- 1381 Peasants' Revolt: in England, rebels arrive at Blackheath.
- 1830 Beginning of the French colonization of Algeria: 34,000 French soldiers land 27 kilometers west of Algiers, at Sidi Ferruch
- 1931 Al Capone is indicted on 5,000 counts of prohibition & perjury
- 1942 Anne Frank gets her diary as a birthday present in Amsterdam
- 1943 Himmler orders the extermination of all Nazi ghettos in occupied Poland
- 1964 Nelson Mandela is sentenced to life in prison in South Africa
New Amsterdam legally becomes an English colony and renamed New York after English Duke of York
On June 12, 1665