- 1431 Judges' investigations for the trial of Joan of Arc begin in Rouen, France, the seat of the English occupation government.
- 1760 Afghans defeat Marathas in battle of Barari Ghat
- 1839 Daguerrotype photo process announced at French Academy of Science
- 1909 Ernest Shackleton as part of the British Nimrod Expedition reaches a record farthest South latitude (88°23' south)
- 1941 6,000 Jews exterminated in pogrom in Bucharest, Romania
Philip Astley stages the first modern circus in London.
On January 9, 1768