- 1461 Empire of Trebizond surrenders to forces of Sultan Mehmet II - last Byzantine Empire remnant to fall. Emperor David exiled and later murdered.
- 1620 Mayflower sets sail from Southampton, England, with 102 Pilgrims
- 1900 The Boxer Rebellion: In China, the Empress, her family and court retainers flee while foreign troops move through Peking in an attempt to quell the rebellion
- 1947 India gains independence from Great Britain, remains a dominion until 1950
- 1969 Woodstock Music & Art Fair opens in New York State on Max Yasgur's Dairy Farm
- 1998 Omagh bombing in Northern Ireland, the worst terrorist incident of The Troubles, kills 29 people and injures about 220
King Duncan I of Scotland killed in battle against his first cousin and rival Macbeth (not murdered in his sleep as in Shakespeare's play). The latter does succeed him as King.
On August 15, 1040