1848 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 1 Britain takes Mosquito Coast from Nicaragua
  • Jan 3 Joseph Jenkins Roberts is sworn in as the first President of the independent African Republic of Liberia.
  • Jan 8 Austrian soldiers kill 10 students, Pavia
  • Jan 9 1st commercial bank in SF established
  • Jan 9 People's uprising in Palermo, Sicily
  • Jan 12 Palermo rising against the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies takes place in Sicily
  • Jan 24 James Marshall finds gold in Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California
  • Jan 28 King of Naples grants his subjects a constitution
  • Jan 29 Sicily accepts new Constitution (choose parliament/freedom of press)
  • Feb 2 1st ship load of Chinese arrive in SF
  • Feb 2 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican-American War: US acquires Texas, California, New Mexico and Arizona for $15 million
  • Feb 12 Ballet "Faust" premieres in Milan
  • Feb 15 Sarah Roberts barred from white school in Boston
  • Feb 17 Tuscany gets liberal Constitution
  • Feb 21 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish "The Communist Manifesto" in London
  • Feb 24 King Louis-Philippe abdicates, 2nd French republic declared
  • Feb 26 2nd French Republic proclaimed
  • Feb 29 The Principality of Neuchâtel declares itself independent of Prussia
  • Mar 4 Sardinia-Piemonte gets new Constitution
  • Mar 4 Carlo Alberto di Savoia signs the Statuto Albertino that will later represent the first constitution of the Regno d'Italia
  • Mar 5 Louis Antoine Garnier-Pages is named French minister of Finance.
  • Mar 7 In Hawaii, Great Mahele (division of lands) signed
  • Mar 11 Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine and Robert Baldwin become the first Prime Ministers of the Province of Canada to be democratically elected under a system of responsible government.
  • Mar 12 2nd Republic established in France
  • Mar 15 A revolution breaks out in Hungary. The Habsburg rulers are compelled to meet the demands of the Reform party.
  • Mar 23 The ship John Wickliffe arrives at Port Chalmers carrying the first Scottish settlers for Dunedin, New Zealand. Otago province is founded.
  • Mar 24 State of siege proclaimed in Amsterdam
  • Mar 27 John Parker Paynard originates medicated adhesive plaster

CommunicationNiagara Falls Stops Flowing

Mar 29 Niagara Falls stops flowing for 30 hours due to an ice jam

  • Apr 3 Thomas Douglas becomes 1st SF public teacher

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 3 German explorer Ludwig Leichhardt is seen for the last time at McPherson's Station, Coogoon, before he disappears on the same expedition to reach the Swan River

Explorer and Naturalist Ludwig Leichhardt
Explorer and Naturalist
Ludwig Leichhardt
  • Apr 6 Jews of Prussia granted equality
  • Apr 8 1st battle at Gioto: Sardinia-Piemonte beats Austrians
  • Apr 8 Battle at Xaquixaguana, Peru: Pedro de la Gasca beats Gonzalo Pizarro
  • Apr 11 Hungary becomes constitutional monarchy under king Ferdinand of Aust
  • Apr 18 American victory at the battle of Cerro Gordo opens the way for invasion of Mexico.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 26 Alfred Russel Wallace departs the U.K. for South America, beginning four years of travel, collecting, and research in the region

Naturalist, biologist, and explorer Alfred Russel Wallace
Naturalist, biologist, and explorer
Alfred Russel Wallace
  • Apr 28 Free last slaves in French colonies
  • May 1 The Fraternity of Phi Gamma Delta is founded at Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania.
  • May 6 Otto Tank ends slavery in Suriname colony
  • May 7 Prussians stop insurrection in Varsovia
  • May 13 First performance of Finland's national anthem.
  • May 17 Gerrit, Count Schimmelpenninck resigns as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Netherlands
  • May 18 Opening of the first German National Assembly (Nationalversammlung) in Frankfurt, Germany.
  • May 19 1st department store opens
  • May 19 Mexico gives Texas to US, ending the war
  • May 29 Battle at Curtazone: Austrians beat Sardinia-Piemonte
  • May 29 Wisconsin becomes 30th state
  • May 30 2nd battle at Gioto: Sardinia-Piemonte beats Austrians
  • May 30 William G Young patents ice cream freezer
  • May 30 Mexico ratifies treaty giving US; New Mexico, California & parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona & Colorado in return for $15 million
  • Jun 2 The Slavic congress in Prague begins.
  • Jun 5 Statue of prince William the Silent, Prince of Orange, unveiled
  • Jun 10 1st telegraph link between NYC & Chicago
  • Jun 10 Battle at Vicenza: Austrians beat Sardinia-Piemonte

Electoral defeatPresidential Convention

Jun 22 Barnburners (anti-slavery) party nominates Martin Van Buren for President

8th US President Martin Van Buren
8th US President
Martin Van Buren
  • Jun 22 Beginning of the June Days Uprising in Paris.
  • Jun 23 Bloody insurrection of workers in Paris
  • Jun 26 1st pure food law enacted in US
  • Jun 26 End of the June Days Uprising in Paris.
  • Jul 3 Slaves freed in Danish West Indies (now US Virgin Islands)
  • Jul 6 Mexican-American War ended with the Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo
  • Jul 11 Edmund Hickly gets 1st known 10 wicket innings (Kent v England)
  • Jul 11 London's Waterloo Station opens

Conference meetingConference of Interest

Jul 19 1st US women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls NY, organised by Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Lucretia Mott

Women's Rights Activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Women's Rights Activist
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Jul 19 German Parliament demands Dutch province of Limburg
  • Jul 23 Battle of Custoza-Italian War of Independence, starts
  • Jul 25 1st battle at Custozza: Austrians under Radetzky beat Italian
  • Jul 29 Irish Potato Famine: Tipperary Revolt - an unsuccessful nationalist revolt against British rule put down by police
  • Aug 9 Austria & Sardinia sign cease fire
  • Aug 9 US Barnburners (anti-slavery) party merges with Free Soil Party nominating Martin Van Buren for president
  • Aug 14 Oregon Territory created
  • Aug 15 M Waldo Hanchett patents dental chair
  • Aug 18 Camila O'Gorman and Ladislao Gutierrez are executed on the orders of Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas
  • Aug 22 The United States annexes New Mexico
  • Sep 6 National Black Convention meets in Cleveland
  • Sep 12 Switzerland becomes a Federal state.
  • Sep 14 Alexander Stewart opens 1st US dept store
  • Sep 16 Slavery abolished in all French territories
  • Sep 19 Hyperion, moon of Saturn, discovered by Bond (US) & Lassell (England)
  • Sep 20 The American Association for the Advancement of Science is created.
  • Sep 29 Battle of Pákozd: Hungarian forces defeat Croats at Pákozd; the first battle of the War of Independence
  • Oct 16 1st US homeopathic medical college opens in Pennsylvania
  • Oct 28 The first railroad in Spain - between Barcelona and Mataró - is opened.
  • Nov 1 First US women's medical school opens (Boston)
  • Nov 3 Johan Thorbeckes revises the Constitution of the Netherlands

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

Nov 7 General Zachary Taylor elected as 12th President of US

12th US President Zachary Taylor
12th US President
Zachary Taylor
  • Nov 9 Post office at Clay & Pike opens
  • Nov 9 Robert Blum, a German revolutionary and MP (Liberal), is executed in Vienna.
  • Nov 21 Alfred de Musset's "Andre del Sarto" premieres in Paris
  • Nov 21 Cincinnati Turngemeinde founded
  • Nov 23 Female Medical Educational Society forms in Boston
  • Dec 2 Franz Josef I becomes Emperor of Austria & King of Hungary
  • Dec 5 US President Polk triggers Gold Rush of 1849 by confirming gold discovery in California
  • Dec 25 New Haven Railroad opens
  • Dec 26 1st gold seekers arrive in Panama en route to SF
  • Dec 26 William & Ellen Craft escape from slavery in Georgia
  • Dec 26 The Phi Delta Theta fraternity is founded at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.
  • Dec 29 Gas lights 1st installed at White House (Polk's administration)

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 1 John Goff, Irish lawyer (d. 1924)
  • Jan 4 Katsura Taro, Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1913)
  • Jan 5 Khristo Botev, hero of Bulgarian revolt against Turkey, poet
  • Jan 5 Same Steele, Canadian soldier, born in Purbrook, Canada West, (d. 1919)
  • Jan 9 Princess Frederica of Hanover (d. 1926)
  • Jan 18 Ioan Slavici, Transylvanian writer (d. 1925)
  • Jan 19 John F. Stairs, Canadian businessman (d. 1904)
  • Jan 22 Samuel Muller Fzn, Dutch historian/archivist (Middle Ages)
  • Jan 24 Vasily Surikov, Russian painter (d. 1916)
  • Jan 27 Togo Heihachiro, Japanese admiral (d. 1934)
  • Feb 4 [Francois-Victor-]Jean Aicard, Fren playwright/poet (Jeune Croyances)
  • Feb 5 Belle Starr [Myra Belle Shirley], US female outlaw (wild west)
  • Feb 5 Joris-Karl Huysmans, France, writer (Against the Grain)
  • Feb 5 Ignacio Carrera Pinto, Chilean war hero (d. 1882)
  • Feb 14 Benjamin Baillaud, French astronomer (d. 1934)
  • Feb 16 Hugo de Vries, Dutch botanist (How species emerge)
  • Feb 17 Louisa Lawson, Australian suffragist and writer (d. 1920)
  • Feb 18 Louis Comfort Tiffany, glassmaker (stained glass windows)
  • Feb 20 Edward Henry Harriman, American railroad executive (d. 1909)
  • Feb 24 C Grant B Allen, Canadian writer (Woman Who Did)
  • Feb 24 Andrew Inglis Clark, Tasmanian politician (d. 1907)
  • Mar 1 Augustus Saint-Gaudens, US, sculptor/designer (1907 $20 gold piece)
  • Mar 18 Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, daughter of Queen Victoria (d. 1939)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 19 Wyatt Earp, American sheriff (OK Corral), born in Monmouth, Illinois (d. 1929)

OK Corral Sheriff Wyatt Earp
OK Corral Sheriff
Wyatt Earp
  • Mar 24 Honoré Beaugrand, Quebec journalist and newspaper publisher (La Patrie) (d. 1906)
  • Mar 25 William Keith Brooks, American marine zoologist (anatomy and embryology of marine animals), born in Cleveland, Ohio
  • Mar 29 Aleksei Kuropatkin, Russian general/minister of War
  • Apr 7 Randall Thomas Davidson, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1930)
  • Apr 9 Helena Lange, German feminist
  • Apr 12 José Gautier Benítez, Puerto Rican poet (d. 1880)
  • Apr 16 Kandukuri Veeresalingam, Social Reformer of Andhra Pradesh, India (d. 1919)
  • Apr 27 King Otto I of Bavaria (d. 1916)
  • Apr 29 Raja Ravi Varma, Indian painter, born in Kilimanoor, Travancore (d. 1906)
  • May 15 Viktor Vasnetsov, Russian painter (d. 1926)
  • May 23 Helmuth J L von Moltke, German general/chief of staff (WW I)
  • May 23 Otto Lilienthal, pioneer aviator
  • Jun 7 Paul Gaugin, [Eugene Henri], French post-impressionist painter
  • Jun 24 Brooks Adams, US philosopher (Theory of Social Revolutions)
  • Jul 9 Robert I, Duke of Parma, last ruling Duke of Parma (d. 1907)
  • Jul 15 Vilfredo F D Pareto, Italian economist/sociologist
  • Jul 19 Cornelis A Pekelharing, artist (fabric seller)
  • Jul 22 Adolf Friedrich V, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1914)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 25 Arthur Balfour, British Prime Minister (Conservative: 1902-05) and Foreign Secretary (Balfour Declaration), born in Whittingehame House, East Lothian, Scotland (d. 1930)

British Prime Minister Arthur Balfour
British Prime Minister
Arthur Balfour
  • Jul 27 Loránd Eötvös, Hungarian physicist (d. 1919)
  • Jul 27 Friedrich Ernst Dorn, Guttstadt, Province of Prussia (now Warmia in Poland), German physicist who discovered that radon is emitted from radium
  • Aug 4 Vladimir Sukhomlinov, Russian general (d. 1926)
  • Aug 12 Macellus Emants, Dutch writer/poet (Along the Nile)
  • Aug 19 Gustave Caillebotte, French shipbuilding design/painter (Rue de Paris)
  • Aug 22 Melville E. Stone, American newspaper publisher (d. 1929)
  • Aug 30 Andrew Onderdonk, Canadian railway contractor (d. 1905)
  • Sep 1 Auguste-Henri Forel, Swiss entomologist (d. 1931)
  • Sep 4 Lewis Howard Latimer, American inventor (carbon filament lightbulbs), born in Chelsea, Massachusetts (d. 1928)
  • Sep 10 William M Harnett, US painter (Old Violin)
  • Sep 24 Pieter Louis Tak, literary (The Chronicle)
  • Sep 29 Caroline Ardelia Yale, US, educated deaf
  • Oct 3 Henry Lerolle, French painter (d. 1929)
  • Oct 5 Guido von List, German writer (d. 1919)
  • Oct 17 William "Candy" Cummings, created curve ball
  • Oct 30 Zinovi P Rozhestvensky, Russian vice-admiral
  • Oct 31 Boston Custer, brother of George Armstrong Custer (d. 1876)
  • Nov 6 Richard Jeffries, English naturalist and essayist, born in Coate (d. 1887)
  • Nov 8 Gottlob Frege, Germany, mathematician/logician (Begriffsschrift)
  • Nov 12 Eduard Müller, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1919)
  • Nov 13 Albert HK, monarch of Monaco (1889-1922)
  • Dec 9 Joel Chandler Harris, US journalist (created Uncle Remus stories)
  • Dec 15 Edwin Howland Blashfield, decorated the dome of Library of Congress

Weddings in History

HeartWedding of Interest

Mar 8 Confederate General James Longstreet (27) weds Maria Louisa Garland in Lynchburg, Virginia

Confederate General James Longstreet
Confederate General
James Longstreet
  • Apr 10 British influential art critic and social commentator John Ruskin marries Effie Gray in Perth, Scotland (later annulled).

HeartWedding of Interest

Aug 10 Inventor Samuel Morse (57) weds Sarah Elizabeth Griswold in Utica, New York

Inventor Samuel Morse
Samuel Morse

HeartWedding of Interest

Aug 22 Soldier and later US President Ulysses Grant (26) marries Julia Dent

US President & Union General Ulysses S. Grant
US President & Union General
Ulysses S. Grant

Deaths in History

  • Jan 9 Caroline Herschel, German-born pioneering female astronomer (comet 35P/Herschel-Rigolle), dies at 97
  • Jan 20 Christian VIII of Denmark (b. 1786)
  • Feb 15 Hermann von Boyen, Prussian field marshal (b. 1771)
  • Feb 20 [Willem] Alexander FCNM, prince of Neth/gen-maj, dies at 29

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Feb 23 John Quincy Adams, 6th US President (1825-1829), dies of a stroke at 80

6th US President John Quincy Adams
6th US President
John Quincy Adams
  • Mar 3 Heinrich Olivier, German painter, dies
  • Mar 20 Abraham des Amorie van der Hoeven, Dutch theologist/poet, dies at 27
  • Mar 29 John Jacob Astor, charted American Fur Company, dies at 84

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Apr 4 Ludwig Leichhardt, German explorer of northern and central Australia, dies on an expedition at 34

Explorer and Naturalist Ludwig Leichhardt
Explorer and Naturalist
Ludwig Leichhardt
  • Apr 10 Godert AGP baron van Capellen, gove-gen of Dutch-Indies, dies at 69
  • Apr 30 Friedrich Freiherr Gagern, German/Dutch army commandant, dies at 53
  • May 18 William A Leidesdorf, mixed-race early Californian, dies at 38 in SF
  • May 25 Annette von Droste-Hülshoff, German writer (b. 1797)
  • May 31 Eugénie de Guérin, French writer (b. 1805)
  • Jun 27 Denis-Auguste Affre, archbsp of Paris (1840-48), shot to death at 54
  • Jun 27 Zschokke, writer, dies
  • Jul 4 Francois Rene de Chateaubriand, French novelist (Atala)/diplomat, dies
  • Aug 7 Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Swedish chemist (b. 1779)
  • Aug 9 Frederick Marryat, English captain/author (Mr Midshipman Easy), dies
  • Aug 12 George Stephenson, locomotive engineer, dies
  • Oct 5 Joseph Hormayr Freiherr zu Hortenburg, Austrian politician (b. 1781)
  • Oct 26 Vissarion G Belinski, Russian literature critic, dies
  • Nov 10 Christian VIII of Denmark, King of Denmark (b. 1786)
  • Nov 15 P Rossi, Italian, murdered
  • Nov 17 Jozef B "Olim" Cannaert, Flemish lawyer, dies

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Nov 24 William Lamb, 2ng Viscount Melbourne, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (Whig 1834, 1835-41), dies at 69

British Prime Minister William Lamb
British Prime Minister
William Lamb
  • Dec 18 Bernard Bolzano, Bohemian mathematician and philosopher (b. 1781)
  • Dec 19 Adam FJA van Duyn, governor of South Holland, dies at 77

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Dec 19 Emily Brontë, English novelist (Wuthering Heights), dies of tuberculosis at 30

Novelist Emily Brontë
Emily Brontë