1831 in History

Events in History

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 1 William Lloyd Garrison publishes 1st issue of abolitionist journal

  • Jan 2 Liberator, abolitionist newspaper, begins publishing in Boston
  • Jan 3 1st US building & loan association organized, Frankford, Penn
  • Jan 15 1st US-built locomotive to pull a passenger train makes 1st run
  • Jan 15 1st US railroad honeymoon trip, Mr & Mrs Pierson, Charleston, SC

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 22 Charles Darwin takes his Bachelors of Art exam

Naturalist Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
  • Feb 5 Jan van Speijk blows up his gunboat in Antwerp, killing about 30
  • Feb 7 Belgium adopts its Constitution
  • Feb 14 Ras Marye of Yejju marches into Tigray and defeats and kills Dejazmach Sabagadis in the Battle of Debre Abbay.
  • Feb 19 1st practical US coal-burning locomotive makes 1st trial run, Penn
  • Feb 20 Polish revolutionaries defeat Russians in battle of Growchow

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 1 Lord John Russell introduces the Reform Bill in the British House of Commons on the government's behalf to revamp the electoral system of England and Wales and increase the franchise

British Prime Minister John Russell
British Prime Minister
John Russell
  • Mar 2 John Frazee becomes 1st US sculptor to receive a federal commission

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 6 Edgar Allan Poe removed from West Point military academy

  • Mar 10 The French Foreign Legion is established by King Louis-Philippe to support his war in Algeria.
  • Mar 19 1st US bank robbery (City Bank, NY/$245,000)
  • Mar 29 Great Bosnian uprising: Bosniak rebel against Turkey.
  • Mar 31 Mainzer Rijnvaart Convention ends
  • Mar 31 Quebec & Montreal incorporated
  • Apr 7 Dom Pedro abdicates to son, Dom Pedro II crowned emperor of Brazil
  • Apr 14 Soldiers marching on a bridge in Manchester, England, cause it to collapse.
  • Jun 4 National Congress selects Leopold von Saksen-Coburg as King of Belgium
  • Jun 6 2nd national black convention (Philadelphia)
  • Jul 1 Admiral James C Ross reaches magnetic North Pole
  • Jul 21 Belgium gains independence from Netherlands, Leopold I made king
  • Aug 1 London Bridge opens to traffic
  • Aug 2 Ten day campaign begins, Dutch army occupies Belgium
  • Aug 8 Battle of Hasselt - Dutch army drives out Belgians
  • Aug 9 1st US steam engine train run (Albany to Schenectady, NY)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Aug 10 Former slave Nat Turner leads uprising against slavery

Rebel Slave Nat Turner
Rebel Slave
Nat Turner
  • Aug 10 Hurricane hits Barbados; about 1,500 die
  • Aug 12 Dutch troops conquer Leuven
  • Aug 12 Netherlands & Belgium sign peace treaty
  • Aug 21 Nat Turner slave revolt kills 55 (Southampton County, Virginia)
  • Aug 24 John Henslow asks Charles Darwin to travel with him on HMS Beagle
  • Aug 29 Michael Faraday demonstrates 1st electric transformer
  • Sep 8 William IV is crowned King of Great Britain.
  • Sep 11 Charles Darwin meets with capt Fitzroy at Plymouth
  • Sep 15 The locomotive John Bull operates for the first time in New Jersey on the Camden and Amboy Railroad.
  • Sep 26 Robert Montgomery Bird's "Gladiator" premieres in NYC
  • Oct 9 Ioannis Kapodistrias, first Head of State of modern Greece, assassinated in Nafplion
  • Oct 17 Felix Mendelssohn's 1st Piano concert in G, premieres
  • Nov 7 State of Gran Colombia disbands
  • Nov 17 Ecuador and Venezuela separated from Greater Colombia
  • Dec 1 Erie Canal closes for entire month due to cold weather
  • Dec 5 Former US President John Q Adams takes his seat as a member of House of Representatives
  • Dec 25 Louisiana & Arkansas are first states to observe Christmas as holiday
  • Dec 27 HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin on board, departs England for a survey of South America
  • Dec 31 Gramercy Park is deeded to New York City.

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 2 Justin Winston, historian/librarian (Harvard)
  • Jan 11 James Ronald Chalmers, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1898)
  • Jan 14 John Bullock Clark Jr, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1903)
  • Jan 17 Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria (d. 1903)
  • Jan 18 Edward Ferrero, Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), (d. 1899)
  • Jan 20 Pieter J Joubert, general (South Africa)
  • Jan 26 Mary Mapes Dodge, American writer (Hans Brinker & the Silver Skates), born in NYC, New York
  • Jan 28 Henry Brevard Davidson, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1899)
  • Feb 3 Cyrus Ballou Comstock, Bvt Mjr Gen (Union volunteers), (d. 1910)
  • Feb 4 Oliver Ames, 35th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1895)
  • Feb 13 John Aaron Rawlins, Bvt Major General (Union Army), (d. 1869)
  • Feb 16 Nikolai Leskow, writer
  • Feb 23 Hendrik W Mesdag, Dutch painter (Panorama Mesdag)
  • Feb 24 Georg Leo earl von Caprivi, German chancellor/premier of Prussia
  • Feb 27 Hiram Bond Everest, American co-founder of The Vacuum Oil Company (d. 1913)
  • Mar 1 Hiram Bronson Granbury, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1864)
  • Mar 3 George M Pullman, inventor (railway sleeping car)
  • Mar 6 Friedrich C K von Bodelschwingh, German theologist (Home Mission)
  • Mar 6 Philip Henry Sheridan, Major General (Union Army), born in Albany, New York
  • Mar 7 John Bratton, [Old Reliable], US physician/Confederate Brig Gen
  • Mar 12 Clement Studebaker, automobile pioneer (Studebaker)
  • Mar 15 Edward Aylesworth Perry, Brigadier General (Confederate Army)
  • Mar 15 Daniel Comboni, Italian missionary (d. 1881)
  • Mar 20 Solomon L. Spink, U.S. Congressman (d. 1881)
  • Mar 23 Eduard Schlagintweit, German writer (d. 1866)
  • Mar 29 Amelia E. Barr, British-born American writer, born in Ulverston, Lancashire (d. 1919)
  • Mar 31 Archibald Scott, Scottish chemist
  • Apr 4 Edward Cary Walthall, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1898)
  • Apr 8 Allard Pierson, Dutch theologiost/philosopher/art historian/poet
  • Apr 12 Constantin Meunier, Belgian painter/sculptor
  • Apr 12 George Burgwyn Anderson, Brigadier General (Confederate Army)
  • Apr 12 Grenville Mellen Dodge, Major General (Union volunteers)
  • Apr 14 Gerhard Rohlfs, German explorer/ambassador in Abyssinia
  • Apr 22 Alexander McDowell McCook, Major General (Union volunteers)
  • May 1 Emily Stowe, Canadian physician and suffragist (d. 1903)
  • May 13 Willem baron of Goltstein of Oldenaller, Dutch minister of Colonies
  • May 16 David Edward Hughes, inventor (microphone, teleprinter)
  • Jun 1 John Bell Hood, Gen (Confederate Army), (d. 1879)
  • Jun 2 Benjamin Hardin Helm, Brigadier General (Conf)/Lincoln's brother-in-law
  • Jun 3 Otho French Strahl, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1864)
  • Jun 5 Marcus Joseph Wright, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1922)
  • Jun 7 Amelia Edwards, English author and Egyptologist (d. 1892)
  • Jun 8 Thomas J. Higgins, decorated Union Army soldier (d. 1917)
  • Jun 13 James Clerk Maxwell, Scottish physicist (electromagnetic theory, speed of light)
  • Jun 26 Julius Rodenberg, [Levy], German writer (Kriegs-Songs of War & Peace)
  • Jun 29 William Thomas Clark, Bvt Mjr General (Union volunteers), (d. 1905)
  • Jul 8 John Pemberton, American pharmacist and inventor of Coca-Cola, born in Knoxville, Georgia (d. 1888)
  • Jul 9 Johan P van der Kellen, Dutch stamp cutter/lithographer/writer
  • Jul 14 William Dwight, Brigadier General (Union volunteers), (d. 1888)
  • Jul 17 Xianfeng, Emperor of China (d. 1861)
  • Jul 30 Helene P Blavatsky, founder (Theosophist Cooperation)
  • Aug 16 Edward Payson Chapin, Brigadier General (Union volunteers), (d. 1863)
  • Aug 16 John Jones Ross, Quebec politician (d. 1901)
  • Aug 19 Stephen Gano Burbridge, Bvt Major General (Union volunteers)
  • Aug 28 Lucy Ware Webb Hayes, 1st lady (1877-81)
  • Sep 7 Alexandre Falguière, French sculptor and painter (d. 1900)
  • Sep 8 Wilhelm Raabe, [Jakob Corvinus], German author (Der Hungerpastor)
  • Sep 13 Andrew Noble, Greenock, Scottish Physicist who was a founder of the science of ballistics
  • Sep 29 John McAlister Schofield, Major General (Union volunteers)
  • Oct 1 Claudius Charles Wilson, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1863)
  • Oct 6 J W Richard Dedekind, Ger mathematician (Nature & Meaning of Numbers)
  • Oct 15 Helen Maria Hunt Jackson, author (Ramona)
  • Oct 18 Frederik III NK of Hohenzollern, German Kaiser/king of Prussia
  • Oct 31 Daniel Butterfield, Major General (Union volunteers), (d. 1901)
  • Oct 31 Paolo Mantegazza, Italian neurologist (d. 1910)
  • Nov 8 Edward R L Bulwer-Lytton, English statesman and Viceroy of India (1876-1880)
  • Nov 12 Anton Kerner Ritter von Marilaun, Austria botanist

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Nov 19 James A. Garfield, 20th US President (Republican: 1881), born in Moreland Hills, Ohio (d. 1881)

20th US President James Garfield
20th US President
James Garfield
  • Nov 21 John Franklin Miller, Bvt Mjr Gen (Union volunteers), (d. 1886)
  • Dec 6 Joshua Woodrow Sill, Brigadier General (Union volunteers), (d. 1862)
  • Dec 10 Alexander Conze, German archaeologist
  • Dec 19 Bernice Pauahi Bishop, Hawaiian philanthropist (d. 1884)
  • Dec 22 Mark Rutherford, writer
  • Dec 22 Robert Ogden Tyler, Bvt Major General (Union Army), (d. 1874)
  • Dec 27 Lucius Fairchild, Brigadier General (Union volunteers), (d. 1896)
  • Dec 29 Adam Badeau, Bvt Brigadier General (Union volunteers), (d. 1895)

Weddings in History

HeartWedding of Interest

Jun 30 Soldier and future Confederate General Robert E. Lee (24) marries Mary Custis (22) at Arlington House, Arlington Virginia

Confederate General Robert E. Lee
Confederate General
Robert E. Lee

Deaths in History

  • Jan 4 Nikola P Neofit Rilski, Bulgaria abbot/poet, dies at 37
  • Jan 21 Achim v Arnim, writer, dies at 49
  • Feb 5 John CJ van Speijk, commits suicide at 29

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Feb 14 Vicente Guerrero, Mexican revolutionary hero, general and 2nd President of Mexico (1829, executed by firing squad at 48

Revolutionary General and President of Mexico Vicente Guerrero
Revolutionary General and President of Mexico
Vicente Guerrero
  • Feb 15 Henry Maudslay, inventor (metal lathe), dies
  • Mar 9 Friedrich M Klinger, German (stage)author (Plimplamplasko), dies at 79
  • Mar 26 Richard Allen, AME Church Bishop, dies at 71
  • Apr 2 Charles Felix, blind King of Sardina (1821-31), dies at 74
  • Apr 19 Johann Gottlieb Friedrich von Bohnenberger, German mathematician (b. 1765)
  • Apr 20 John Abernethy, English surgeon (b. 1764)
  • May 1 Antonius van Alphen, apostle vicar of De Bosch, dies at 82
  • May 13 Christian G Korner, German lawyer, dies at 74
  • May 26 Georg Hermes, German philosopher/theologist (Hermenianen), dies
  • May 26 Ciro Menotti, Italian patriot (b. 1798)
  • May 27 Jedediah Smith, American explorer (b. 1799)
  • May 31 Samuel Bentham, British mechanical engineer (b. 1757)
  • Jun 10 Hans Karl von Diebitsch, Russian field marshal (b. 1785)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jun 27 Sophie Germain, French mathematician, dies at 55

Mathematician Sophie Germain
Sophie Germain

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 4 James Monroe, 5th US president (1817-25), dies of heart failure and tuberculosis at 73

5th US President James Monroe
5th US President
James Monroe
  • Jul 16 Louis Alexandre Andrault de Langeron, Russian general (b. 1763)
  • Jul 21 Emil Aarestrup, Danish physician/poet (Ritornellen), dies at 55
  • Aug 23 August WA Grave von Gneisenau, Prussian fieldmarshal, dies at 70
  • Sep 27 Henry van Wine, archivist/founder General Rijksarchief, dies at 91
  • Sep 27 Joannis Capodistrias, Greek governor of Troezen, murdered at 55
  • Oct 9 Ioannis Kapodistrias, President (1829-31) and founding father of modern Greece.
  • Oct 14 Jean-Louis Pons, French astronomer (b. 1761)


Nov 11 Nat Turner, slave rebel who led a violent insurrection in Virginia, hanged at 31

Rebel Slave Nat Turner
Rebel Slave
Nat Turner
  • Nov 16 Karl von Clausewitz, Prussian strategist (Campaign 1813), dies at 51
  • Dec 8 James Hoban, architect who designed White House, dies
  • Dec 10 Thomas Seebeck, Baltic German physicist (b. 1770)
  • Dec 15 Paul R Cantzlaar, gov of Saba/Curacao/Dutch-West Indies, dies at 60
  • Dec 18 Willem Bilderdijk, Dutch poet/literary (My Relief), dies at 75