- 622 Muslim Era begins - Muhammad begins flight from Mecca to Medina (Hijra)
- 1054 Three Roman legates fracture relations between Western and Eastern Christian churches by placing invalid Papal Bull of Excommunication on altar of Hagia Sophia during Saturday afternoon divine liturgy. Often dated as start of the East-West Schism.
- 1519 Public debate between Martin Luther & theologist John Eck at Pleissenburg Castle in Liepzig, Luther denies the divine right of the Pope
- 1809 La Paz, Bolivia declares its independence from the Spanish Crown and forms the Junta Tuitiva. The first independent government in Spanish America, led by Pedro Domingo Murillo
- 1861 Battle of Bull Run, the 1st major battle of the Civil War, is fought
- 1918 A Bolshevik firing squad at Ekaterinburg, Siberia, executes Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his family
1st banknotes in Europe are issued by Bank of Stockholm
On July 16, 1661