What Happened in 1878

Historical Events

  • Jan 4th Sofia is emancipated from Ottoman rule.
  • Jan 8th Secret meeting of King Leopold II's agent & Henry Morton Stanley
  • Jan 9th Umberto I becomes King of Italy.
  • Jan 10th US Senate proposes female suffrage
  • Jan 14th US Supreme court rules race separation on trains unconstitutional
  • Jan 16th Captain Burago with a squadron of Russian Imperial army dragoons liberates Plovdiv from Ottoman rule.
  • Jan 24th Revolutionary Vera Zasulich shoots at Fyodor Trepov, Governor of Saint Petersburg.
  • Jan 28th 1st telephone exchange (New Haven, CT)
  • Jan 28th George W Coy hired as 1st full-time telephone operator
  • Jan 28th Yale Daily News published, 1st college daily newspaper
  • Feb 2nd Greece declares war on Turkey
  • Feb 10th Peace of Zanjón signed between Chileans and the Spanish brings 10 Years War to an end

Music releaseMusic Premiere

Feb 10th Peter Tchaikovsky's 4th Symphony in F premieres

  • Feb 11th 1st US bicycle club, Boston Bicycle Club, forms
  • Feb 11th 1st weekly weather report published in UK
  • Feb 12th Frederick Thayer patents catcher's mask (pat # 200,358)
  • Feb 16th Silver dollar became US legal tender
  • Feb 17th 1st telephone exchange in SF opens with 18 phones
  • Feb 18th John Tunstall is murdered by outlaw Jessie Evans, sparking the Lincoln County War in Lincoln County, New Mexico.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 19th Thomas Edison patents the gramophone (phonograph)

Inventor Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
  • Feb 21st World's 1st telephone directory issued, 50 subscribers (New Harbor, Connecticut)
  • Feb 22nd Greenback Labor Party forms (Toledo Ohio)
  • Feb 28th US congress authorizes large-size silver certificate
  • Mar 1st First winter ascent of Aneto
  • Mar 3rd Bulgaria liberated from Turkey (Peace of San Stefano)
  • Mar 13th Oxford University defeats Cambridge University in their 1st golf match
  • Mar 24th British frigate Eurydice sunk; 300 lost
  • Mar 26th Hastings College of Law founded in California
  • Mar 26th Sabi Game Reserve, world's 1st official designated game reserve, opens
  • Mar 29th 39th Grand National: J. Jones aboard Shifnal wins
  • Apr 2nd 1st issue of Rotterdam's Newspaper
  • Apr 10th California St Cable Car RR Co starts service
  • Apr 15th Harley Procter introduces Ivory Soap
  • Apr 21st First Lady Lucy Hayes begins egg rolling contest on White House lawn
  • Apr 21st NY installs 1st firehouse pole
  • Apr 21st Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Inscrutabili
  • Apr 21st Ship Azor leaves Charleston with 206 blacks for Liberia
  • Apr 23rd 1st Dutch test drive of steam tram
  • May 2nd US stops minting 20 cent coin
  • May 4th Phonograph shown for 1st time at Grand Opera House
  • May 8th 1st unassisted triple play in organized baseball, by Paul Hines
  • May 14th Vaseline is granted a patent (U.S. Patent 127,568)
  • May 19th Blanche Kelso Bruce appointed register of treasury by President Garfield
  • May 21st 4th Kentucky Derby: Jimmy Carter aboard Day Star wins in 2:37.25
  • May 23rd Atty John Henry Smyth named US minister to Liberia
  • May 24th CA Parker (Harvard) wins 1st American bike race, Beacon Park Boston
  • May 25th Gilbert & Sullivan's opera "HMS Pinafore" premieres in London
  • May 27th 6th Preakness: C Holloway aboard Duke of Magenta wins in 2:41.75
  • May 27th Australians Cricket 41 & 12-1 defeat MCC 33 & 19
  • May 31st German battleship SMS Grosser Kurfürst sinks, 284 killed
  • May 31st US Congress accepts decrease in dollar circulation
  • Jun 4th Cyprus ceded by Turkey to Britain for administrative purposes
  • Jun 8th 12th Belmont: L Hughes aboard Duke of Magenta wins in 2:43.5
  • Jun 11th DC is given a new government by Congress, 3 commissioners appointed by president (change in 1974)
  • Jun 13th Congress of Berlin redraws the terms of Treaty of San Stefano to give Russia less influence in old Ottoman empire
  • Jun 15th 1st attempt at motion pictures (used 12 cameras, each taking 1 picture) done to see if all 4 of a horse's hooves leave the ground
  • Jul 1st Canada joins the Universal Postal Union.
  • Jul 5th The coat of arms of the Baku governorate was established.
  • Jul 7th Social-Democratic United forms in Amsterdam
  • Jul 9th An improved corncob pipe patents by Henry Tibbe, Washington, Mo
  • Jul 12th Fever epidemic in New Orleans begin, it will kill 4,500
  • Jul 13th Congress of Berlin discussing division of African colonies ends
  • Jul 13th Treaty of Berlin amended terms of Treaty of San Stefano
  • Jul 17th Nqwiliso, tribal chief of Western Pondoland and eldest son of Ndamase, signs a treaty with H.G. Elliott ceding sovereign rights and shipping in the Umzimvubu River mouth to the Cape government, Southern Africa
  • Jul 20th 1st telephone introduced in Hawaii
  • Jul 20th 2nd Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Frank Hadow beats S Gore (7-5- 6-1 9-7)
  • Jul 26th In California, the poet and American West outlaw calling himself "Black Bart" makes his last clean getaway when he steals a safe box from a Wells Fargo stagecoach. The empty box will be found later with a taunting poem inside.
  • Jul 30th German anti-semitism begins during the Reichstag election
  • Aug 21st American Bar Association organizes at Sarasota, NY
  • Aug 21st Edward Pooley completes record 8 stumpings in a cricket match
  • Sep 1st 1st female telephone operator starts work (Emma Nutt in Boston)
  • Sep 3rd British passenger paddle steamer Princess Alice sunk in a collision on the River Thames with the collier Bywell Castle; 645 die
  • Sep 12th Cleopatra Needle installed in London
  • Sep 25th British physician Dr. Charles Drysdale warns against the use of tobacco in a letter to The Times newspaper in one of the earliest public health announcements on the dangers of smoking
  • Sep 30th 1st Portuguese immigrants arrive in Hawaii
  • Sep 30th Great Flood hits New Zealand's South Island
  • Oct 4th 18th British Golf Open: Jamie Anderson shoots a 157 at Prestwick Golf Club
  • Oct 15th Edison Electric Light Company incorporated

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

Oct 17th After serving as the opposition for five years, John A. Macdonald is re-elected as Prime Minister of Canada

Prime Minister of Canada John A. Macdonald
Prime Minister of Canada
John A. Macdonald
  • Oct 18th Edison makes electricity available for household use

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 21st German republic chancellor Bismarck delegates end of "Socialism"

German Statesman Otto Von Bismarck
German Statesman
Otto Von Bismarck
  • Oct 22nd The first rugby match under floodlights takes place in Salford, between Broughton and Swinton.
  • Nov 1st Edward Scripps & John Sweeney found Penny Press (Cleveland Press)
  • Nov 6th Henrik Ibsen's "Samfundets Stotter" premieres in Oslo
  • Nov 10th Aleksandr Ostrovsky's "Bespridannitsa" premieres in Moscow
  • Nov 17th First assassination attempt against Umberto I of Italy.
  • Dec 1st 1st White House telephone installed
  • Dec 3rd Settlers arrive at Petach Tikvah, Israel
  • Dec 9th Joseph Pulitzer buys St Louis Dispatch for $2,500
  • Dec 12th Joseph Pulitzer begins publishing "St Louis Dispatch"
  • Dec 18th French SS Byzantin sinks after collision in Dardanelles, 210 killed
  • Dec 18th John Kehoe, the last of the Molly Maguires, is executed in Pennsylvania.
  • Dec 26th 1st US store to install electric lights, Philadelphia
  • Dec 28th Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Quod apostolici muneris (socialism)

Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 197

  • Jan 1st Edwin Franko Goldman, composer
  • Jan 1st Agner Krarup Erlang, Danish scientist and engineer (d. 1929)
  • Jan 4th Alfred Edgar Coppard, England, writer (Black Dogs & Other Stories)
  • Jan 4th Augustus John, Welsh painter (d. 1961)
  • Jan 6th Carl Sandburg, US, poet/biographer of Lincoln (The People, Yes)
  • Jan 6th Dame Adeline Genée, Danish-British ballerina (d. 1970)
  • Jan 9th John Broadus Watson, Travelers Rest South Carolina, American Psychologist (behaviorism approach)
  • Jan 11th Theodorus Pangalos, Greek general/dictator (1926)
  • Jan 12th Ferenc Molnar, Hungarian/US playwright (A Pal Utrai Fiuk)
  • Jan 13th Lionel Groulx, Canadian nationalist (d. 1967)
  • Jan 14th Victor A D Segalen, [Max Anely], French writer
  • Jan 15th Johanna Muller-Hermann, composer
  • Jan 16th Harry Carey [Henry DeWitt Carey II], American actor (Aces Wild, Border Cafe, Air Force), born in The Bronx, New York
  • Jan 16th Robert Garbe, German poet (Gorniek)
  • Jan 17th Oscar Apfel, actor (Abraham Lincoln, Inspiration, Before Dawn), born in Cleveland, Ohio
  • Jan 18th Hendrik Baels, Belgian politician
  • Jan 19th Herbert Chapman, English football player and manager (d. 1934)
  • Jan 20th Finlay Currie, Scotland, actor (Quo Vadis, Ivanhoe, Avengers)
  • Jan 21st Egon Friedell, Austria, journalist/actor/writer (Der Partylowe)
  • Jan 22nd Constance Collier, Windsor England, actress/writer (Kitty, Whirlpool)
  • Jan 22nd Francis Picabia, French painter/illustrator
  • Jan 23rd Oton Zupancic, Slovenian poet (Zimzelen pod Snegom)
  • Jan 23rd Rutland Boughton, composer
  • Jan 25th Ernst Alexanderson, Swedish-born television pioneer (d. 1975)
  • Jan 26th A W "Dave" Nourse, cricketer ("Grand Old Man" of South African cricket)
  • Jan 28th Walter Kollo [Kollodziepski], German composer (Der Juxbaron)
  • Jan 29th Barney Oldfield, Ohio, daredevil
  • Jan 30th Anton Hansen Tammsaare, Estonian author (d. 1940)
  • Jan 31st Willem J M van Eysinga, Dutch international law jurist
  • Feb 1st Hattie Wyatt Caraway, politician/teacher/1st woman elected to senate
  • Feb 1st Milan Hodža, Slovak politician (d. 1944)
  • Feb 2nd Christian Gauss, educator/writer (Phi Beta Kappa award namesake)
  • Feb 2nd Alfréd Hajós, Hungarian swimmer (d. 1955)
  • Feb 3rd Joseph Gordon Coates, PM of New Zealand (1925-28)
  • Feb 5th André Citroën, French automobile pioneer (d. 1935)
  • Feb 6th Waclaw Gieburowski, composer
  • Feb 7th Ossip Gabrilovich, composer
  • Feb 8th Martin Buber, German/Israeli philosopher/theologist (Ich und Du)
  • Feb 14th Julius Nieuwland, Hansbeke Belgium, Belgian-American Chemist (inventor of neoprene)
  • Feb 16th Selim Palmgren, Finnish pianist/composer/conductor (Peter Schlemihl)
  • Feb 21st Fritz Cortolezis, composer
  • Feb 21st The Mother, Indian spiritual leader (d. 1973)
  • Feb 22nd Walter Ritz, Swiss physicist (d. 1909)
  • Feb 23rd Kazimir Malevich, Ukrainian painter and art theorist (d. 1935)
  • Feb 27th Alvan T. Fuller, 50th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1958)
  • Feb 28th Pierre Fatou, French mathematician (d. 1929)
  • Feb 28th Artur Kapp, Estonian composer (d. 1952)
  • Mar 1st Gabriel Edouard Xavier Dupont, composer
  • Mar 2nd Wander J de Haas, Dutch physicist/son-in-law of Lorentz
  • Mar 2nd William Kissam Vanderbilt II, member of the Vanderbilt family (d. 1944)
  • Mar 4th Egbert Van Alstyne, American songwriter and pianist (d. 1951)
  • Mar 4th Peter D. Ouspensky, Russian philosopher (d. 1947)
  • Mar 7th Boris Kustodiev, Russian painter (d. 1927)
  • Mar 10th Karel van de Woestijne, Flemish writer/poet (God at Sea)
  • Mar 12th Gemma Galgani, Italian saint
  • Mar 12th Joseph Gustav Mraczek, composer
  • Mar 14th Carel T Scharten, Dutch poet/writer (Forces of the Future)
  • Mar 15th Hanson Carter, cricketer (Yorkshire Aussie WK of early 20th century)
  • Mar 15th Rezā Shāh Pahlavi [Rezā Khan], Shah of Iran (1925-41)
  • Mar 16th Clemens A Graaf von Galen, cardinal/bishop of Munster/anti-nazi
  • Mar 16th Henry B Walthall, Shelby City AL, actor (Birth of a Nation, Klondike)
  • Mar 21st Thurlow Weed Lieurance, composer
  • Mar 22nd Michel Théato, Luxembourgian athlete (d. 1919)
  • Mar 23rd Franz Schrecker, Austrian composer (Der ferne Klang, Der Schatzgräber)
  • Mar 24th Top Naeff, [Anthonetta van Rhijn-N-Naeff], Dutch writer
  • Mar 25th Henry graaf de Baillet-Latour, Belgian President of IOC (1925-42)
  • Mar 25th Theodore Samuel Holland, composer
  • Mar 31st Jack Johnson,1st African American heavyweight boxing champ (1908-1915)
  • Apr 1st Carl Sternheim, German playwright (Hyperion/Tabula Rasa)
  • Apr 2nd Émilie Charmy, Saint-Etienne France, avant-garde artist
  • Apr 6th Carl Emil Theodor Ehrenberg, composer
  • Apr 6th Erich Mühsam, German author (d. 1934)
  • Apr 7th C M M Hathorn, cricketer (South African Test centurion in 1905-06)
  • Apr 7th Jozef C Bittremieux, Flemish theologist (Virgin & Mother of God)
  • Apr 8th Rudolf Nelson, composer
  • Apr 12th Richard B Goldschmidt, German/US zoologist
  • Apr 15th Robert Walser, Swiss writer, born in Biel (d. 1956)
  • Apr 16th R E "Tip" Foster, cricketer (287 on debut England v Aust SCG 1903)
  • Apr 21st Albert Weisgerber, German painter/graphic artist
  • Apr 22nd Kitty Gordon, Folkestone England, entertainer
  • Apr 24th Jean Crotti, Swiss artist (d. 1958)
  • Apr 26th Ethel Griffies, actress (Billy Liar, Birds, We Live Again)
  • Apr 26th Saint Rafael Guízar Valencia, Mexican Catholic bishop
  • Apr 27th Frank Alvin Gotch, American professional wrestler (d. 1917)
  • Apr 28th Lionel Barrymore, [Blythe], actor (Free Soul, Dr Kildare), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • May 10th Gustav Stresemann, German chancellor (1923, Nobel 1926)
  • May 11th Jan Machiel Reyskens, oldest male resident of the Netherlands, (d. 1990 aged 111)
  • May 14th James L. Wilkinson, American baseball executive (d. 1964)
  • May 15th Francisco Pujol, composer
  • May 16th Taylor Holmes, actor (Tobor the Great, Beware My Lovely), born in Newark, New Jersey
  • May 19th Adam von Ahn Carse, composer
  • May 21st Glenn Hammond Curtiss, US, inventor (hydroplane)
  • May 21st Louis L H de Visser, Dutch MP (CPN)
  • May 24th Lillian Moller Gilbreth, engineer (CIOS Gold Medal-1954)
  • May 25th Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, actor (Stormy Weather, Little Colonel)
  • May 28th Paul Pelliot, French sinologist (d. 1945)
  • May 30th Mike Donlin, American baseball player (d. 1933)
  • Jun 1st John Masefield, British writer and poet (Salt-Water Ballads), Poet Laureate (1930-67), born in Ledbury, Herefordshire (d. 1967)
  • Jun 4th Frank N D Buchman, US theologist (Moral Rearmament)
  • Jun 5th Franklyn Farnum, actor (Cowboy & Bandit, Scarlet Car, Frontier Days)

Famous Weddings

HeartWedding of Interest

Dec 4th Novelist Bram Stoker (31) weds Florence Balcombe (20) in Dublin, Ireland

Novelist Bram Stoker
Bram Stoker

Famous Deaths

  • Jan 7th François-Vincent Raspail, French chemist (b. 1794)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jan 9th Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia (1849-61) and Italy (1861-78), dies at 57

King of Sardinia and Italy Victor Emmanuel II
King of Sardinia and Italy
Victor Emmanuel II
  • Jan 18th Antoine César Becquerel, French physicist (b. 1788)
  • Jan 19th Henri V Regnault, French physicist/chemist, dies at 67
  • Feb 1st George Cruikshank, English illustrator (Grimm), dies at 85
  • Feb 7th Pius IX, "Pio Nono", [Giovanni Ferretti], Pope (1846-78), dies at 85
  • Feb 8th Elias M Fries, Swedish botanist (mycologicum), dies at 83
  • Feb 17th Jose Amador de los Rios, Spanish historian/poet, dies at 59
  • Feb 18th Peter D Regout, industrialist (Sphinx, Maastricht), dies at 76
  • Feb 19th Charles F Daubigny, French restaurateur/painter, dies at 61
  • Feb 22nd Franz Hunten, composer, dies at 84
  • Mar 16th William Banting, English undertaker, dies
  • Mar 20th Julius Robert von Mayer, German physician and physicist (b. 1814)
  • Mar 24th Albin Masek, Czech composer, dies at 73
  • Mar 27th Dobri Voynikov, composer, dies at 44
  • Mar 27th George Gilbert Scott, architect, dies
  • Apr 1st Eugene Gautier, composer, dies at 56
  • Apr 1st John Corry Wilson Daly, Canadian politician (b. 1796)
  • Apr 4th Richard Brewer, American gunslinger/cowboy (b. 1850)
  • Apr 5th Wilhelm Speyer, composer, dies at 87

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Apr 12th William M "Boss" Tweed, NY politician, dies

Politician Boss Tweed
Boss Tweed
  • Apr 21st Temistocle Solera, composer, dies at 62
  • Apr 23rd Friedrich Preller, landscape painter, dies
  • Apr 25th Anna Sewell, English author (Black Beauty), dies at 58
  • May 14th Ookubo Toshimichi, Japanese statesman, samurai, and one of the three great nobles who led the Meiji Restoration (b. 1830)
  • May 22nd Franz von Holstein, composer, dies at 52
  • May 27th Carlo Marsili, composer, dies at 49
  • May 28th John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1792)
  • Jun 6th Gottfried Herrmann, composer, dies at 70
  • Jun 6th Robert Stirling, Scottish inventor (b. 1790)
  • Jun 12th Hendrik J Jut, Dutch murderer [Head of Jut], dies at 26
  • Jun 12th William Cullen Bryant, American poet, dies at 83
  • Jun 16th Crawford Long, American physician (b. 1815)
  • Jun 23rd George Backing, English sea officer/explorer (B's River), dies at 81
  • Jun 26th Mercedes of Orleans, queen of Spain (b. 1860)
  • Jul 2nd Francois-Emmanuel-Joseph Bazin, composer, dies at 61
  • Jul 7th Yegor Ivanovich Zolotarev, Russian mathematician (b. 1847)
  • Jul 17th Aleardo [Gaetano] Aleardi, Italian/Aust poet (Tre Fiumi), dies at 65
  • Jul 23rd Miguel Hilarion Eslava y Elizondo, composer, dies at 70
  • Jul 23rd Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, Bohemian physician (b. 1804)
  • Jul 28th George Law Curry, Newspaper publisher and Governor of Oregon (b. 1820)
  • Aug 17th Richard Upjohn, US architect, died
  • Aug 23rd Adolf Fredrik Lindblad, composer, dies at 77
  • Sep 9th Jacobo Ficher, composer, dies at 18
  • Sep 12th Friedrich August von Alberti, geologist (Triasic Age), dies at 83
  • Oct 25th Ludwig Wilhelm Maurer, composer, dies at 89
  • Nov 28th Marco Aurelio Zani de Ferranti, composer, dies at 78
  • Nov 28th Orson Hyde, American religious leader (b. 1805)
  • Dec 19th Bayard Taylor, American author and poet (b. 1825)
  • Dec 25th Anna Claypoole Peale, US painter of miniatures, dies
  • Dec 28th Jose Bernardo Alcedo, composer, dies at 90