- 1595 Astronomer Johannes Kepler has an epiphany and develops his theory of the geometrical basis of the universe
- 1843 Brunel's steamship the SS Great Britain is launched, becomes first ocean-going craft with an iron hull or screw propeller and the largest vessel afloat in the world
- 1848 1st US women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls NY, organised by Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Lucretia Mott
- 1866 Tennessee is 1st to ratify 14th Amendment to the US constitution, guaranteeing civil rights
- 1913 Billboard publishes earliest known "Last Week's 10 Best Sellers among Popular Songs" Malinda's Wedding Day is #1
- 1941 British PM Winston Churchill launched his "V for Victory" campaign
Michael Brunet discovers the skull of Sahelanthropus tchadensis, thought to be the oldest known species in the human family tree, in the Djurab Desert, Chad. It lived 6-7 million years ago, about the same time as the last common ancestor to apes and humans.
On July 19, 2001