1863 in History

Events in History

Events 1 - 100 of 254

  • Jan 1 1st homestead under the Homestead Act claimed, near Beatrice, Nebraska
  • Jan 1 Battle of Galveston, Texas-Confederates recapture the city
  • Jan 1 Emancipation Proclamation issued by Lincoln to free slaves in confederate states
  • Jan 2 Battle of Murfreesboro (Stone's River) ends
  • Jan 4 4 wheeled roller skates patented by James Plimpton of NY
  • Jan 4 The New Apostolic Church is established in Germany
  • Jan 8 American Civil War: Second Battle of Springfield
  • Jan 9 -Jan 11th] Battle of Arkansas Post, AR (Ft Hindman)
  • Jan 10 1st underground railway opens in London
  • Jan 10 General McClernand's Union troops surround Fort Hindman Ark
  • Jan 10 January-uprising begins in Poland
  • Jan 11 Naval engagement near Galveston between CSS Alabama & USS Hatteras
  • Jan 11 Union forces capture Arkansas Post, or Ft Hindman, Arkansas
  • Jan 12 President Davis delivers his "State of Confederacy" address
  • Jan 13 Chenille manufacturing machine patented by William Canter, NYC
  • Jan 14 Battle between gunboats at Bayou Teche Louisiana
  • Jan 15 1st US newspaper printed on wood-pulp paper, Boston Morning Journal
  • Jan 16 -Aug 23rd) Cruise of CSS Florida
  • Jan 17 Civil War skirmish near Newtown, Virginia
  • Jan 19 General Mieroslawski appointed dictator of Poland
  • Jan 21 City of Dublin leases part of Cattle Market for 100,000 years
  • Jan 22 Union General Burnside's "Mud March"
  • Jan 25 General Joseph Hooker replaces Burnside as head of Army of Potomac
  • Jan 26 American Civil War: Massachusetts Governor receives permission from Secretary of War to raise a militia organization for men of African descent (54th Massachusetts Regiment)
  • Jan 29 Bear River Massacre: American soldiers slaughter hundreds of Native Americans at the confluence of the Bear River and Beaver Creek in present day Idaho
  • Jan 31 1st black Civil War regiment, SC Volunteers, mustered into US army

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 2 Samuel Clemens first uses the pen name Mark Twain in a Virginia City newspaper, the "Territorial Enterprise"

Author Mark Twain
Mark Twain
  • Feb 7 HMS Orpheus sinks off the coast of Auckland, New Zealand, killing 189.
  • Feb 10 1st US fire extinguisher patent granted to Alanson Crane, Virginia
  • Feb 24 Arizona Territory created
  • Feb 24 Forrest's raid on Brentwood, Tennessee
  • Feb 25 Congress creates national banking system, comptroller of currency
  • Feb 26 Lincoln signs National Currency Act
  • Feb 28 Confederate raider "Nashville" sinks near Fort McAllister, Georgia
  • Mar 3 US Congress authorizes track width of 4'8½" for Union Pacific Railroad
  • Mar 3 1st US wartime military conscription bill enacted

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 3 Abraham Lincoln approves charter for National Academy of Sciences

US President Abraham Lincoln
US President
Abraham Lincoln
  • Mar 3 Congress authorizes a US mint at Carson City, Nevada
  • Mar 3 Federal ironclad ships bombard Fort McAllister, Georgia
  • Mar 3 Free city delivery replaces zone postage; 449 letter carriers hired
  • Mar 3 Gold certificates (currency) authorized by US Congress
  • Mar 3 Idaho Territory forms
  • Mar 4 Battle of Thompson's Station, TN
  • Mar 4 Territory of Idaho established
  • Mar 17 Battle of Kelly's Ford, VA (211 casualities)
  • Mar 19 The SS Georgiana, said to have been the most powerful Confederate cruiser, is destroyed on her maiden voyage with a cargo of munitions, medicines and merchandise then valued at over $1,000,000. The wreck was discovered on the same day and month, exactly 102 years later by then teenage diver and pioneer underwater archaeologist E. Lee Spence.
  • Mar 20 Battle of Pensacola FL -evacuated by Federals
  • Mar 21 Naval Engagement at Havana, Cuba: USS Henrick Hudson vs Confederate blokcade runner Wild Pigeon
  • Mar 25 1st US Army Medal of Honor awarded
  • Mar 25 Skirmish at Brentwood Tennessee
  • Mar 26 Voters in West Virginia approve gradual emancipation of slaves

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 27 American Confederate President Jefferson Davis calls for this to be a day of fasting & prayer

President of the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis
  • Mar 30 Danish prince Wilhelm Georg of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg chosen as king George of Greece
  • Mar 31 Battle of Grand Gulf MS & Dinwiddie Court House VA
  • Apr 1 1st wartime conscription law in US goes into effect
  • Apr 2 Bread revolt in Richmond, Virginia
  • Apr 7 Battle of Charleston SC, failed Federal fleet attack on Fort Sumter
  • Apr 10 Rebel Gen Earl Van Dorn attacks at Franklin, Tenn
  • Apr 11 Battle of Suffolk, VA (Norfleet House)
  • Apr 12 -14] Gunboat battle at Bayou Teche Louisiana
  • Apr 13 Battle of Irish Bend, LA (Ft Bisland)
  • Apr 13 Hospital for Ruptured & Crippled in NY is 1st orthopedic hospital
  • Apr 14 William Bullock patents continuous-roll printing press
  • Apr 17 R Grierson's: La Grange, TN to Baton Rouge, LA
  • Apr 19 Union troops/fleet occupy For Huger, Virginia
  • Apr 21 Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith, enters gardens of Rivden, near Baghdad. Makes the declaration of aha'u'llah during 12 days spent there
  • Apr 24 Skirmish at Okolona/Birmingham, Mississippi (Grierson's Raid)
  • Apr 27 Battle of Streight's raid: Tuscumbia to Cedar Bluff, AL
  • Apr 29 Battle of Chancellorsville, VA (Fredericksburg, Wilderness Tavern)

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

Apr 30 -5/1] Battle of Snyder's Bluff, Virginia (part of the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War): General Sherman beaten by Confederate forces

  • Apr 30 Mexican forces attacked the French Foreign Legion in Hacienda Camarón, Mexico.
  • May 1 Battle of Chancellorsville, VA (29,000 injured or died)
  • May 1 Battle of Port Gibson, Mississippi
  • May 1 Confederate "National Flag" replaces "Stars & Bars"
  • May 1 Confederate congress passed resolution to kill black soldiers
  • May 2 South defeats North in Battle of Chancellorsville, Va

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 2 Stonewall Jackson attacks Chancellorsville, wounded by his own men

Confederate General Stonewall Jackson
Confederate General
Stonewall Jackson
  • May 3 Battle of Fredricksburg, VA (Marye's Heights)
  • May 3 Battle of Salem Church, VA
  • May 4 Battle of Chancellorsville-action at Salem Church
  • May 4 End of Chancellorsville - Beaten Union army withdraws
  • May 8 Confederación Granadina becomes Estados Unidos de Colombia
  • May 12 Battle of Raymond, Miss
  • May 14 American Civil War: The Battle of Jackson, MS takes place.
  • May 16 Battle of Champion's Hill, Mississippi-bloodiest action of Vicksburg Campaign
  • May 17 Battle of Big Black River Bridge, MS
  • May 17 Rosalía de Castro publishes Cantares Gallegos, her first book in the Galician language.
  • May 18 Siege of Vicksburg, MS
  • May 19 Siege of Vicksburg, investment of city complete
  • May 21 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana, begins

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 22 General Ulysses S. Grant begins siege on Vicksburg

US President & Union General Ulysses S. Grant
US President & Union General
Ulysses S. Grant
  • May 22 War Dept establishes Bureau of Colored Troops
  • May 23 Organization of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Battle Creek, Michigan.
  • May 27 CSS Chattahoochie explodes on Chattahoochie River GA, 18 die
  • May 27 Siege of Port Hudson LA
  • May 28 1st black regiment (54 Mass) leaves Boston to fight in Civil War

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jun 2 Harriet Tubman leads Union guerrillas into Maryland, freeing slaves

Abolitionist Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman
  • Jun 5 Battle of Franklin's Crossing, VA (Deep Run)
  • Jun 5 CSS "Alabama" captures "Tailsman" in Mid Atlantic
  • Jun 6 Battle of Milliken's Bend, LA & Williamsport, MD

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 1 Aleko Konstantinov, Bulgarian writer (To Chicago & Back)
  • Jan 2 Lucia Zarate, became lightest known adult human (2.1 kg at 17)
  • Jan 12 Swami Vivekananda, Indian Hindu spiritual leader and a key figure in the introduction of Yoga to the Western world, born in Kolkata, India (d. 1902)
  • Jan 14 Pieter Oosterlee, Dutch educator
  • Jan 15 Adolph Goldschmidt, German historian
  • Jan 15 Wilhelm Marx, premier (Prussia)
  • Jan 17 David Lloyd George, (L-PM-Britain, 1916-22)
  • Jan 17 Konstantin S Stanislavski, Russia, director (Stanislavski Method)
  • Jan 19 Werner Sombart, German fascist (Juden und das Wirtschaftsleben)
  • Jan 28 Ernst William Christmas, Australian painter (d. 1918)
  • Jan 31 F Henri Berz, French existensialist philosopher (Revue the Synthesis)
  • Feb 9 Anthony Hope [Hopkins], novelist, born in London, England
  • Feb 17 Fyodor Sologub, Russian symbolist novelist and poet (d. 1927)
  • Feb 23 Franz von Stuck, German painter (Der Krieg)
  • Mar 1 Alexander Golovin, Russian painter (d. 1930)
  • Mar 3 Arthur Machen, Welsh-born author (d. 1947)
  • Mar 4 Reginald Innes Pocock, British zoologist (d. 1947)
  • Mar 4 John Henry Wigmore, American jurist and expert in the law of evidence (d. 1943)
  • Mar 11 Wobbe de Vries, Dutch linguist
  • Mar 12 Adolf A Wolfschoon, Curacao, poet
  • Mar 12 Gabriele D'Annunzio, Italy, writer/military hero (Intruder)
  • Mar 12 Vladimir Vernadsky, Russian mineralogist (d. 1945)
  • Mar 21 George Owen Squier, American inventor and Major General in U.S. Signal Corp (d. 1934)
  • Mar 23 Godfried CE van Daalen, Dutch general/governor of Atjeh
  • Mar 25 Simon Flexner, American pathologist (d. 1946)
  • Mar 27 Henry Royce, automobile founder (Rolls-Royce)
  • Apr 2 Henry C Van de Velde, Flemish painter/architect (Art Nouveau)
  • Apr 12 Raul d'Avila Pompeia, Brazilian writer (Boarding School)
  • Apr 17 Augustus Edward Hough Love, English mathematician (d. 1940)
  • Apr 22 Cornelis A J van Dishoeck, Dutch publisher
  • Apr 26 Arno Holz, German writer (Phantasus), born in Rastenburg, East Prussia (d. 1929)
  • Apr 26 Charles Haslewood Shannon, lithographer/painter

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Apr 29 William Randolph Hearst, American newspaper publisher (San Francisco Examiner, Seattle P-I), born in San Francisco, California (d. 1951)

Newspaper Publisher William Randolph Hearst
Newspaper Publisher
William Randolph Hearst
  • Apr 29 Constantine P. Cavafy, Greek poet (d. 1933)
  • Apr 29 Maria Theresa Ledochowska, Polish-Austrian Catholic nun (d. 1922)
  • May 5 Frederik A Stoett, linguist (Dutch Proverbs)
  • May 14 John Charles Fields, Canadian mathematician and founder of the Fields Medal, born in Hamilton, Ontario (d. 1932)
  • May 24 George Grey Barnard, American sculptor (d. 1938)
  • May 28 Georg Adler, German state economist
  • May 31 Francis E Younghusband, British journalist/explorer
  • Jun 4 Edmond R H Regout, Dutch industrialist/politician
  • Jun 10 Louis M A Couperus, Dutch poet/writer (Eline Vere)
  • Jun 11 Eduard David, German undersecretary (constitution of Weimar)
  • Jun 13 Lady Lucy Duff Gordon, English fashion designer (d. 1935)
  • Jun 17 Duke Charles Michael of Mecklenburg, head of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1934)
  • Jun 18 George Essex Evans, Australian poet (d. 1909)
  • Jun 21 Max Wolf, German astronomer (d. 1932)
  • Jun 25 Emile Francqui, Belgian soldier (d. 1935)
  • Jun 29 James Harvey Robinson, Ill, historian (Ordeal of Civilization)
  • Jul 1 William Grant Stairs, Canadian explorer (d. 1892)
  • Jul 12 Albert Calmette, French physician (d. 1933)
  • Jul 12 Paul Karl Ludwig Drude, German physicist (d. 1906)
  • Jul 13 Emma Mary Wooley, educator (Mary Anna Wells)
  • Jul 19 Hermann Bahr, Austria writer/director (New Men)
  • Jul 28 Hussein Khan Nakhichevanski, Russian general (d. 1919)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 30 Henry Ford, American industrialist and auto maker (Ford Model T), born in Dearborn Township, Michigan (d. 1947)

Ford Motor Company Founder Henry Ford
Ford Motor Company Founder
Henry Ford
  • Aug 1 Gaston Doumergue, premier/President of France (1913..34)
  • Aug 15 Alexei Krylov, Russian engineer and mathematician (d. 1945)
  • Aug 17 Gene Stratton-Porter, American author and naturalist (d. 1924)
  • Aug 24 Dragutin Lerman, Croatian explorer (d. 1918)
  • Sep 6 Rodolfo Lenz, German/Chilian linguist (El Papiamento)
  • Sep 13 Arthur Henderson, Britain, socialist/disarmament worker (Nobel 1934)
  • Sep 18 Hermann Kutter, Swiss Christ-social theologist
  • Sep 23 Alexandre EJ Yersin, Swiss/French bacteriologist (bacteria plague)
  • Sep 23 Mary Church Terrell, civil rights activist
  • Sep 28 Charles, Lisbon Portugal, king (1889-1908)
  • Sep 29 Franz Zorell, German RC exegetist/lexicographer
  • Sep 29 Hugo Haase, German SPD-German parliament/revolutionary
  • Sep 30 Reinhard Scheer, German admiral (WW I)
  • Oct 3 Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov, Russian explorer (d. 1935)
  • Oct 5 Ludwig Borchardt, German Egyptologist
  • Oct 10 Louis Cyr, French Canadian strongman (d. 1912)
  • Oct 13 C-E Auguste Rateau, French mining engineer (Rateau steam turbine)
  • Oct 16 Austen Chamberlain, British Foreign Secretary (Nobel 1925)
  • Oct 19 John Huston Finley, Ill, editor (NY Times (1937-38)
  • Nov 8 René [Raphael] Viviani, French historian/social premier (1914-15)
  • Nov 11 Paul Signac, French painter (d. 1935)
  • Nov 14 Leo H A Baekeland, Belgian/US chemist (bakelite)
  • Nov 18 Richard Dehmel, writer
  • Nov 21 Arthur Quiller-Couch, [Q], editor (Oxford Book of English Verse)
  • Nov 30 Andres Bonifacio, leader of 1896 Philippine revolt against Spain
  • Dec 2 Charles Ringling, American circus owner (d. 1926)
  • Dec 5 Paul P Painlevé, French PM (1917, 1925), mathematician [OS]
  • Dec 6 Charles Martin Hall, American chemist (d. 1914)
  • Dec 7 Svetolik Rankovic, Serbian writer (Forest King)
  • Dec 7 Felix Calonder, Scuol, Swiss politician (Free Democratic Party)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Dec 11 Annie Jump Cannon, Dover Delware, US stellar spectroscopist (Harvard-classification)

Astronomer Annie Jump Cannon
Annie Jump Cannon

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Dec 12 Edvard Munch, Løten, Norway, painter/print maker (The Scream), (d. 1944)

Painter and Print Maker Edvard Munch
Painter and Print Maker
Edvard Munch
  • Dec 13 Johannes Weiss, German New Testament scholar
  • Dec 15 Arthur D Little, US, chemist (patented rayon)
  • Dec 15 Paul [Prudent] Painlevé, French mathematician/minister/premier [NS]
  • Dec 16 George Santayana, Spain, philosopher/poet/humanist (Last Puritan)
  • Dec 16 Ralph Adams Cram, US, gothic architect (Cathedral of St Joan NYC)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Dec 18 Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, Graz Austria, His assassination in 1914 led to declarations of war in WWI

Archduke of Austria Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria
Franz Ferdinand
  • Dec 22 Ch'i Pai-shih, China, traditional Chinese painter
  • Dec 22 Jean-Baptiste Marchand, Thoissey France, soldier/explorer (Sudan)
  • Dec 31 Alfredo Panzini, Italian author (Dizionario Moderno)

Weddings in History

  • Feb 10 PT Barnum stages wedding of Tom Thumb & Mercy Lavinia Warren, both midgets, in NYC
  • Mar 10 Prince of Wales, Albert Edward (21) weds Princess Alexandra of Denmark (18) at Windsor Castle in St. George's chapel

HeartWedding of Interest

Oct 28 Painter Edouard Manet (31) weds Suzanne Leenhoff (34)

Impressionist painter Edouard Manet
Impressionist painter
Edouard Manet

Deaths in History

  • Jan 2 Roger Weightman Hanson, Confederate brig-gen, dies in Battle of Murfreesboro at 35
  • Jan 10 Lyman Beecher, US Presbyterian clergyman, temperance movement leader (b. 1775)
  • Jan 17 E J Horace Vernet, French painter, dies at 73
  • Mar 11 Sir James Outram, 1st Baronet, English general (b. 1803)
  • Mar 17 John Pelham, US Confederate artillery major, dies in battle at 24
  • Mar 21 Edwin Vose Sumner, US Union-general-major (Fair Oaks), dies at 66
  • Mar 28 James Cooper, US attorney/senator/Union-brig-general, dies at 52
  • Apr 4 Ludwig Emil Grimm, German painter and engraver (b. 1790)
  • Apr 10 Giovanni B Amia, Italian astronomer/physicist/botanist, dies at 77
  • Apr 17 Daniel Smith Donelson, Confederate general/cousin of Andrew Jackson, dies at 61
  • May 1 Edward Dorr Tracy, US Confederate brig-general, dies in battle at 29
  • May 3 Elisha Franklin "Bull" Paxton, US Confederate brig-gen, dies at 35
  • May 7 Amiel Weeks Whipple, US Union gen-major, dies of injuries at 46

Person of interestPerson of Interest

May 10 Thomas Jackson, ["Stonewall"], Confederate general (Civil War), dies at 39

Confederate General Stonewall Jackson
Confederate General
Stonewall Jackson
  • May 16 Lloyd Tilghman, Confederate brig-general, dies in battle at 47
  • May 27 Edward Payson Chapin, Union Brigadier General, dies at 31
  • May 28 Edmund Kirby Jr, Union-brig-gen, dies of injuries at 23
  • Jun 9 Benjamin Franklin "Grimes" Davis, Union major, dies in battle at 30
  • Jun 17 Isham W Garrott, US attorney/Confederate brig-general, dies in battle
  • Jun 26 Andrew Hull Foote, US Union lt admiral, dies
  • Jun 27 Martin E Green, Confederate brig-general, shot dead at 38
  • Jul 1 John Fulton Reynolds, Union general-major, dies in battle at 42
  • Jul 2 Stephen Hinsdale Weed, US Union brig-general, dies in battle at 28
  • Jul 3 Alonzo Hersford Cushing, US Union lt, dies in battle at about 22
  • Jul 3 Lewis Addison Armistead, Confederate brigadier general Gettysburg/dies in battle at 46
  • Jul 3 Little Crow, [Ta-oya-te-duta], Santee Sioux indian chief, dies
  • Jul 3 Richard Brooke Garnett, US Confederate Brigadier General, dies in battle at 45
  • Jul 3 Samuel Kosciuzko Zook, US Union general-major, dies in battle at 40
  • Jul 3 Richard B. Garnett, Confederate Brigadier General, killed during Pickett's Charge, Battle of Gettysburg at 45
  • Jul 3 George Hull Ward, American general (b. 1826)
  • Jul 4 Paul Joseph Revere, US grandson of Paul Revere/Union brig-gen, dies
  • Jul 6 Strong Vincent, US Union brig-general, dies
  • Jul 8 Francis P Kenrick, Irish/US archbishop of Baltimore, dies at 65
  • Jul 10 Clement Clarke Moore, American Professor and writer ('Twas the Night Before Xmas), dies at 83
  • Jul 10 Paul Jones Semmes, US businessman/Confederate brig-general, dies at 48
  • Jul 13 John S Bowen, US architect/Confederate gen-major, dies at 32
  • Jul 17 James Johnston Pettigrew, US attorney/Confederate, dies at 35
  • Jul 18 William Dorsey Pender, US Confederate Major General, dies of injuries at 29

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 26 Sam Houston, 1st President of Republic of Texas (1836-38, 1841-44) who helped bring Texas into the United States as a constituent state, dies at 70

Texan Revolutionary Sam Houston
Texan Revolutionary
Sam Houston
  • Jul 27 William Lowndes Yancey, American Confederate leader (b. 1813)
  • Jul 28 James Deshler, US Confederate brig-general, dies in battle at 30
  • Jul 29 Edward Needle Kirk, US Union brig-general, dies in battle at about 35
  • Jul 30 George Crockett Strong, US Union gen-mjr, dies of injuries at 29
  • Aug 8 Angus MacAskill known as 'Giant MacAskill', circus performer (b.1825)
  • Aug 13 Eugène Delacroix, French painter (b. 1798)
  • Aug 14 Colin Campbell, British officer (Cawnpore), dies at 70
  • Aug 18 Thomas Welsh, US Union brig-general (Antietam), dies at 39
  • Aug 26 John Buchanan Floyd, US min of War (1857-60)/Confederate general, dies
  • Sep 6 Lucius March Walker, Confederate brig-general (in duel), dies at 33
  • Sep 17 Albartus Telting, Fries poet/2nd-Member of parliament, dies
  • Sep 17 Alfred Victor Comte de Vigny, poet, dies
  • Sep 19 Preston Smith, US Confederate brig-gen, dies in battle at 39
  • Sep 20 Benjamin Hardin Helm, US attorney/Confederate brig-general, dies at 33

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Sep 20 Jakob Grimm, writer, dies at 78

Author Jacob Grimm
Jacob Grimm
  • Oct 2 Justinus van de Brugghen, lawyer/minister of Justice, dies
  • Oct 4 Gerrit Schimmelpenninck, earl of Nijenhuis/Peckedam, dies at 69
  • Oct 21 Lambertus GC Ledeboer, Dutch old-reformed vicar, dies at 55
  • Oct 31 Louis Ludwig Blenker, German/US brig-general (Union), dies at 51
  • Nov 2 Theodore Judah, American railroad engineer (b. 1826)
  • Nov 13 Carnot Posey, Confederate brig-generaal, dies at 50
  • Nov 15 Frederik VII, 1st constitutional king of Denmark (childless), dies
  • Nov 20 James Bruce, Count of Elgin & Kincardine, governor Jamaica, dies at 52
  • Nov 24 Claudius Charles Wilson, Confederate brig-gen during American Civil War, dies of fever at camp in Ringgold, Georgia
  • Dec 13 Friedrich Hebbel, writer, dies at 50
  • Dec 22 Michael Corcoran, Union brig-general, dies at 36
  • Dec 24 W M Thackeray, writer, dies at 52