The empty box will be found later with a taunting poem inside.
  • Jul 30 German anti-semitism begins during the Reichstag election
  • Aug 21 American Bar Association organizes at Sarasota, NY
  • Aug 21 Edward Pooley completes record 8 stumpings in a cricket match
  • Sep 1 1st female telephone operator starts work (Emma Nutt in Boston)
  • Sep 3 British passenger paddle steamer Princess Alice sunk in a collision on the River Thames with the collier Bywell Castle; 645 die
  • Sep 12 Cleopatra Needle installed in London
  • Sep 25 British physician Dr. Charles Drysdale warns against the use of tobacco in a letter to The Times newspaper in one of the earliest public health announcements on the dangers of smoking
  • Sep 30 1st Portuguese immigrants arrive in Hawaii
  • Sep 30 Great Flood hits New Zealand's South Island
  • Oct 4 18th British Golf Open: Jamie Anderson shoots a 157 at Prestwick Golf Club
  • Oct 15 Edison Electric Light Company incorporated

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

Oct 17 After serving as the opposition for five years, John A. Macdonald is re-elected as Prime Minister of Canada

Prime Minister of Canada John A. Macdonald
Prime Minister of Canada
John A. Macdonald
  • Oct 18 Edison makes electricity available for household use

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 21 German republic chancellor Bismarck delegates end of "Socialism"

German Statesman Otto Von Bismarck
German Statesman
Otto Von Bismarck
  • Oct 22 The first rugby match under floodlights takes place in Salford, between Broughton and Swinton.
  • Nov 1 Edward Scripps & John Sweeney found Penny Press (Cleveland Press)
  • Nov 6 Henrik Ibsen's "Samfundets Stotter" premieres in Oslo
  • Nov 10 Aleksandr Ostrovsky's "Bespridannitsa" premieres in Moscow
  • Nov 17 First assassination attempt against Umberto I of Italy.
  • Dec 1 1st White House telephone installed
  • Dec 3 Settlers arrive at Petach Tikvah, Israel
  • Dec 9 Joseph Pulitzer buys St Louis Dispatch for $2,500
  • Dec 12 Joseph Pulitzer begins publishing "St Louis Dispatch"
  • Dec 18 French SS Byzantin sinks after collision in Dardanelles, 210 killed
  • Dec 18 John Kehoe, the last of the Molly Maguires, is executed in Pennsylvania.
  • Dec 26 1st US store to install electric lights, Philadelphia
  • Dec 28 Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Quod apostolici muneris (socialism)

Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 197

  • Jan 1 Edwin Franko Goldman, composer
  • Jan 1 Agner Krarup Erlang, Danish scientist and engineer (d. 1929)
  • Jan 4 Alfred Edgar Coppard, England, writer (Black Dogs & Other Stories)
  • Jan 4 Augustus John, Welsh painter (d. 1961)
  • Jan 6 Carl Sandburg, US, poet/biographer of Lincoln (The People, Yes)
  • Jan 6 Dame Adeline Genée, Danish-British ballerina (d. 1970)
  • Jan 9 John Broadus Watson, Travelers Rest South Carolina, American Psychologist (behaviorism approach)
  • Jan 11 Theodorus Pangalos, Greek general/dictator (1926)
  • Jan 12 Ferenc Molnar, Hungarian/US playwright (A Pal Utrai Fiuk)
  • Jan 13 Lionel Groulx, Canadian nationalist (d. 1967)
  • Jan 14 Victor A D Segalen, [Max Anely], French writer
  • Jan 15 Johanna Muller-Hermann, composer
  • Jan 16 Harry Carey [Henry DeWitt Carey II], American actor (Aces Wild, Border Cafe, Air Force), born in The Bronx, New York
  • Jan 16 Robert Garbe, German poet (Gorniek)
  • Jan 17 Oscar Apfel, actor (Abraham Lincoln, Inspiration, Before Dawn), born in Cleveland, Ohio
  • Jan 18 Hendrik Baels, Belgian politician
  • Jan 19 Herbert Chapman, English football player and manager (d. 1934)
  • Jan 20 Finlay Currie, Scotland, actor (Quo Vadis, Ivanhoe, Avengers)
  • Jan 21 Egon Friedell, Austria, journalist/actor/writer (Der Partylowe)
  • Jan 22 Constance Collier, Windsor England, actress/writer (Kitty, Whirlpool)
  • Jan 22 Francis Picabia, French painter/illustrator
  • Jan 23 Oton Zupancic, Slovenian poet (Zimzelen pod Snegom)
  • Jan 23 Rutland Boughton, composer
  • Jan 25 Ernst Alexanderson, Swedish-born television pioneer (d. 1975)
  • Jan 26 A W "Dave" Nourse, cricketer ("Grand Old Man" of South African cricket)
  • Jan 28 Walter Kollo [Kollodziepski], German composer (Der Juxbaron)
  • Jan 29 Barney Oldfield, Ohio, daredevil
  • Jan 30 Anton Hansen Tammsaare, Estonian author (d. 1940)
  • Jan 31 Willem J M van Eysinga, Dutch international law jurist
  • Feb 1 Hattie Wyatt Caraway, politician/teacher/1st woman elected to senate
  • Feb 1 Milan Hodža, Slovak politician (d. 1944)
  • Feb 2 Christian Gauss, educator/writer (Phi Beta Kappa award namesake)
  • Feb 2 Alfréd Hajós, Hungarian swimmer (d. 1955)
  • Feb 3 Joseph Gordon Coates, Prime Minister of New Zealand (1925-28), born in Ruatuna (d. 1943)
  • Feb 5 André Citroën, French automobile pioneer (d. 1935)
  • Feb 6 Waclaw Gieburowski, composer
  • Feb 7 Ossip Gabrilovich, composer
  • Feb 8 Martin Buber, German/Israeli philosopher/theologist (Ich und Du)
  • Feb 14 Julius Nieuwland, Hansbeke Belgium, Belgian-American Chemist (inventor of neoprene)
  • Feb 16 Selim Palmgren, Finnish pianist/composer/conductor (Peter Schlemihl)
  • Feb 21 Fritz Cortolezis, composer
  • Feb 21 The Mother, Indian spiritual leader (d. 1973)
  • Feb 22 Walter Ritz, Swiss physicist (d. 1909)
  • Feb 23 Kazimir Malevich, Ukrainian painter and art theorist (d. 1935)
  • Feb 27 Alvan T. Fuller, 50th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1958)
  • Feb 28 Pierre Fatou, French mathematician (d. 1929)
  • Feb 28 Artur Kapp, Estonian composer (d. 1952)
  • Mar 1 Gabriel Edouard Xavier Dupont, composer
  • Mar 2 Wander J de Haas, Dutch physicist/son-in-law of Lorentz
  • Mar 2 William Kissam Vanderbilt II, member of the Vanderbilt family (d. 1944)
  • Mar 4 Egbert Van Alstyne, American songwriter and pianist (d. 1951)
  • Mar 4 Peter D. Ouspensky, Russian philosopher (d. 1947)
  • Mar 7 Boris Kustodiev, Russian painter (d. 1927)
  • Mar 10 Karel van de Woestijne, Flemish writer/poet (God at Sea)
  • Mar 12 Gemma Galgani, Italian saint
  • Mar 12 Joseph Gustav Mraczek, composer
  • Mar 14 Carel T Scharten, Dutch poet/writer (Forces of the Future)
  • Mar 15 Hanson Carter, cricketer (Yorkshire Aussie WK of early 20th century)
  • Mar 15 Rezā Shāh Pahlavi [Rezā Khan], Shah of Iran (1925-41)
  • Mar 16 Clemens A Graaf von Galen, cardinal/bishop of Munster/anti-nazi
  • Mar 16 Henry B Walthall, Shelby City AL, actor (Birth of a Nation, Klondike)
  • Mar 21 Thurlow Weed Lieurance, composer
  • Mar 22 Michel Théato, Luxembourgian athlete (d. 1919)
  • Mar 23 Franz Schrecker, Austrian composer (Der ferne Klang, Der Schatzgräber)
  • Mar 24 Top Naeff, [Anthonetta van Rhijn-N-Naeff], Dutch writer
  • Mar 25 Henry graaf de Baillet-Latour, Belgian President of IOC (1925-42)
  • Mar 25 Theodore Samuel Holland, composer
  • Mar 31 Jack Johnson,1st African American heavyweight boxing champ (1908-1915)
  • Apr 1 Carl Sternheim, German playwright (Hyperion/Tabula Rasa)
  • Apr 2 Émilie Charmy, Saint-Etienne France, avant-garde artist
  • Apr 6 Carl Emil Theodor Ehrenberg, composer
  • Apr 6 Erich Mühsam, German author (d. 1934)
  • Apr 7 C M M Hathorn, cricketer (South African Test centurion in 1905-06)
  • Apr 7 Jozef C Bittremieux, Flemish theologist (Virgin & Mother of God)
  • Apr 8 Rudolf Nelson, composer
  • Apr 12 Richard B Goldschmidt, German/US zoologist
  • Apr 15 Robert Walser, Swiss writer, born in Biel (d. 1956)
  • Apr 16 R E "Tip" Foster, cricketer (287 on debut England v Aust SCG 1903)
  • Apr 21 Albert Weisgerber, German painter/graphic artist
  • Apr 22 Kitty Gordon, Folkestone England, entertainer
  • Apr 24 Jean Crotti, Swiss artist (d. 1958)
  • Apr 26 Ethel Griffies, actress (Billy Liar, Birds, We Live Again)
  • Apr 26 Saint Rafael Guízar Valencia, Mexican Catholic bishop
  • Apr 27 Frank Alvin Gotch, American professional wrestler (d. 1917)
  • Apr 28 Lionel Barrymore, [Blythe], actor (Free Soul, Dr Kildare), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • May 10 Gustav Stresemann, German chancellor (1923, Nobel 1926)
  • May 11 Jan Machiel Reyskens, oldest male resident of the Netherlands, (d. 1990 aged 111)
  • May 14 James L. Wilkinson, American baseball executive (d. 1964)
  • May 15 Francisco Pujol, composer
  • May 16 Taylor Holmes, actor (Tobor the Great, Beware My Lovely), born in Newark, New Jersey
  • May 19 Adam von Ahn Carse, composer
  • May 21 Glenn Hammond Curtiss, US, inventor (hydroplane)
  • May 21 Louis L H de Visser, Dutch MP (CPN)
  • May 24 Lillian Moller Gilbreth, engineer (CIOS Gold Medal-1954)
  • May 25 Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, actor (Stormy Weather, Little Colonel)
  • May 28 Paul Pelliot, French sinologist (d. 1945)
  • May 30 Mike Donlin, American baseball player (d. 1933)
  • Jun 1 John Masefield, British writer and poet (Salt-Water Ballads), Poet Laureate (1930-67), born in Ledbury, Herefordshire (d. 1967)
  • Jun 4 Frank N D Buchman, US theologist (Moral Rearmament)
  • Jun 5 Franklyn Farnum, actor (Cowboy & Bandit, Scarlet Car, Frontier Days)

Famous Weddings


HeartWedding of Interest

Dec 4 Novelist Bram Stoker (31) weds Florence Balcombe (20) in Dublin, Ireland

Novelist Bram Stoker
Novelist
Bram Stoker

Famous Deaths

  • Jan 7 François-Vincent Raspail, French chemist (b. 1794)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jan 9 Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia (1849-61) and Italy (1861-78), dies at 57

King of Sardinia and Italy Victor Emmanuel II
King of Sardinia and Italy
Victor Emmanuel II
  • Jan 18 Antoine César Becquerel, French physicist (b. 1788)
  • Jan 19 Henri V Regnault, French physicist/chemist, dies at 67
  • Feb 1 George Cruikshank, English illustrator (Grimm), dies at 85
  • Feb 7 Pius IX, "Pio Nono", [Giovanni Ferretti], Pope (1846-78), dies at 85
  • Feb 8 Elias M Fries, Swedish botanist (mycologicum), dies at 83
  • Feb 17 Jose Amador de los Rios, Spanish historian/poet, dies at 59
  • Feb 18 Peter D Regout, industrialist (Sphinx, Maastricht), dies at 76
  • Feb 19 Charles F Daubigny, French restaurateur/painter, dies at 61
  • Feb 22 Franz Hunten, composer, dies at 84
  • Mar 16 William Banting, English undertaker, dies
  • Mar 20 Julius Robert von Mayer, German physician and physicist (b. 1814)
  • Mar 24 Albin Masek, Czech composer, dies at 73
  • Mar 27 Dobri Voynikov, composer, dies at 44
  • Mar 27 George Gilbert Scott, architect, dies
  • Apr 1 Eugene Gautier, composer, dies at 56
  • Apr 1 John Corry Wilson Daly, Canadian politician (b. 1796)
  • Apr 4 Richard Brewer, American gunslinger/cowboy (b. 1850)
  • Apr 5 Wilhelm Speyer, composer, dies at 87

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Apr 12 William Magear Tweed "Boss Tweed", New York corrupt politician dies in prison at 55

Politician Boss Tweed
Politician
Boss Tweed
  • Apr 21 Temistocle Solera, composer, dies at 62
  • Apr 23 Friedrich Preller, landscape painter, dies
  • Apr 25 Anna Sewell, English author (Black Beauty), dies at 58
  • May 14 Ookubo Toshimichi, Japanese statesman, samurai, and one of the three great nobles who led the Meiji Restoration (b. 1830)
  • May 22 Franz von Holstein, composer, dies at 52
  • May 27 Carlo Marsili, composer, dies at 49

Person of interestPerson of Interest

May 28 John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, British Prime Minister (Whig: 1846-52 and 1865-66), dies at 85

British Prime Minister John Russell
British Prime Minister
John Russell
  • Jun 6 Gottfried Herrmann, composer, dies at 70
  • Jun 6 Robert Stirling, Scottish inventor (b. 1790)
  • Jun 12 Hendrik J Jut, Dutch murderer [Head of Jut], dies at 26
  • Jun 12 William Cullen Bryant, American poet, dies at 83
  • Jun 16 Crawford Long, American physician (b. 1815)
  • Jun 23 George Backing, English sea officer/explorer (B's River), dies at 81
  • Jun 26 Mercedes of Orleans, queen of Spain (b. 1860)
  • Jul 2 Francois-Emmanuel-Joseph Bazin, composer, dies at 61
  • Jul 7 Yegor Ivanovich Zolotarev, Russian mathematician (b. 1847)
  • Jul 17 Aleardo [Gaetano] Aleardi, Italian/Aust poet (Tre Fiumi), dies at 65
  • Jul 23 Miguel Hilarion Eslava y Elizondo, composer, dies at 70
  • Jul 23 Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, Bohemian physician (b. 1804)
  • Jul 28 George Law Curry, Newspaper publisher and Governor of Oregon (b. 1820)
  • Aug 17 Richard Upjohn, US architect, died
  • Aug 23 Adolf Fredrik Lindblad, composer, dies at 77
  • Sep 9 Jacobo Ficher, composer, dies at 18
  • Sep 12 Friedrich August von Alberti, geologist (Triasic Age), dies at 83
  • Oct 25 Ludwig Wilhelm Maurer, composer, dies at 89
  • Nov 28 Marco Aurelio Zani de Ferranti, composer, dies at 78
  • Nov 28 Orson Hyde, American religious leader (b. 1805)
  • Dec 19 Bayard Taylor, American author and poet (b. 1825)
  • Dec 25 Anna Claypoole Peale, US painter of miniatures, dies
  • Dec 28 Jose Bernardo Alcedo, composer, dies at 90