- 539 BC The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon.
- 1279 Nichiren, a Japanese Buddhist monk founder of Nichiren Buddhism, inscribes the Dai-Gohonzon
- 1492 Christopher Columbus's expedition makes landfall on Caribbean island he names San Salvador (likely Watling Island, Bahamas). The explorer believes he has reached East Asia (OS 21 Oct)
- 1915 Ford Motor Company under Henry Ford manufactures its 1 millionth Model T automobile
- 1999 The Day of Six Billion: the proclaimed 6 billionth living human in the world is born.
Children's rhyme "Three Blind Mice" published in London
On October 12, 1609