Historical Events in 1865

  • Jan 1st -Apr 26th] Carolinas' campaign
  • Jan 3rd Con Orem & Hugh O'Neill box 193 rounds before darkness ends match
  • Jan 4th The New York Stock Exchange opens its first permanent headquarters at 10-12 Broad near Wall Street in New York City.
  • Jan 11th Battle of Beverly, West Virginia, Confederate forces attack Union post
  • Jan 12th -13] Union fleet bombs Fort Fisher NC
  • Jan 13th -Jan 15th] BBT & CPT Ft Fisher, NC
  • Jan 15th Ft Fisher, NC, falls to Union troops
  • Jan 16th Drunken sailor attacks munitions at Ft Fisher NC, 40 die
  • Jan 16th Gen Wm Sherman issues Field Order #15 (land for blacks)
  • Jan 16th SF Dramatic Chronicle started
  • Jan 18th Battle of Ft Moultrie, SC
  • Jan 19th NV Suriname Bank established
  • Jan 19th Union occupies Fort Anderson, NC
  • Jan 23rd -Jan 25th) Battle of City Point, VA (James River, Trent's Reach)
  • Jan 25th CSS Shenandoah arrives in Melbourne, Australia

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 28th Confederate President Jefferson Davis names 3 peace commissioners

President of the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis
  • Jan 31st Congress passes 13th Amendment, abolishing slavery in America (121-24)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 31st General Robert E. Lee named Commander-in-Chief of Confederate Armies during US Civil War

Confederate General Robert E. Lee
Confederate General
Robert E. Lee
  • Feb 1st 13th amendment approved (National Freedom Day)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 1st General Sherman's march through South Carolina begins

  • Feb 1st JS Rock, 1st black lawyer to practice in US Supreme Court, admitted to bar
  • Feb 3rd Hampton Roads Peace Conference, Lincoln & Stephens reach an impasse
  • Feb 4th Hawaiian Board of Education formed
  • Feb 4th Robert E. Lee is named general-in-chief of Confederate forces
  • Feb 5th Battle of Hatcher's Run, VA (Armstrong's Mill, Dabney's Mill)
  • Feb 6th 2nd day of battle at Dabney's Mills (Hatcher's Run)
  • Feb 8th 1st black major in US Army appointed during US Civil war - Martin Robison Delany
  • Feb 12th Henry Highland Garnet is 1st black to speak in US House of Reps
  • Feb 17th -18] Battle of Charleston SC
  • Feb 17th Columbia, South Carolina burns down during American Civil War
  • Feb 18th Battle of Fort Moultrie, SC occupied by Federals
  • Feb 18th Evacuation of Charleston, SC
  • Feb 18th Union troops force Confederates to abandon Ft Anderson, NC
  • Feb 20th Massachusetts Institute of Technology forms 1st US collegiate architectural school
  • Feb 22nd Battle of Wilmington, NC (Fort Anderson) occupied by Federals
  • Feb 22nd Tennessee adopts a new constitution abolishing slavery
  • Feb 27th Civil War skirmish near Sturgeon, Missouri
  • Mar 2nd British newspaper "Morning Chronicle" begins publishing
  • Mar 2nd Freedman's Bureau founded for Black Education, 1865
  • Mar 2nd Conferate General Early's army is defeated at the battle of Waynesboro VA during American Civil War
  • Mar 2nd Second Taranaki War: The Volkner Incident in New Zealand.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 3rd US Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, & Abandoned Lands established by Abraham Lincoln to help destitute free blacks

US President Abraham Lincoln
US President
Abraham Lincoln
  • Mar 3rd Opening of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the founding member of the HSBC Group.
  • Mar 4th Confederate congress approves final design of "official flag"
  • Mar 4th Abraham Lincoln inaugurated for his 2nd term as US president
  • Mar 6th Battle of Natural Bridge, Florida
  • Mar 6th President Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Ball
  • Mar 7th -10] Battles round Kinston NC
  • Mar 8th Battle of Kingston, NC (Wilcox's ridge, Wise's Forks)
  • Mar 8th 27th Grand National: Capt. Henry Coventry aboard Alcibiade FRA wins
  • Mar 10th Battle of Monroe's Crossroads, NC
  • Mar 11th General William T. Sherman's Union forces occupies Fayetteville, NC
  • Mar 13th US Civil war: Confederate President Jefferson Davis signs bill authorizing use of slaves as soldiers
  • Mar 13th US Confederate Congress calls on black slaves for field service
  • Mar 16th Battle of Averasboro NC (1,500 casualities)
  • Mar 18th Battle of Wilson's raid to Selma, AL
  • Mar 18th Congress of Confederate States of American adjourns for last time
  • Mar 19th Battle of Bentonville-Confederates retreat from Greenville NC
  • Mar 20th 2nd day of Battle of Bentonville NC
  • Mar 20th Michigan authorizes workers' cooperatives
  • Mar 21st Battle of Bentonville ends, last Confederate effort to stop Sherman
  • Mar 22nd Raid at Wilson's: Chickaswas AL to Macon GA
  • Mar 23rd General Sherman/Cox' troops reach Goldsboro NC
  • Mar 25th Battle of Bluff Spring, FL
  • Mar 25th Battle of Fort Stedman, VA - in front of Petersburg
  • Mar 25th Battle of Mobile, AL (Spanish Fort, Fort Morgan, Fort Blakely)
  • Mar 25th SS General Lyon at Cape Hatteras catches fire & sinks, killing 400
  • Mar 27th Siege of Spanish Fort, AL-captured by Federals
  • Mar 29th -Apr 9th], Appomattox campaign, VA, 7582 killed
  • Mar 29th Battle of Quaker Road, VA
  • Mar 30th -4] Battle at 5 Forks Virginia
  • Mar 31st Battle of Boydton, VA (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie C H)
  • Mar 31st Gen Pickette moves to 5 Forks, abandoning the defense of Peterburg
  • Apr 1st -9] Battle at Blakely Alabama
  • Apr 1st Battle of 5 Forks Virginia, signalling end of Lee's army
  • Apr 2nd Battle of Petersburg, VA (Ft Gregg, Sutherland's Station)
  • Apr 2nd US Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis flees Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia
  • Apr 2nd Battle of Ft Blakely AL & Selma AL
  • Apr 3rd Battle at Namozine Church, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign)
  • Apr 3rd Union forces occupy Confederate capital of Richmond & Petersberg, Virginia
  • Apr 4th Lee's army arrives at Amelia Courthouse
  • Apr 5th Battle at Amelia Springs/Jetersville Va (Appomattox Campaign)
  • Apr 6th Battle of Sayler's Creek during US Civil War, 1/4rd of Lee's army cut off
  • Apr 6th Skirmish at High Bridge VA (Appomattox) during US Civil war;
  • Apr 7th Battle of Farmville VA
  • Apr 9th US Civil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee and 26,765 troops surrender at Appomattox Court House to US Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant
  • Apr 10th At Appomattox, General Robert E. Lee issues Gen Order #9, his last
  • Apr 11th Battle of Mobile, AL - evacuated by Confederates
  • Apr 11th Abraham Lincoln urges a spirit of generous conciliation during reconstruction
  • Apr 13th Raleigh, North Carolina captured by Union forces
  • Apr 14th Mobile, Alabama is captured
  • Apr 14th U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward and his family are attacked in his home by Lewis Powell.
  • Apr 14th US President Abraham Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 15th Otto Von Bismarck elevated to rank of Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen

German Statesman Otto Von Bismarck
German Statesman
Otto Von Bismarck
  • Apr 15th Abraham Lincoln dies 9 hours after he is shot attending the play "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theatre in Washington
  • Apr 16th Battle of Columbus & West Point, GA (Ft Tyler)
  • Apr 17th Mary Surratt is arrested as a conspirator in Lincoln's assassination
  • Apr 18th Confederate Gen Johnson surrendered to General William T. Sherman in North Carolina
  • Apr 20th Chicago's Crosby Opera House opens
  • Apr 21st Abraham Lincoln's funeral train leaves Washington
  • Apr 24th Fire alarm & police telegraph system put into operation (SF)
  • Apr 26th Battle of Durham Station, NC (Greensboro)
  • Apr 26th Battle of Ft Tobacco, VA
  • Apr 26th Confederate Gen J E Johnston surrenders Army of Tenn, at Durham NC
  • Apr 27th Cornell University (Ithaca NY) is chartered
  • Apr 27th Steamboat "SS Sultana" explodes in the Mississippi River, killing up to 1,800 of the 2,427 passengers in the greatest maritime disaster in United States history. Most were paroled Union POWs on their way home.
  • Apr 28th Giacomo Meyerbeer's opera "L'Africaine" premieres in Paris
  • May 2nd US President Andrew Johnson offers $100,000 reward for capture of Jefferson Davis
  • May 4th Battle of Citronville, AL; Richard Taylor surrenders
  • May 5th 1st US train robbery (North Bend Ohio)
  • May 10th US Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis captured by Union troops at Irwinsville Georgia
  • May 10th Surrender of Sam Jones
  • May 11th Confederate Brigadier General Meriwether Jeff Thompson surrenders at Jacksonport, Arkansas
  • May 12th Last land action of Civil war at Palmito Ranch, Texas
  • May 13th Battle of Palmito Ranch, near Brownsville, Texas: final engagement of the American Civil War, Private John Jefferson Williams of B Company, 34th Regiment Indiana Infantry is last man killed
  • May 17th The International Telegraph Union (later the International Telecommunication Union) is established.
  • May 23rd -24] Victory parade in Washington, D.C. (Grand Review)
  • May 23rd Flag flown at full mast over White House for the first time since Lincoln was shot
  • May 26th Battle of Galveston TX, surrender of Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Jun 2nd At Galveston, Kirby-Smith surrenders Trans-Mississippi Dept
  • Jun 8th Tristanderl und Zusholde, premieres
  • Jun 9th Battle of Grand Gulf, MS
  • Jun 10th Wagner's "Tristan und Isolde" 1st performance Munich Germany

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jun 13th President Andrew Johnson proclaims reconstruction of confederate states

17th US President Andrew Johnson
17th US President
Andrew Johnson
  • Jun 19th Union General Granger declares slaves are free in Texas
  • Jun 22nd 1st class cricket debut of Dr W G Grace
  • Jun 23rd At Fort Towson, General Stand Watie surrenders last sizeable confederate army
  • Jun 28th The Army of the Potomac is disbanded
  • Jun 30th 8 alleged conspirators in assassination of Lincoln are found guilty
  • Jul 2nd One-time Methodist Reform Church minister William Booth and his wife Catherine found the Salvation Army (Army of the Salvation) as the East London Christian Mission
  • Jul 4th First edition of "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" is published
  • Jul 5th Great Britain creates world's 1st speed limit law
  • Jul 5th US Secret Service begins operating under the Treasury Department
  • Jul 13th Horace Greeley reputedly advises his readers to "Go west young man"
  • Jul 13th P T Barnum's museum burns down
  • Jul 14th Whymper, Hudson, Croz, Douglas & Hadow 1st to climb Matterhorn

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 21st In the market square of Springfield, Missouri, Wild Bill Hickok shoots and kills Davis Tutt in what is regarded as the first true western showdown.

Folk Hero of the American Old West Wild Bill Hickok
Folk Hero of the American Old West
Wild Bill Hickok
  • Jul 22nd V E Walker takes 10-104 in an innings for Middlesex v Lancashire
  • Jul 26th Patrick Francis Healy is 1st African American awarded PhD (from University of Leuven, Belgium)
  • Jul 26th The capital of New Zealand moves from Auckland to Wellington
  • Jul 27th Welsh settlers arrive at Chubut in Argentina.
  • Jul 30th Pope Pius IX visits Suriname
  • Jul 31st The first narrow gauge mainline railway in the world opens at Grandchester, Australia.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Aug 2nd Lewis Carroll publishes "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"

Author and Mathematician Lewis Carroll
Author and Mathematician
Lewis Carroll
  • Aug 2nd Trans Atlantic Cable being laid by SS Great Eastern snaps & is lost
  • Aug 12th Joseph Lister performs 1st antiseptic surgery
  • Aug 15th Battle of Lone Jack, Missouri
  • Aug 16th Restoration Day in the Dominican Republic: The Dominican Republic regains its independence after 4 years of fighting against the Spanish Annexation.
  • Aug 20th President Andrew Johnson proclaims an end to "insurrection" in Texas
  • Aug 22nd William Sheppard is issued the first US patent for liquid soap
  • Sep 3rd Army commander in SC orders Freedmen's Bureau to stop seizing land
  • Sep 14th 6th British Golf Open: Andrew Strath shoots a 162 at Prestwick Golf Club
  • Sep 19th Atlanta University founded
  • Sep 24th James Cooke walks tightrope from Cliff House to Seal Rocks, SF
  • Oct 8th Earthquake in Santa Cruz Mountains
  • Oct 9th First US underground pipeline for carrying oil is laid in Pennsylvania
  • Oct 10th John Hyatts patents the billard ball

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 11th President Andrew Johnson paroles Confederate States VP Alexander H. Stephens

Confederate States VP Alexander H. Stephens
Confederate States VP
Alexander H. Stephens
17th US President Andrew Johnson
17th US President
Andrew Johnson
  • Oct 11th Paul Bogle led hundreds of black men and women in a march in Jamaica, starting the Morant Bay rebellion.
  • Oct 14th Cheyennes & Arapahos sign "peace treaty" then chased out Colorado
  • Nov 1st Zutphen-Fishing Dutch railway opens
  • Nov 6th Maastricht-Venlo railway opens in Netherlands
  • Nov 6th American Civil War: CSS Shenandoah is the last Confederate combat unit to surrender after circumnavigating the globe on its cruise that sank or captured 37 vessels.
  • Nov 11th Mary Edward Walker, the first US Army female surgeon, awarded Medal of Honor
  • Nov 11th Thomas Robertson's "Society" premieres in London
  • Nov 11th Treaty of Sinchula is signed in which Bhutan ceded the areas east of the Teesta River to the British East India Company.
  • Nov 13th PT Barnum's New American museum opens in Bridgeport
  • Nov 13th US issues 1st gold certificates

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Nov 18th Mark Twain publishes "Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"

Author Mark Twain
Mark Twain
  • Nov 21st Shaw University forms in Raleigh NC
  • Nov 26th "Alice in Wonderland" by Lewis Carroll published in USA
  • Nov 26th Battle of Papudo: The Spanish navy engages a combined Peruvian-Chilean fleet north of Valparaiso, Chile.
  • Dec 5th Chincha Islands War: Peru allies with Chile against Spain.
  • Dec 6th 13th Amendment of the United States Constitution is ratified, abolishing slavery

Music releaseMusic Premiere

Dec 17th Franz Schubert's "Unfinished Symphony" premieres

Composer Franz Schubert
Franz Schubert
  • Dec 18th 1st US cattle importation law passed
  • Dec 20th De Clear-Alkmaar railway opens
  • Dec 24th Several Confederate veterans form Ku Klux Klan in Pulaski, Tn
  • Dec 26th James H Mason (Mass) patents 1st US coffee percolator