Historical Events in 1865

  • Jan 1 -Apr 26th] Carolinas' campaign
  • Jan 3 Con Orem & Hugh O'Neill box 193 rounds before darkness ends match
  • Jan 4 The New York Stock Exchange opens its first permanent headquarters at 10-12 Broad near Wall Street in New York City.
  • Jan 11 Battle of Beverly, West Virginia, Confederate forces attack Union post
  • Jan 12 -13] Union fleet bombs Fort Fisher NC
  • Jan 13 -Jan 15th] BBT & CPT Ft Fisher, NC
  • Jan 15 Ft Fisher, NC, falls to Union troops
  • Jan 16 Drunken sailor attacks munitions at Ft Fisher NC, 40 die
  • Jan 16 Gen Wm Sherman issues Field Order #15 (land for blacks)
  • Jan 16 SF Dramatic Chronicle started
  • Jan 18 Battle of Ft Moultrie, SC
  • Jan 19 NV Suriname Bank established
  • Jan 19 Union occupies Fort Anderson, NC
  • Jan 23 -Jan 25th) Battle of City Point, VA (James River, Trent's Reach)
  • Jan 25 CSS Shenandoah arrives in Melbourne, Australia

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 28 Confederate President Jefferson Davis names 3 peace commissioners

President of the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis
  • Jan 31 Congress passes the 13th Amendment, abolishing slavery in America (passes 121-24)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 31 General Robert E. Lee named Commander-in-Chief of Confederate Armies during US Civil War

Confederate General Robert E. Lee
Confederate General
Robert E. Lee
  • Feb 1 13th amendment approved (National Freedom Day)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 1 General Sherman's march through South Carolina begins

  • Feb 1 JS Rock, 1st black lawyer to practice in US Supreme Court, admitted to bar
  • Feb 3 Hampton Roads Peace Conference, Lincoln & Stephens reach an impasse
  • Feb 4 Hawaiian Board of Education formed
  • Feb 4 Robert E. Lee is named general-in-chief of Confederate forces
  • Feb 5 Battle of Hatcher's Run, VA (Armstrong's Mill, Dabney's Mill)
  • Feb 6 2nd day of battle at Dabney's Mills (Hatcher's Run)
  • Feb 8 1st black major in US Army appointed during US Civil war - Martin Robison Delany
  • Feb 12 Henry Highland Garnet becomes the 1st black minister to preach to the US House of Representatives, he talks about the end of slavery
  • Feb 17 -18] Battle of Charleston SC
  • Feb 17 Columbia, South Carolina, burns down during American Civil War
  • Feb 18 Battle of Fort Moultrie, SC occupied by Federals
  • Feb 18 Evacuation of Charleston, SC
  • Feb 18 Union troops force Confederates to abandon Ft Anderson, NC
  • Feb 20 Massachusetts Institute of Technology forms 1st US collegiate architectural school
  • Feb 22 Battle of Wilmington, NC (Fort Anderson) occupied by Federals
  • Feb 22 Tennessee adopts a new constitution abolishing slavery
  • Feb 27 Civil War skirmish near Sturgeon, Missouri
  • Mar 2 British newspaper "Morning Chronicle" begins publishing
  • Mar 2 Freedman's Bureau founded for Black Education, 1865
  • Mar 2 Conferate General Early's army is defeated at the battle of Waynesboro VA during American Civil War
  • Mar 2 Second Taranaki War: The Volkner Incident in New Zealand.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 3 US Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, & Abandoned Lands established by Abraham Lincoln to help destitute free blacks

US President Abraham Lincoln
US President
Abraham Lincoln
  • Mar 3 Opening of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the founding member of the HSBC Group.
  • Mar 4 Confederate congress approves final design of "official flag"
  • Mar 4 Abraham Lincoln inaugurated for his 2nd term as US president
  • Mar 6 Battle of Natural Bridge, Florida
  • Mar 6 President Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Ball
  • Mar 7 -10] Battles round Kinston NC
  • Mar 8 Battle of Kingston, NC (Wilcox's ridge, Wise's Forks)
  • Mar 8 27th Grand National: Capt. Henry Coventry aboard Alcibiade FRA wins
  • Mar 10 Battle of Monroe's Crossroads, NC
  • Mar 11 General William T. Sherman's Union forces occupies Fayetteville, NC
  • Mar 13 US Civil war: Confederate President Jefferson Davis signs bill authorizing use of slaves as soldiers
  • Mar 16 Battle of Averasboro NC (1,500 casualities)
  • Mar 18 Battle of Wilson's raid to Selma, AL
  • Mar 18 Congress of Confederate States of American adjourns for last time
  • Mar 19 Battle of Bentonville-Confederates retreat from Greenville NC
  • Mar 20 2nd day of Battle of Bentonville NC
  • Mar 20 Michigan authorizes workers' cooperatives
  • Mar 21 Battle of Bentonville ends, last Confederate effort to stop Sherman
  • Mar 22 Raid at Wilson's: Chickaswas AL to Macon GA
  • Mar 23 General Sherman/Cox' troops reach Goldsboro NC
  • Mar 25 Battle of Bluff Spring, FL
  • Mar 25 Battle of Fort Stedman, VA - in front of Petersburg
  • Mar 25 Battle of Mobile, AL (Spanish Fort, Fort Morgan, Fort Blakely)
  • Mar 25 SS General Lyon at Cape Hatteras catches fire & sinks, killing 400
  • Mar 27 Siege of Spanish Fort, AL-captured by Federals
  • Mar 29 -Apr 9th], Appomattox campaign, VA, 7582 killed
  • Mar 29 Battle of Quaker Road, VA
  • Mar 30 -4] Battle at 5 Forks Virginia
  • Mar 31 Battle of Boydton, VA (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie C H)
  • Mar 31 Gen Pickette moves to 5 Forks, abandoning the defense of Peterburg
  • Apr 1 -9] Battle at Blakely Alabama
  • Apr 1 Battle of 5 Forks Virginia, signalling end of Lee's army
  • Apr 2 Battle of Petersburg, VA (Ft Gregg, Sutherland's Station)
  • Apr 2 US Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis flees Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia
  • Apr 2 Battle of Ft Blakely AL & Selma AL
  • Apr 3 Battle at Namozine Church, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign)
  • Apr 3 Union forces occupy Confederate capital of Richmond & Petersberg, Virginia
  • Apr 4 Lee's army arrives at Amelia Courthouse
  • Apr 5 Battle at Amelia Springs/Jetersville Va (Appomattox Campaign)
  • Apr 6 Battle of Sayler's Creek during US Civil War, 1/4rd of Lee's army cut off
  • Apr 6 Skirmish at High Bridge VA (Appomattox) during US Civil war;
  • Apr 7 Battle of Farmville VA
  • Apr 9 US Civil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee and 26,765 troops surrender at Appomattox Court House to US Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant
  • Apr 10 At Appomattox, General Robert E. Lee issues Gen Order #9, his last
  • Apr 11 Battle of Mobile, AL - evacuated by Confederates
  • Apr 11 Abraham Lincoln urges a spirit of generous conciliation during reconstruction
  • Apr 13 Raleigh, North Carolina, captured by Union forces
  • Apr 14 Mobile, Alabama is captured
  • Apr 14 U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward and his family are attacked in his home by Lewis Powell.
  • Apr 14 US President Abraham Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 15 Otto von Bismarck elevated to rank of Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen

German Statesman Otto von Bismarck
German Statesman
Otto von Bismarck
  • Apr 15 Abraham Lincoln dies 9 hours after he is shot attending the play "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theatre in Washington
  • Apr 16 Battle of Columbus & West Point, GA (Ft Tyler)
  • Apr 17 Mary Surratt is arrested as a conspirator in Lincoln's assassination
  • Apr 18 Confederate Gen Johnson surrendered to General William T. Sherman in North Carolina
  • Apr 20 Chicago's Crosby Opera House opens
  • Apr 21 Abraham Lincoln's funeral train leaves Washington
  • Apr 24 Fire alarm & police telegraph system put into operation (SF)
  • Apr 26 Battle of Durham Station, NC (Greensboro)
  • Apr 26 Battle of Ft Tobacco, VA
  • Apr 26 Confederate Gen J E Johnston surrenders Army of Tenn, at Durham NC
  • Apr 27 Cornell University (Ithaca NY) is chartered
  • Apr 27 Steamboat "SS Sultana" explodes in the Mississippi River, killing up to 1,800 of the 2,427 passengers in the greatest maritime disaster in United States history. Most were paroled Union POWs on their way home.
  • Apr 28 Giacomo Meyerbeer's opera "L'Africaine" premieres in Paris
  • May 2 US President Andrew Johnson offers $100,000 reward for capture of Jefferson Davis
  • May 4 Battle of Citronville, AL; Richard Taylor surrenders
  • May 5 1st US train robbery (North Bend Ohio)
  • May 10 US Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis captured by Union troops at Irwinsville Georgia
  • May 10 Surrender of Sam Jones
  • May 11 Confederate Brigadier General Meriwether Jeff Thompson surrenders at Jacksonport, Arkansas
  • May 12 Last land action of Civil war at Palmito Ranch, Texas
  • May 13 Battle of Palmito Ranch, near Brownsville, Texas: final engagement of the American Civil War, Private John Jefferson Williams of B Company, 34th Regiment Indiana Infantry is last man killed
  • May 17 The International Telegraph Union (later the International Telecommunication Union) is established.
  • May 23 -24] Victory parade in Washington, D.C. (Grand Review)
  • May 23 Flag flown at full mast over White House for the first time since Lincoln was shot
  • May 26 Battle of Galveston TX, surrender of Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Jun 2 At Galveston, Kirby-Smith surrenders Trans-Mississippi Dept
  • Jun 8 Tristanderl und Zusholde, premieres
  • Jun 9 Battle of Grand Gulf, MS
  • Jun 10 Wagner's "Tristan und Isolde" 1st performance Munich Germany

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jun 13 President Andrew Johnson proclaims reconstruction of confederate states

17th US President Andrew Johnson
17th US President
Andrew Johnson
  • Jun 19 Union General Granger declares slaves are free in Texas
  • Jun 22 1st class cricket debut of Dr W G Grace
  • Jun 23 At Fort Towson, General Stand Watie surrenders last sizeable confederate army
  • Jun 28 The Army of the Potomac is disbanded
  • Jun 30 8 alleged conspirators in assassination of Lincoln are found guilty
  • Jul 2 One-time Methodist Reform Church minister William Booth and his wife Catherine found the Salvation Army (Army of the Salvation) as the East London Christian Mission
  • Jul 4 First edition of "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" is published
  • Jul 5 Great Britain creates world's 1st speed limit law
  • Jul 5 US Secret Service begins operating under the Treasury Department
  • Jul 13 Horace Greeley reputedly advises his readers to "Go west young man"
  • Jul 13 P T Barnum's museum burns down
  • Jul 14 Whymper, Hudson, Croz, Douglas & Hadow 1st to climb Matterhorn

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 21 In the market square of Springfield, Missouri, Wild Bill Hickok shoots and kills Davis Tutt in what is regarded as the first true western showdown.

Folk Hero of the American Old West Wild Bill Hickok
Folk Hero of the American Old West
Wild Bill Hickok
  • Jul 22 V E Walker takes 10-104 in an innings for Middlesex v Lancashire
  • Jul 26 Patrick Francis Healy is 1st African American awarded PhD (from University of Leuven, Belgium)
  • Jul 26 The capital of New Zealand moves from Auckland to Wellington
  • Jul 27 Welsh settlers arrive at Chubut in Argentina.
  • Jul 30 Pope Pius IX visits Suriname
  • Jul 31 The first narrow gauge mainline railway in the world opens at Grandchester, Australia.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Aug 2 Lewis Carroll publishes "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"

Author and Mathematician Lewis Carroll
Author and Mathematician
Lewis Carroll
  • Aug 2 Trans Atlantic Cable being laid by SS Great Eastern snaps & is lost
  • Aug 12 Joseph Lister performs 1st antiseptic surgery
  • Aug 15 Battle of Lone Jack, Missouri
  • Aug 16 Restoration Day in the Dominican Republic: The Dominican Republic regains its independence after 4 years of fighting against the Spanish Annexation.
  • Aug 20 President Andrew Johnson proclaims an end to "insurrection" in Texas
  • Aug 22 William Sheppard is issued the first US patent for liquid soap
  • Sep 3 Army commander in SC orders Freedmen's Bureau to stop seizing land
  • Sep 14 6th British Golf Open: Andrew Strath shoots a 162 at Prestwick Golf Club
  • Sep 19 Atlanta University founded
  • Sep 24 James Cooke walks tightrope from Cliff House to Seal Rocks, SF
  • Oct 8 Earthquake in Santa Cruz Mountains
  • Oct 9 First US underground pipeline for carrying oil is laid in Pennsylvania
  • Oct 10 John Hyatts patents the billard ball

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 11 President Andrew Johnson paroles Confederate States VP Alexander H. Stephens

Confederate States VP Alexander H. Stephens
Confederate States VP
Alexander H. Stephens
17th US President Andrew Johnson
17th US President
Andrew Johnson
  • Oct 11 Paul Bogle led hundreds of black men and women in a march in Jamaica, starting the Morant Bay rebellion.
  • Oct 14 Cheyennes & Arapahos sign "peace treaty" then chased out Colorado
  • Nov 1 Zutphen-Fishing Dutch railway opens
  • Nov 6 Maastricht-Venlo railway opens in Netherlands
  • Nov 6 American Civil War: CSS Shenandoah is the last Confederate combat unit to surrender after circumnavigating the globe on its cruise that sank or captured 37 vessels.
  • Nov 11 Mary Edward Walker, the first US Army female surgeon, awarded Medal of Honor
  • Nov 11 Thomas Robertson's "Society" premieres in London
  • Nov 11 Treaty of Sinchula is signed in which Bhutan ceded the areas east of the Teesta River to the British East India Company.
  • Nov 13 PT Barnum's New American museum opens in Bridgeport
  • Nov 13 US issues 1st gold certificates

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Nov 18 Mark Twain publishes "Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"

Author Mark Twain
Mark Twain
  • Nov 21 Shaw University forms in Raleigh NC
  • Nov 26 "Alice in Wonderland" by Lewis Carroll is published in America
  • Nov 26 Battle of Papudo: The Spanish navy engages a combined Peruvian-Chilean fleet north of Valparaiso, Chile.
  • Dec 5 Chincha Islands War: Peru allies with Chile against Spain.
  • Dec 6 13th Amendment of the United States Constitution is ratified, abolishing slavery

Music releaseMusic Premiere

Dec 17 Franz Schubert's "Unfinished Symphony" premieres

Composer Franz Schubert
Franz Schubert
  • Dec 18 1st US cattle importation law passed
  • Dec 20 De Clear-Alkmaar railway opens
  • Dec 24 Several Confederate veterans form Ku Klux Klan in Pulaski, Tn
  • Dec 26 James H Mason (Mass) patents 1st US coffee percolator