1803 in History

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Events in History

  • Jan 1 Emperor Gia Long orders all bronze wares of the Tây Sơn Dynasty to be collected and melted into nine cannons for the Royal Citadel in Huế, Vietnam.
  • Jan 12 US Senate approves Thomas Jefferson's nomination of James Monroe and Robert Livingstone to negotiate purchase New Orleans from France
  • Feb 4 William Dunlap adapts French melodrama "Voice of Nature"
  • Feb 14 Apple parer patented by Moses Coats, Downington, Penn

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 14 Chief Justice John Marshall declares that any act of U.S. Congress that conflicts with the Constitution is void.

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States John Marshall
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
John Marshall
  • Feb 19 US Congress accepts Ohio's constitution, statehood not ratified till 1953
  • Feb 24 US Supreme Court 1st rules a law unconstitutional (Marbury v Madison)
  • Feb 25 1,800 sovereign German states unite into 60 states
  • Feb 27 Great fire in Bombay, India
  • Mar 1 Ohio becomes 17th state of the Union
  • Mar 3 1st impeachment trial of a US federal judge, John Pickering, begins
  • Mar 3 Colégio Militar is founded in Portugal by Colonel Teixeira Rebello.
  • Mar 19 Friedrich Schiller's "Die Braut von Messina" premieres in Weimar
  • Apr 1 French law rules the use of intention
  • Apr 26 Meteorites fall in L'Aigle, France
  • Apr 30 Robert Livingston and James Monroe sign Louisiana Purchase Treaty in Paris at cost of 15 million dollars, doubles size of US
  • May 16 Peace of Amiens between French Republic and Great Britain ends
  • May 17 John Hawkins & Richard French patent the Reaping Machine

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 18 Britain declares war on France after Napoleon Bonaparte continues interfering in Italy & Switzerland

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • May 22 1st public library opens (Connecticut)
  • Jul 4 The Louisiana Purchase is announced to the American people
  • Jul 5 The convention of Artlenburg leads to the French occupation of Hanover (which had been ruled by the British king).
  • Jul 23 Robert Emmett leads rebellion in Dublin
  • Jul 26 The Surrey Iron Railway, arguably the world's first public railway, opens in south London.
  • Aug 9 1st horses arrive in Hawaii

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Aug 9 Robert Fulton tests his steam paddle-boat on the River Seine, France

Commercial Steamboat Inventor Robert Fulton
Commercial Steamboat Inventor
Robert Fulton
  • Sep 23 Battle of Assaye: British-Indian forces beat Maratha Army
  • Oct 20 US Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase
  • Oct 21 English scientist John Dalton reads his paper on the absorption of gases to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Soc - 1st outline of his atomic theory
  • Oct 23 English physicist John Dalton reads his essay on the absorption of gases by water and presents a series of atomic weights for 21 simple and compound elements at a meeting of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society
  • Nov 18 Battle of Vertieres, in which Haitians defeat French
  • Nov 29 Dessalines & Christophe declare St Domingue (Haiti) independent
  • Nov 30 Spain cedes her claims to Louisiana Territory to France
  • Dec 20 French flag lowered in New Orleans to mark formal transfer of Louisiana Purchase from France to US for $27M

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 2 Gugliemo Libri, [della Somaia], Ital/Fren mathematician/book collector
  • Jan 3 Douglas William Jerrold, author/playwright/wit (Punch Mag), born in London, England
  • Jan 9 Christopher Gustavus Memminger, Secy Treas (Confederacy) (d. 1888)
  • Jan 15 Marjory Fleming, Scottish writer and poet (d. 1811)
  • Jan 29 James Outram, Bulterley Hall Derbyshire, general
  • Feb 2 Albert Sidney Johnston, Gen (Confederate Army), (d. 1862)
  • Feb 15 John Augustus Sutter, Swiss/US colonist (New Helvetia Ca, Sutter Mill)
  • Mar 22 Anthonie Waldrop, Dutch painter/lithographer
  • Apr 7 Flora Tristan, French writer and social activist, born in Paris (d. 1844)
  • Apr 7 James Curtiss, Mayor of Chicago (d. 1859)
  • Apr 14 Friedrich von Amerling, Austrian painter
  • Apr 18 Charles F Pahud de Montagnes, gov-gen of Neth East Indies (1856-61)
  • Apr 21 Levin Minn Powell, Commander (Union Navy), (d. 1885)
  • Apr 23 Jules J baron d'Anethan, Belgian minister of Justice

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Apr 29 James Brooke, British adventurer and 1st Rajah of Sarawak (1841-68), born in Bandel, near Calcutta, Bengal, British India (d. 1868)

1st White Rajah of Sarawak James Brooke
1st White Rajah of Sarawak
James Brooke
  • Apr 30 Albrecht Graf von Roon, Prime Minister of Prussia (d. 1879)
  • May 12 Justus Freiherr von Liebig, German chemist (agricultural chemics)
  • May 17 Robert Smith Surtees, novelist
  • May 24 Charles LJL Bonaparte, Corsican/French prince of Canino/Musignano
  • May 24 Alexander von Nordmann, Finnish zoologist (d. 1866)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

May 25 Ralph Waldo Emerson, American essayist/philosopher (Concord Hymn), born in Boston, Massachusetts

Lecturer and Poet Ralph Waldo Emerson
Lecturer and Poet
Ralph Waldo Emerson
  • Jun 4 Gabriel James Rains, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1881)
  • Jun 10 Henry Darcy, French scientist (d. 1858)
  • Jun 29 John Newton Brown, American publisher (d. 1868)
  • Jun 30 Thomas Lovell Beddoes, English poet
  • Jul 12 Peter Chanel, French priest and saint (d. 1841)
  • Jul 24 Alexander Jackson Davis, US, architect (gothic revivalist)
  • Jul 31 John Ericsson, US, inventor (screw propeller)/shipbuilder-USS Monitor
  • Aug 3 Joseph Paxton, English landscape architect (Crystal Palace), born in Milton Bryan, Bedfordshire (d. 1865)
  • Aug 13 Vladimir Odoevsky, Russian philosopher and writer (d. 1869)
  • Aug 15 James Douglas, father of British Columbia
  • Aug 18 Nathan Clifford, American statesman, diplomat, and Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1881)
  • Aug 25 Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, the Duque de Caxias, Brazilian military leader
  • Aug 27 Edward Beecher, American theologian (d. 1895)
  • Sep 1 Jacobus T Abels, Dutch painter
  • Sep 3 Prudence Crandall, founder (School for "young ladies of colour")
  • Sep 4 Sarah Childress Polk, 1st lady (1845-1849)
  • Sep 19 Maria Anna of Savoy, Empress of Austria and queen of Hungary and Bohemia (d. 1884)
  • Sep 27 Samuel Francis DuPont, Rear Admiral (Union Navy), (d. 1865)
  • Sep 28 Prosper Mérimée, French author (d. 1870)
  • Sep 29 Charles-Francois Sturm, French mathematician (Sturm's Theorem)
  • Sep 29 Mercator Cooper, American sea captain (d. 1872)
  • Oct 3 John Gorrie, inventor (cold-air process of refrigeration)
  • Oct 6 Heinrich Wilhelm Dove, German physicist (d. 1879)
  • Oct 11 Albartus Telting, Frisian poet (Frisianch Jierboeckjen)
  • Oct 21 George Wright, Brigadier General (Union volunteers), (d. 1865)
  • Oct 25 Maria van Ackere-Doolaeghe, Flemish poetess (Daisies)
  • Nov 14 Jacob Abbott, American writer (d. 1879)
  • Nov 18 Cornelius Broere, Dutch priest/poet

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Nov 29 Christian Doppler, Austrian physicist (Doppler effect), born in Salzburg, Austria (d. 1853)

  • Nov 29 Gottfried Semper, German architect (d. 1879)
  • Dec 4 Augustus Zerega diZerega, Martinique, ship owner (Red Z Lane)
  • Dec 5 Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev, Russian poet (d. 1873)
  • Dec 7 Maria Josepha of Saxony, queen consort of Spain (d. 1829)
  • Dec 18 William Allen, (Rep/Gov-Oh)
  • Dec 22 Joseph King Fenno Mansfield, Mjr Gen (Union volunteers), (d. 1862)
  • Dec 27 John ACA van Nispen Sevenaer, Member of Dutch 2nd parliament (1848-75)

Deaths in History

  • Jan 18 Ippolit Bogdanovich, Russian poet (b. 1743)
  • Jan 23 Arthur Guinness, Irish brewer (b. 1725)
  • Feb 3 Pedro R de Campomanes, Spanish economist/lawyer/literary, dies at 79
  • Feb 9 Jean François de Saint-Lambert, French poet (b. 1716)
  • Feb 18 J W L Gleim, writer, dies
  • Feb 21 Edward Despard, last person drawn & quartered in England
  • Mar 13 William Emes, English landscape architect (b. 1729 or 1730)
  • Mar 14 Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, German poet, dies at 78
  • Apr 2 Hieronymus van Alphen, Dutch attorney/poet (church hymns), dies at 56
  • Apr 7 [Francois D] Toussaint L'Ouverture/Haitian revolutionary, dies
  • Jun 8 Joannes Natalis Paquot, Belgian priest/historian, dies at 80
  • Jun 22 Wilhelm Heinse, writer, dies
  • Jun 24 Matthew Thornton, Irish/US physician/signer (Declaration of Independence), dies at 88
  • Jul 23 Arthur Wolfe, 1st viscount Kilwarden/Chief Justice of Ireld, murdered
  • Aug 18 James Beattie, Scottish poet/philosopher (Essay on Truth), dies at 67
  • Aug 28 Charles L Fournier, Flemish writer/painter, dies
  • Sep 13 John Barry, 1st American commodore, dies
  • Sep 15 Gian Francesco Albani, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1719)
  • Sep 16 Nicolas Baudin, French explorer (b. 1754)
  • Sep 20 Robert Emmet, Irish nationalist, executed

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Oct 2 Samuel Adams, US revolutionary (Boston Massacre-Tea Party) and politician, dies at 81

US Revolutionary Samuel Adams
US Revolutionary
Samuel Adams
  • Oct 8 Vittorio A Alfieri, Italian earl/writer (Filippo), dies at 54
  • Oct 26 Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford, English politician (b. 1721)
  • Nov 5 Ch de Laclos, writer, dies
  • Nov 22 Bernardus Bosch, Dutch vicar/patriot, dies at 57
  • Nov 23 Roger Newdigate, British politician (b. 1719)
  • Nov 25 Joseph Wilton, English sculptor (Westminster Abbey), dies at 83
  • Dec 18 Johann G von Herder, German philosopher/theologist/poet, dies at 59