- 1485 Battle of Bosworth Field - Henry Tudor's forces defeat English King Richard III during last battle in the Wars of the Roses
- 1639 Madras (now Chennai), India, founded by the British East India Company on sliver of land bought from local Nayak rulers
- 1642 Civil War in England began between Royalists & Parliament
- 1864 First Geneva Convention adopted in Geneva "for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field"
- 1945 Vietnam conflict begins as Ho Chi Minh leads a successful coup
The first air raid in history; Austria launches pilotless balloons against the Italian city of Venice
On August 22, 1849