- 644 Uthman ibn Affan, companion of Muhammad, appointed 3rd Caliph of Islam
- 1287 During St. Lucia's Flood in Northwest Netherlands the Zuiderzee seawall collapses with loss of over 50,000 lives. Fifth largest recorded flood in history
- 1542 Princess Mary Stuart succeeds her father James V and becomes Queen Mary I of Scotland at 6 days old
- 1911 Norwegian Roald Amundsen leads the 1st expedition to reach the South Pole
- 1995 Yugoslav Wars: The Dayton Agreement is signed in Paris by leaders of various governments ending the conflict in former Yugoslavia
Birth of Quantum Physics: Max Planck presents a theoretical derivation of his black-body radiation law.
On December 14, 1900