1709 in History

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Events in History

  • Jan 5 Sudden extreme cold kills thousands of Europeans
  • Jan 11 Colley Cibber's play "Rival Fools" premieres in London
  • Feb 2 British sailor Alexander Selkirk is rescued after being marooned on a desert island for 5 years, his story inspires "Robinson Crusoe"
  • Mar 27 Dike at Hardinxveld breaks (Alblasserwaard flooded)

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

Jun 27 Peter the Great of Russia defeats Charles XII of Sweden at the Battle of Poltava.

Russian Tsar Peter the Great
Russian Tsar
Peter the Great
  • Jul 8 Battle of Poltava; Russians defeat Swedes, end of Swedish empire as a major power
  • Aug 8 1st known ascent in hot-air balloon, Bartolomeu de Gusmao (indoors)
  • Sep 3 1st major group of Swiss/German colonists reaches NC/SC
  • Sep 11 Battle at Malplaquet during War of the Spanish Succession: English, Austrian and Dutch Great Alliance defeat France
  • Oct 29 England/Netherlands sign anti-French "Barrieretraktaat"

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 1 Johann H H Butz, German/Dutch organ builder
  • Feb 24 Jacques de Vaucanson, French inventor (d. 1782)
  • Mar 10 Georg Steller, German naturalist (d. 1746)
  • Jul 11 Johan Gottschalk Wallerius, Swedish chemist (d. 1785)
  • Jul 20 James Harris, English philosopher, born in Salisbury, Wiltshire (d. 1780)
  • Sep 18 Samuel Johnson, English scholar and lexicographer (A Dictionary of the English Language), born in Lichfield Staffordshire (d. 1784)
  • Oct 25 John Wagenaar, Amsterdam merchant/historian, baptised
  • Nov 2 Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange (d. 1759)
  • Dec 11 Louise Elisabeth of Orléans, queen consort of Spain (d. 1742)
  • Dec 27 Pieter de Swart, Dutch architect (Royal Palace, Hague)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Dec 29 Elizabeth of Russia [Elizaveta Petrovna], Empress of Russia (1741-62) and daughter of Peter the Great, born in Kolomenskoye, Moscow, Russia (d. 1762)

Empress of Russia Elizabeth of Russia
Empress of Russia
Elizabeth of Russia

Weddings in History

  • Apr 26 Frisian viceroy Johan Willem Friso marries countess Maria Louisa

Deaths in History

  • Jan 20 François de la Chaise, French confessor of Louis XIV of France, dies at 84
  • Jan 24 George Rooke, English admiral (b. 1650)
  • Feb 9 François Louis, Prince of Conti, French general (b. 1664)
  • Feb 19 Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, Japanese shogun (b. 1646)
  • Mar 8 William Cowper/Cooper, English anatomist, dies at about 62
  • Mar 9 Ralph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu, English diplomat
  • Jun 30 Edward Lhuyd, Welsh scientist (b. 1660)
  • Jul 17 Robert Bolling, English settler in Virginia (b. 1646)
  • Sep 4 Jean-Francois Regnard, French comedic poet/slave in Algeria, dies
  • Sep 11 Oxenstiern, Dutch general, dies in the Battle of Malplaquet
  • Sep 11 Spaar, Dutch General, dies in the Battle of Malplaquet
  • Oct 9 Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland, English mistress of Charles II of England (b. 1640)
  • Nov 23 Hans Willem baron Bentinck, Dutch/English earl of Portland, dies at 60
  • Dec 1 Abraham a Sancta Clara, [Johann Megerle], German court preacher and friar, dies at 65
  • Dec 8 Thomas Corneille, French dramatist, dies at 74