- 1773 Captain James Cook becomes 1st to cross Antarctic Circle (66° 33' S)
- 1873 A group of Modoc warriors defeat the United States Army in the First Battle of the Stronghold, a part of the Modoc War.
- 1912 Captain Robert Scott's expedition arrives at the South Pole, one month after Roald Amundsen
- 1941 Kuomintang forces under orders from Chiang Kai-shek open fire at communist forces, resuming the Chinese Civil War after World War II.
- 1946 United Nations Security Council holds its 1st meeting
Doomsday Clock set to five minutes to midnight in response to North Korea's 1st nuclear test
On January 17, 2007