- 338 BC Macedonian army led by Philip II defeats combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Battle of Chaeronea, securing Macedonian hegemony in Greece and the Aegean
- 216 BC Second Punic War: Battle of Cannae - Carthaginian army lead by Hannibal defeats numerically superior Roman army under command consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro
- 1776 Formal signing of the US Declaration of Independence by 56 people (date most accepted by modern historians)
- 1790 1st US census conducted - population is 3,939,214; 697,624 are slaves
- 1858 Government of India transferred from East India Company to the British Crown
Lewis Carroll publishes "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
On August 2nd, 1865