1849 in History

Events in History

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 11 Elizabeth Blackwell becomes 1st woman in US to earn medical degree

  • Jan 13 Vancouver Island granted to Hudson's Bay Co
  • Jan 23 Mrs Elizabeth Blackwell becomes 1st woman physician in US
  • Jan 23 Patent granted for an envelope-making machine
  • Jan 31 Corn Laws abolished in Britain
  • Feb 4 University of Wisconsin begins in 1 room with 20 students
  • Feb 8 New Roman Republic established.
  • Feb 9 Roman Republic declared in Rome replacing following flight of Pope Pius IX

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 14 In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes first serving US President to have his photograph taken (by Matthew Brady).

11th US President James Knox Polk
11th US President
James Knox Polk
  • Feb 18 1st regular steamboat service to California starts (or 02/28)
  • Feb 28 1st boat load of gold rush prospectors arrives in SF from east coast
  • Mar 3 Gold Coinage Act authorizes $20 Double Eagle gold coin
  • Mar 3 Territory of Minnesota organizes
  • Mar 3 US Home Department (later renamed the Department of the Interior) established by Congress
  • Mar 4 US had no president, Polks term ends on a Sunday, Taylor couldn't be sworn-in, Sen David Atchison (pres pro tem) term ended Mar 3rd

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 5 Zachary Taylor sworn in as 12th US president

12th US President Zachary Taylor
12th US President
Zachary Taylor

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 10 Abraham Lincoln applies for a patent (only US president to do so) for a device to lift a boat over shoals and obstructions

US President Abraham Lincoln
US President
Abraham Lincoln
  • Mar 12 1st gold seekers arrive in Nicaragua en route to Calif
  • Mar 23 Battle of Novara (King Charles Albert vs Italian republic)
  • Mar 27 Joseph Couch patents steam-powered percussion rock drill
  • Mar 29 Great Britain formally annexs Punjab after defeat of Sikhs in India
  • Mar 31 Col John W Geary arrives as 1st postmaster of SF
  • Apr 10 Safety pin patented by Walter Hunt (NYC); sold rights for $400
  • Apr 13 Hungarian Republic proclaimed
  • Apr 14 Hungary declares itself independent of Austria with Louis Kossuth as its leader.
  • Apr 25 The Governor General of Canada, Lord Elgin, signs the Rebellion Losses Bill, outraging Montreal's English population and triggering the Montreal Riots.
  • May 3 The May Uprising in Dresden begins - the last of the German revolutions of 1848.
  • May 12 Willem Alexander PFL crowned king Willem III in Amsterdam
  • May 15 Philadelphia Turngemeinde founded
  • May 17 Fire destroy Centrum in St Louis Missouri
  • May 22 Abraham Lincoln receives a patent (only US president to do so) for a device to lift a boat over shoals and obstructions

CommunicationOpening of Euston Station

May 27 Opening of the Great Hall at Euston station in London

  • May 28 Princess Marianne of the Netherlands & Albrecht of Prussia separate
  • May 29 Lincoln says "You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but you can not fool all of the people all of the time."
  • May 31 Last edition of Orange sheet "Journal de La Haye"
  • Jun 5 Danish National Day-Denmark becomes a constitutional monarchy
  • Jun 12 Gas mask patented by Lewis Haslett (Louisville Ky)
  • Jun 21 Battle at Waghausel: Prussian troops beat Baden rebels
  • Jun 22 Stephen C Massett opens concert at San Francisco courthouse using only piano in Calif

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 2 Giuseppe Garibaldi begins hunger strike in Rome

Unifier of Italy Giuseppe Garibaldi
Unifier of Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldi
  • Jul 3 The French entered Rome in order to restore Pope Pius IX to power. This would prove a major obstacle to Italian unification.
  • Jul 8 St Paul's Place in the Bronx named
  • Jul 20 Start of 1st Lancashire-Yorkshire clash at Hyde Park, Sheffield
  • Jul 28 Memmon is first clipper to reach San Francisco, 120 days out of NY
  • Jul 31 Benjamin Chambers patents breech loading cannon
  • Aug 9 Hungarian Republic crushed by Austria & Russia
  • Aug 19 NY Herald reports gold discovery in California
  • Aug 22 The first air raid in history; Austria launches pilotless balloons against the Italian city of Venice
  • Aug 28 Venice under Daniele Manin surrenders to Austrians under Radetsky, having been under siege since July 20 after proclaiming independence
  • Sep 1 California Constitutional Convention held in Monterey
  • Sep 3 California State Constitutional Convention convenes in Monterey
  • Sep 13 1st US prize fight fatality (Tom McCoy)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Sep 17 Harriet Tubman 1st escapes slavery in Maryland with two of her brothers

Abolitionist Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman
  • Sep 18 De Kempenae's Dutch government resigns
  • Sep 19 1st commercial laundry established, in Oakland, California
  • Sep 29 1st passenger train service to Peekskill NY (New Haven Railroad)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 3 American author Edgar Allan Poe is found delirious in a gutter in Baltimore, Maryland under mysterious circumstances; it is the last time he is seen in public before his death.

  • Oct 6 The execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad after the Hungarian war of independence.
  • Oct 16 Avery College establishes in Allegheny, Pennsylvania
  • Oct 16 British seize Tigre Island in Gulf of Fonseca from Honduras
  • Nov 1 Dutch government of Thorbecke forms
  • Nov 13 Peter Burnett elected first governor of California
  • Nov 15 1st US poultry show opens in Boston
  • Nov 16 A Russian court sentences Fyodor Dostoevsky to death for anti-government activities linked to a radical intellectual group; his sentence is later commuted to hard labor.
  • Nov 21 Friedrich Hebbel's "Der Rubin" premieres in Vienna
  • Dec 6 Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery in Maryland for the 2nd and final time
  • Dec 18 William Bond obtains 1st photograph of Moon through a telescope
  • Dec 21 1st US skating club formed (Philadelphia)
  • Dec 22 The execution of Fyodor Dostoevsky is called off at the last second.
  • Dec 28 M Jolly-Bellin discovers dry-cleaning, he accidentally upset lamp containing turpentine & oil on his clothing & sees cleaning effect

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 11 Oskar Lassar, German dermatologist (bath house)
  • Jan 12 Jean Béraud, French painter (d. 1935)
  • Jan 18 Edmund Barton, 1st PM of Australia (1900-03)
  • Jan 22 August Strindberg, Sweden, dramatist/novelist (Apologia)
  • Feb 2 Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav, Slovak poet (d. 1921)
  • Feb 4 Jean Richepin, French poet/writer (Les Chansons de Gueux)
  • Feb 13 Lord Randolph Churchill, England, politician, Winston's father
  • Feb 17 Selwyn Image, Bodiam Sussex, painter
  • Feb 18 Alexander L. Kielland, Norwegian writer and politician (Garman og Worse)
  • Feb 22 Nikolay Yakovlevich Sonin, Russian mathematician (d. 1915)
  • Mar 2 Robert Means Thompson, U.S. Naval Officer (d. 1930)
  • Mar 3 Jacques Oppenheim, Dutch lawyer

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 7 Luther Burbank, American horticulturist who developed more than 800 strains and varieties of plants, born in Lancaster, Massachusetts (d. 1926)

Horticulturist Luther Burbank
Luther Burbank
  • Mar 16 James E Smith, became father at 100 with woman 64 years younger
  • Mar 19 Alfred von Tirpitz, German World War I Admiral (d. 1930)
  • Mar 28 James Darmesteter, French author and antiquarian (d. 1894)
  • Apr 6 John William Waterhouse, British painter (d. 1917)
  • Apr 13 Enrique Jose Varona, Cuban sociologist/psychologist
  • Apr 17 William R. Day, American diplomat and Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1923)
  • Apr 21 Oskar Hertwig, Germany, embryologist, discovered fertilization
  • Apr 24 Joseph S Gallieni, general (Battle of Marne)/milt governor (Paris)
  • Apr 25 Felix Klein, German mathematician (Evanston Colloquium)
  • May 3 Jacob Riis, Denmark, reporter (NY Tribune, NY Evening Sun)
  • May 3 Bernhard von Bülow, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1929)
  • May 5 Hambletonian, Chester NY, greatest standardbred horse
  • May 6 Wyatt Eaton, Canadian American artist, born in Philipsburg, Quebec (d. 1896)
  • May 22 Louis Perrier, Swiss politician (d. 1913)
  • Jun 2 Paul-Albert Besnard, French painter/graphic artist (La femme)
  • Jun 8 Juliaan Dillens, Flemish sculptor (Anspach Monument)
  • Jun 9 Michael Peter Ancher, Danish painter (d. 1927)
  • Jun 27 Harriet Hubbard Ayer, beauty cream maufacturer & expert/columnist
  • Jun 29 Sergei J Witte, Neth/Russ count/premier Russia
  • Jun 29 John Hunn, American businessman (d. 1926)
  • Jul 2 Maria Theresia of Austria-Este, queen of Bavaria (d. 1919)
  • Jul 12 William Osler, Canada, physician/author (circulatory system)
  • Jul 19 F A Alphonse Aulard, French historian
  • Jul 19 Ferdinand Brunetière, French writer and critic (d. 1906)
  • Jul 20 Robert Anderson Van Wyck, Mayor of New York City (d. 1918)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 22 Emma Lazarus, poet ("New Colossus" - on the base of Statue of Liberty), born in New York City

  • Jul 27 John Hopkinson, Manchester, U.K., British physicist and electrical engineer (Hopkinson's Law)
  • Jul 29 Max Nordau, Austrian author and Zionist leader (d. 1923)
  • Aug 12 Abbott Handerson Thayer, painter/naturalist
  • Aug 23 William Ernest Henley, British poet, critic, and editor (d. 1903)
  • Aug 27 Manuel Acuna, Mexican poet (Nocturno)
  • Aug 29 Titus A J van Asch van Wijck, Dutch governor Suriname (1891-97)
  • Aug 30 Joseph Mallaby Dent, Dutch publisher
  • Sep 1 Elizabeth Harrison, US, educator (National Congress of Parents & Teachers)
  • Sep 3 Sarah Orne Jewett, Maine, author (Country of the Pointed Firs)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Sep 14 Ivan Pavlov, Russian physiologist and pioneer in psychology (Nobel 1904), born in Ryazan, Russia (d. 1936)

Physiologist Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Pavlov
  • Sep 21 Edmund Gosse, translator/critic (Father & Son), born in London, England
  • Sep 21 Maurice Barrymore, Indian-born patriarch of the Barrymore family (d. 1905)
  • Sep 22 John Godden, English explorer (Curacao)
  • Sep 28 Dudley Allen Sargent, US, physician/educator (Harvard U gymnasium)
  • Oct 6 Basil Zaharoff, arms dealer, "merchant of death"
  • Oct 7 James Whitcomb Riley, US, poet (Raggedy Man)
  • Oct 26 Ferdinand Georg Frobenius, German mathematician (d. 1917)
  • Oct 30 Johan Willem, son of Dutch princess Marianne & coachman
  • Nov 5 Rui Barbosa, Brazil, statesman/jurist/essayist/civil liberties
  • Nov 22 Friedrich von Bernhardi, German historian (Germany & the Next War)
  • Nov 22 Christian Rohlfs, German artist (d. 1938)
  • Nov 24 Frances Hodgson Burnett, British-American playwright and children's author ("The Secret Garden"), born in Manchester (d. 1924)
  • Nov 29 Ambrose Fleming, inventor (diode)
  • Dec 6 August von Mackensen, German field marshal (d. 1945)
  • Dec 11 Ellen Key, Swedish theory/author/feminist (Courageous Woman)
  • Dec 19 Henry Clay Frick, Penn, built world's largest coke & steel operation
  • Dec 21 James Lane Allen, US writer (Kentucky Cardinal)
  • Dec 22 Fritz Mauthner, Bohemia, German author/philosopher (skepticism)
  • Dec 28 Herbert von Bismarck, German politician/son of Otto of Bismarck

Weddings in History

HeartWedding of Interest

May 29 Bacteriologist Louis Pasteur (26) weds secretary Marie Laurent (23) in Strasbourg, France

Bacteriologist Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur

HeartWedding of Interest

Jul 26 Prime Minister of Canada John Abbott (28) weds Mary Bethune at bride's parents home

3rd Prime Minister of Canada John Abbott
3rd Prime Minister of Canada
John Abbott

Divorces in History

  • Mar 28 Dutch princess Marianne & Prince Albert of Prussia separate

Deaths in History

  • Jan 9 Jan Kops, Dutch agriculturist/vicar, dies at 83
  • Jan 16 Wilhelm M L de Wette, German theologist, dies at 69
  • Jan 26 Thomas Lovell Beddoes, English poet (Death's Jest-Book), suicide at 45
  • Feb 8 France Preseren, Slovenian poet (Sonetni Venec), dies at 48
  • Feb 15 Pierre F Verhulst, Belgian mathematician (logistic curve), dies at 44
  • Mar 5 David Scott, Scottish painter (b. 1806)
  • Mar 15 Giuseppe Caspar Mezzofanti, Italian cardinal and linguist (b. 1774)
  • Mar 17 William II King of the Netherlands (1840-49), dies at 56
  • Mar 27 Archibald Acheson, 2nd Earl of Gosford (b. 1776)
  • Mar 28 Stephan L Endlicher, Austrian priest/botany, dies at 44
  • Apr 3 Juliusz Slowacki, Pol poet (Father of the Plague-Patient), dies at 39
  • May 2 David H Chasse, baron/gen (fought Napoleon at Waterloo), dies at 84
  • May 10 Katsushika Hokusai, Japanese painter, dies at 89
  • May 11 Jeanne Françoise Julie Adélaïde Récamier, French socialite (b. 1777)
  • May 25 Andreas Michiels, Dutch milt gov of West Sumatra, dies in battle at 52
  • May 25 Benjamin d'Urban, British general and colonial administrator (b. 1777)
  • May 28 Anne Brontë, English novelist (The Tenant of Wildfell Hall), dies at 29
  • May 31 Leonard PJ du Bus de Gisignies, gov-gen of Neth-Indies, dies at 69
  • Jun 10 Thomas Robert Bugeaud, Marshal of France and duke of Isly (b. 1784)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jun 15 James Knox Polk, 11th US President (1845-1849), dies in Nashville Tenn at 53

11th US President James Knox Polk
11th US President
James Knox Polk
  • Jul 12 Dolley Madison, 4th First Lady Of The United States (b. 1768)
  • Jul 28 Charles Albert, King of Sardinia (1831-49), dies
  • Jul 30 Jacob Perkins, American Inventor, dies at 83
  • Aug 2 Governor Muhammad Ali of Egypt (b. 1769)
  • Aug 12 Abraham AA "Albert" Gallatin, Min of Finance (1801-14), dies at 88
  • Sep 3 Earnest Freiherr von Feuchtersleben, Austria writer/physician, dies

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Oct 7 Edgar Allan Poe, American writer, poet and critic, dies in Baltimore at 40

  • Oct 16 George Washington Williams, 1st major African American historian, dies
  • Nov 13 William Etty, English painter best known for paintings of nudes, dies at 62
  • Nov 17 Prince Alexander of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, German priest and miracle-worker (b. 1794)
  • Dec 2 Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, wife of William IV of the United Kingdom (b. 1792)