- Jan 24 Lieutenant General Robert Baden-Powell publishes "Scouting for Boys" as a manual for self-instruction in outdoor skills and self-improvement. The book becomes the inspiration for the Scout Movement.
- Feb 1 King Carlos I of Portugal and his heir, Prince Luis Filipe are assassinated by Republican sympathizers in Terreiro do Paco, Lisbon
- May 26 At Masjed Soleyman (مسجد سليمان) in southwest Persia, the first major commercial oil strike in the Middle East is made, rights acquired by the United Kingdom
- Jun 30 Tunguska Event: a giant fireball most likely caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet impacts in Siberia
- Jul 26 United States Attorney General Charles Joseph Bonaparte issues an order to immediately staff the Office of the Chief Examiner (later renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation).
- Aug 12 Henry Ford's company builds the first Model T car
- Sep 27 Henry Ford's first Ford Model T automobile leaves the Piquette Plant in Detroit, Michigan
- Oct 1 Henry Ford introduces the Model T car (costs $825)
- Nov 14 Albert Einstein presents his quantum theory of light
- Dec 28 Earthquake strikes Messina, Italy, killing nearly 80,000
Ajinomoto Co. is founded. Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University discovers a key ingredient in Konbu soup stock is monosodium glutamate (MSG), patents a process for manufacturing it.
On July 25, 1908
New York City regulation makes it illegal for a woman to smoke in public
On January 21, 1908