- 331 BC Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.
- 1814 Opening of the Congress of Vienna, intended to redraw the Europe's political map after the defeat of Napoléon Bonaparte the previous spring.
- 1867 Karl Marx' "Das Kapital" published
- 1908 Henry Ford introduces the Model T car (costs $825)
- 1938 Germany annexes Sudetenland (1/3 of Czechoslovakia) following the Munich Agreement.
- 1988 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and thus head of state of the Soviet Union
National Geographic magazine publishes for 1st time
On October 1, 1888