1865 in History

Events in History

Events 1 - 100 of 172

  • Jan 1 -Apr 26th] Carolinas' campaign
  • Jan 3 Con Orem & Hugh O'Neill box 193 rounds before darkness ends match
  • Jan 4 The New York Stock Exchange opens its first permanent headquarters at 10-12 Broad near Wall Street in New York City.
  • Jan 11 Battle of Beverly, West Virginia, Confederate forces attack Union post
  • Jan 12 -13] Union fleet bombs Fort Fisher NC
  • Jan 13 -Jan 15th] BBT & CPT Ft Fisher, NC
  • Jan 15 Ft Fisher, NC, falls to Union troops
  • Jan 16 Drunken sailor attacks munitions at Ft Fisher NC, 40 die
  • Jan 16 Gen Wm Sherman issues Field Order #15 (land for blacks)
  • Jan 16 SF Dramatic Chronicle started
  • Jan 18 Battle of Ft Moultrie, SC
  • Jan 19 NV Suriname Bank established
  • Jan 19 Union occupies Fort Anderson, NC
  • Jan 23 -Jan 25th) Battle of City Point, VA (James River, Trent's Reach)
  • Jan 25 CSS Shenandoah arrives in Melbourne, Australia

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 28 Confederate President Jefferson Davis names 3 peace commissioners

President of the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis
  • Jan 31 Congress passes the 13th Amendment, abolishing slavery in America (passes 121-24)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 31 General Robert E Lee named Commander-in-Chief of Confederate Armies during US Civil War

Confederate General Robert E. Lee
Confederate General
Robert E. Lee
  • Feb 1 13th amendment approved (National Freedom Day)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 1 General Sherman's march through South Carolina begins

  • Feb 1 JS Rock, 1st black lawyer to practice in US Supreme Court, admitted to bar
  • Feb 3 Hampton Roads Peace Conference, Lincoln & Stephens reach an impasse
  • Feb 4 Hawaiian Board of Education formed
  • Feb 4 Robert E. Lee is named general-in-chief of Confederate forces
  • Feb 5 Battle of Hatcher's Run, VA (Armstrong's Mill, Dabney's Mill)
  • Feb 6 2nd day of battle at Dabney's Mills (Hatcher's Run)
  • Feb 8 Martin Robison Delany, 1st black major in US Army appointed during US Civil war
  • Feb 12 Henry Highland Garnet becomes the 1st black minister to preach to the US House of Representatives, he talks about the end of slavery
  • Feb 17 -18] Battle of Charleston, South Carolina
  • Feb 17 Columbia, South Carolina, burns down during American Civil War
  • Feb 18 Battle of Fort Moultrie, SC occupied by Federals
  • Feb 18 Evacuation of Charleston, South Carolina
  • Feb 18 Union troops force Confederates to abandon Ft Anderson, NC
  • Feb 20 Massachusetts Institute of Technology forms 1st US collegiate architectural school
  • Feb 22 Battle of Wilmington, NC (Fort Anderson) occupied by Federals
  • Feb 22 Tennessee adopts a new constitution abolishing slavery
  • Feb 27 Civil War skirmish near Sturgeon, Missouri
  • Mar 2 British newspaper "Morning Chronicle" begins publishing
  • Mar 2 Freedman's Bureau founded for Black Education, 1865
  • Mar 2 Conferate General Early's army is defeated at the battle of Waynesboro VA during American Civil War
  • Mar 2 Second Taranaki War: The Volkner Incident in New Zealand.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 3 US Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, & Abandoned Lands established by Abraham Lincoln to help destitute free blacks

US President Abraham Lincoln
US President
Abraham Lincoln
  • Mar 3 Opening of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the founding member of the HSBC Group.
  • Mar 4 Confederate congress approves final design of "official flag"
  • Mar 4 Abraham Lincoln inaugurated for his 2nd term as US president
  • Mar 6 Battle of Natural Bridge, Florida
  • Mar 6 President Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Ball
  • Mar 7 -10] Battles round Kinston NC
  • Mar 8 Battle of Kingston, NC (Wilcox's ridge, Wise's Forks)
  • Mar 10 Battle of Monroe's Crossroads, NC
  • Mar 11 General William T. Sherman's Union forces occupies Fayetteville, NC
  • Mar 13 Confederate President Jefferson Davis signs bill authorizing use of slaves as soldiers (US Civil War)
  • Mar 16 Battle of Averasboro NC (1,500 casualities)
  • Mar 18 Battle of Wilson's raid to Selma, AL
  • Mar 18 Congress of Confederate States of American adjourns for last time
  • Mar 19 Battle of Bentonville-Confederates retreat from Greenville NC
  • Mar 20 2nd day of Battle of Bentonville NC
  • Mar 20 Michigan authorizes workers' cooperatives
  • Mar 21 Battle of Bentonville ends, last Confederate effort to stop Sherman
  • Mar 22 Raid at Wilson's: Chickaswas AL to Macon GA
  • Mar 23 General Sherman/Cox' troops reach Goldsboro NC
  • Mar 25 Battle of Bluff Spring, FL
  • Mar 25 Battle of Petersburg: In an unsuccessful counter attack, Confederate forces attack Fort Stedman
  • Mar 25 Battle of Mobile, AL (Spanish Fort, Fort Morgan, Fort Blakely)
  • Mar 25 SS General Lyon at Cape Hatteras catches fire & sinks, killing 400
  • Mar 27 Siege of Spanish Fort, AL-captured by Federals
  • Mar 29 -Apr 9th], Appomattox campaign, VA, 7582 killed
  • Mar 29 Battle of Quaker Road, VA
  • Mar 30 -4] Battle at 5 Forks Virginia
  • Mar 31 Battle of Boydton, VA (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie C H)
  • Mar 31 Gen Pickette moves to 5 Forks, abandoning the defense of Peterburg
  • Apr 1 -9] Battle at Blakely Alabama
  • Apr 1 Battle of 5 Forks Virginia, signalling end of Lee's army
  • Apr 2 Battle of Petersburg ends as the Army of Northern Virginia is forced to retreat under heavy fire from a general Union offensive
  • Apr 2 Confederate President Jefferson Davis flees Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia (US Civil War)
  • Apr 2 Battle of Ft Blakely AL & Selma AL
  • Apr 3 Battle at Namozine Church, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign)
  • Apr 3 Union forces occupy Confederate capital of Richmond & Petersberg, Virginia
  • Apr 4 Lee's army arrives at Amelia Courthouse
  • Apr 5 Battle at Amelia Springs/Jetersville Va (Appomattox Campaign)
  • Apr 6 Battle of Sayler's Creek, fought near Farmville, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign), 1/4 of Lee's army cut off, Union victory (US Civil War)
  • Apr 6 Battle of High Bridge, fought near Farmville, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign), inconclusive result (US Civil War)
  • Apr 7 Battle of Farmville VA
  • Apr 9 Confederate General Robert E Lee and 26,765 troops surrender at Appomattox Court House to US Lieutenant General Ulysses S Grant (US Civil War)
  • Apr 10 At Appomattox, General Robert E. Lee issues Gen Order #9, his last
  • Apr 11 Battle of Mobile, AL - evacuated by Confederates
  • Apr 11 Abraham Lincoln urges a spirit of generous conciliation during reconstruction
  • Apr 13 Raleigh, North Carolina, captured by Union forces
  • Apr 14 Mobile, Alabama is captured
  • Apr 14 U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward and his family are attacked in his home by Lewis Powell.
  • Apr 14 US President Abraham Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 15 Otto von Bismarck elevated to rank of Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen

German Statesman Otto von Bismarck
German Statesman
Otto von Bismarck
  • Apr 15 Abraham Lincoln dies 9 hours after he is shot attending the play "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theatre in Washington
  • Apr 16 Battle of Columbus & West Point, GA (Ft Tyler)
  • Apr 17 Mary Surratt is arrested as a conspirator in Lincoln's assassination
  • Apr 18 Confederate Gen Johnson surrendered to General William T. Sherman in North Carolina
  • Apr 21 Abraham Lincoln's funeral train leaves Washington
  • Apr 24 Fire alarm & police telegraph system put into operation (SF)
  • Apr 26 Battle of Durham Station, NC (Greensboro)
  • Apr 26 Battle of Ft Tobacco, VA

Birthdays in History

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 118

  • Jan 5 Julio Garavito Armero, Colombian astronomer (d. 1920)
  • Jan 10 Mary Ingalls, sister of Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. 1928)
  • Jan 13 Princess Marie of Orléans (d. 1908)
  • Jan 17 Gen Sir Charles Fergusson, Governor-General of New Zealand (d. 1951)
  • Jan 20 Friedrich A H von Waldeck, brother of queen Emma/last ruler of Waldeck
  • Jan 22 Friedrich Paschen, German physicist
  • Jan 28 Lala Lajpat Rai, Indian freedom fighter (d. 1928)
  • Jan 28 Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg, first president of Finland (d. 1952)
  • Jan 30 Samuel Pl'h Naber, Dutch rear-admiral/librarian
  • Jan 31 Henri Desgrange, Founder of the Tour-de-France (d. 1940)
  • Jan 31 Shastriji Maharaj, Indian spiritual leader (d. 1951)
  • Feb 3 Martinus Ballings, Flemish jesuit/author (Will Power)
  • Feb 4 Charles Bally, Swiss linguist (Le langage et la vie)
  • Feb 9 Erich von Drygalski, Germany, geographer/glaciologist/Antarctic expl
  • Feb 12 Kazimierz P Tetmajer, Polish writer/poet (Young Poland)
  • Feb 19 Adrian van Oordt, Dutch writer (neo-romantic)
  • Feb 19 Sven Hedin, Sweden, scientist/explorer (Tibet)
  • Feb 21 John Haden Badley, English school founder (d. 1967)
  • Feb 22 Otto Modersohn, German painter
  • Feb 28 Arthur Symons, Welsh poet/critic/co-founder (Savoy)
  • Feb 28 Wilfred Grenfell, England, medical missionary
  • Feb 28 Wilfred Grenfell, British medical missionary to Newfoundland and Labrador, born in Neston, England
  • Mar 1 Gerard Vissering, Dutch banker/president (Bank of Java)
  • Mar 1 Abe Iso, Japanese politician (d. 1949)
  • Mar 8 Frederick William Goudy, US, printer/type designer
  • Mar 9 Margaret Murray Washington, wife of Booker T/head (NACW 1896..1918)
  • Mar 19 William Morton Wheeler, American entomologist, myrmecologist, pioneer in ethology (d. 1937)
  • Mar 21 Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher, English historian and politician, born in London (d. 1940)
  • Mar 25 Pierre Weiss, Mulhouse, France, French physicist (theory of ferromagnetism)
  • Mar 30 Heinrich Rubens, German physicist
  • Apr 1 Richard Zsigmondy, Germany, chemist (Nobel-1925)
  • Apr 8 Charles W. Woodworth, American entomologist (d. 1940)
  • Apr 9 Charles Proteus Steinmetz, Germany, experiment with AC electricity
  • Apr 9 Erich Ludendorff, general (Germany)
  • Apr 10 Jack Miner, Canadian conservationist (d. 1944)
  • Apr 16 Henry George Chauvel, Australian general (d. 1945)
  • Apr 17 Ursula Julia Ledochowska, Polish-Austrian Catholic saint (d. 1939)
  • Apr 23 Ali-Agha Shikhlinski, Russian-Azerbaijani general (d. 1943)
  • Apr 27 Emile Erens, Dutch Hagiographer (Pastor of Ars)
  • Apr 30 Max Nettlau, German anarchist (d. 1944)
  • May 2 Clyde Fitch, American playwright (d. 1909)
  • May 5 Nellie Bly, [Elizabeth Cochran Seaman], American journalist and writer (d. 1922)
  • May 15 Albert Verwey, Dutch poet/literature historian (Motion)
  • May 18 William Heinemann, England, publisher (Chemical Instrumental)
  • May 23 Epitácio Pessoa, President of Brazil (d. 1942)
  • May 25 Frederick Augustus III, King of Saxon (1904-18)
  • May 25 John Raleigh Mott, organizer (YMCA, Nobel 1946)
  • May 25 Pieter Zeeman, Dutch physicist (Zeeman effect, Nobel Prize 1902), born in Zonnemaire, Schouwen-Duiveland
  • May 26 Akseli V Gallen-Kallela, Fins painter/graphic artist/illustrator
  • May 26 Robert W. Chambers, American artist (d. 1933)
  • May 28 Gerrit Grijns, Dutch physiologist (Vitamin E)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jun 3 George V, King of Great Britain (1910-36), born in Marlborough House, London, (d. 1936)

King of the United Kingdom George V
King of the United Kingdom
George V
  • Jun 10 Frederick A Cook, American explorer, claimed to have 1st discovered North Pole, born in Callicoon, New York (d. 1940)
  • Jun 11 Jan H Leopold, Dutch poet (translated Omar Khayyam)
  • Jun 13 William Butler Yeats, Ireland, poet (Wild Swans at Coole-Nobel 1923)
  • Jun 15 L H Perquin, Dutch religious radio speaker
  • Jun 19 Alfred Hugenberg, German RC pres-dir of Krupp/media magnate
  • Jun 24 Robert Henri, US painter, leader of Ashcan school of painting
  • Jun 26 Bernard Berenson, art critic (Italian Painters of the Renaissance)
  • Jun 26 Charles E Bonin, French explorer/diplomat (China)
  • Jun 28 Otto Julius Bierbaum, German writer/journalist (Remarkable Stories)
  • Jun 29 Shigechiyo Izumi, once thought to be the world's oldest man ever but birth date now disputed (120 y 237 d)
  • Jun 29 William E Borah, lawyer/(Sen-R-Id)
  • Jul 2 Lili Braun, Prussia, feminist/socialist writer (Im Schatten Titanen)
  • Jul 10 Jan "Pa" van der Steur, Dutch philanthropist (Steurtjes)
  • Jul 14 Annie Jones, Virginia, bearded lady
  • Jul 15 Alfred Charles William Harmsworth, 1st viscount Northcliffe
  • Jul 15 Wilhelm Wirtinger, Austrian mathematician (d. 1945)
  • Jul 16 George A Birmingham, [Rev James Owen Hannay], novelist
  • Jul 18 Laurence Housman, England, author/playwright (Victoria Regina)
  • Jul 19 Charles Horace Mayo, surgeon/co-founder (Mayo Clinic)
  • Jul 23 Friedrich Aereboe, Dutch landlord (d. 1942)
  • Jul 23 Max Heindel, Danish Christian occultist, astrologer, and mystic (d. 1919)
  • Jul 25 Jac[obus] P. Thijsse, Dutch biologist and educator (Contact with Plants), born in Maastricht, Netherlands (d. 1945)
  • Jul 26 Philipp Scheidemann, German Parliament (SPD)/mayor of Kassel
  • Aug 2 Irving Babbitt, US writer (Rousseau & Romanticism)
  • Aug 2 John Radecki, Australian stained glass artist (d. 1955)
  • Aug 14 Guido Castelnuovo, Italian mathematician, born in Venice (d. 1952)
  • Aug 15 Johan[nes] B Schepers, Frisian writer (Braga)
  • Aug 15 Mikao Usui, Japanese founder of Reiki (form of spiritual practice), born in Gifu Prefecture, Japan (d. 1926)
  • Aug 22 Piet A W Hopmans, bishop of Breda (Eucharistic Crusade)
  • Aug 24 Ferdinand I VAM, King of Romania (1914-27), born in Sigmaringen, German Confederation (d. 1927)
  • Aug 27 Charles Gates Dawes, (R) 30th VP (1925-29, Nobel 1925)
  • Aug 27 James Henry Breasted, American Egyptologist (d. 1935)
  • Sep 3 Wilhelm Bousset, German theologist/historian
  • Sep 8 Adolfo Albertazzi, Italian writer (Amore & Amore, Top)
  • Sep 11 Rainis, Latvian poet and playwright (d. 1929)
  • Sep 15 Henri [Lucien] Capitant, French lawyer (Loi Falcidie)
  • Sep 15 Nicolaus Adriani, linguist (Middle-Celebes languages)
  • Sep 20 Lubor Niederle, Czech archaeologist/slavist
  • Sep 23 Emmuska Orczy, Tarnaörs Hungary, Hungarian-born British writer (Scarlet Pimpernel)
  • Sep 26 Mary Russell, Duchess of Bedford, English pilot and ornithologist (d. 1937)
  • Oct 3 Johannes IJWJ Eilerts de Haan, Dutch sea officer (Lucie R, Suriname)
  • Oct 4 Max Halbe, German playwright (Jugend), born in Güttland, Gdańsk (d. 1944)
  • Oct 10 Raffaele Merry del Val, Spanish cardinal
  • Oct 11 Hans E Kinck, Norwegian philological/writer (Mot Karnaval)
  • Oct 12 Arthur Harden, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1940)
  • Oct 15 Walther Amelung, German archaeologist
  • Oct 17 James Rudolph Garfield, American politician (d. 1950)
  • Oct 18 Arie de Jong, Dutch linguist (d. 1957)

Weddings in History

  • Jan 16 Confederate Brigadier-General John Pegram marries Hetty Cary (US Civil War)

HeartWedding of Interest

Sep 27 Physicist Johannes van der Waals (27) weds Anna Magdalena Smit (18)

Physicist/Nobel Laureate Johannes van der Waals
Physicist/Nobel Laureate
Johannes van der Waals

Deaths in History

  • Jan 3 Jozef Lies, Flemish painter, dies at 43
  • Jan 8 Aimé, duc de Clermont-Tonnerre, French general (b. 1779)
  • Jan 16 Edmond François Valentin About, French writer (b. 1828)
  • Jan 19 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, French philosopher and anarchist (b. 1809)
  • Feb 6 John Pegram, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), dies in battle at 33
  • Feb 7 John Henry Winder, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army) and provost marshal, dies at 64
  • Feb 10 Heinrich Lenz, German physicist (b. 1804)
  • Feb 15 Nicholas Wiseman, 1st Archbishop of Westminster (1850-65), dies
  • Feb 24 Edmund John Armstrong, Irish poet, dies at 23
  • Feb 25 Otto Ludwig, German writer (Zwischen Himmel und Erde), dies at 47
  • Mar 1 Anna Paulowna Romanova, great monarch of Russia, dies at 70
  • Mar 2 Carl Sylvius Völkner, German missionary to New Zealand (b. 1819)
  • Mar 10 William Henry "Little Billy" Chase Whiting, Confed gen-maj, dies at 48
  • Mar 20 Keisuke Yamanami, Japanese samurai (b. 1833)
  • Mar 26 Thomas Hancock, pioneer of rubber industry (Stoke Newington), dies
  • Mar 27 Petrus Hoffman Peerlkamp, Dutch scholar (b. 1786)
  • Mar 28 Albert G Bilders, Dutch landscape painter, dies at 26
  • Apr 2 Ambrose Powell Hill, Confederate general, killed in action at 39
  • Apr 2 Richard Cobden, founder Anti-Corn-Law League, dies at 60
  • Apr 6 John Austin Wharton, US Confederate general-major, dies at 36
  • Apr 6 Reuben B Boston, US Confederate cavalery colonel, dies in battle
  • Apr 9 Thomas Alfred Smyth, Irish/US Union general-major, dies at 32

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Apr 15 Abraham Lincoln, 16th American President, dies from gunshot wounds at 56

US President Abraham Lincoln
US President
Abraham Lincoln
  • Apr 16 Robert C Tyler, US Confederate brigadier general, dies in battle
  • Apr 22 Francis Washburn, US Union colonel/gen major, dies of injuries
  • Apr 23 James Dearing, US Confederate brigadier general, dies at 24
  • Apr 28 Samuel Cunard, Canadian-born British shipping magnate (b. 1787)
  • Apr 30 Robert Fitzroy, English admiral and meteorologist (b. 1805)
  • May 21 Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, Danish Archaeologist, created Stone, Bronze, Iron age system, dies at 76
  • May 30 William Clarke Quantrill, criminal/Confederate bushwhacker, dies at 27
  • Jun 2 John E Feisser, founder (1st Dutch baptist church), dies at 59
  • Jun 2 Ner Alexander Middleswarth, American politician (b. 1783)
  • Jun 3 Okada Izō, Japanese samurai (b. 1838)
  • Jun 8 Joseph Paxton, English architect, gardener and MP (Crystal Palace), dies at 61
  • Jun 13 Cleaveland J Campbell, Union brigadier general, dies at about 29
  • Jun 15 Edmun Ruffin, US secessionist/writer, commits suicide
  • Jun 21 Frances Adeline Seward, wife of United States Secretary of State William H. Seward (b. 1824)
  • Jul 7 Mary Surratt, & 3 other Lincoln conspirators, hanged
  • Jul 7 Lewis Paine, Lincoln conspirator (b. 1844)
  • Jul 7 David Herold, Lincoln conspirator (b. 1842)
  • Jul 15 Reinier C Bakhuizen van de Brink, Dutch historian, dies at 55
  • Jul 25 James Barry [Margaret Ann Bulkley], British military surgeon and the 1st woman in Great Britain to become a qualified medical doctor, dies at 66 or 67
  • Jul 30 George Wright, US Union brigadier general, dies at 61
  • Aug 12 William Jackson Hooker, botanist, dies
  • Aug 13 Ignaz Semmelweis, gynecologist, dies at 47
  • Aug 17 Mosby Munroe Parsons, United States officer in the Mexican–American War and brigadier general of the Confederate States Army, dies in battle at 42
  • Aug 26 Johann F Encke, German astronomer (Comet Encke), dies at 73
  • Aug 26 Marcellus Monroe Crocker, US attorney/Union brigadier general, dies at 35
  • Aug 29 John Brough, US publisher/(gov-R-Ohio), dies at about 54
  • Sep 11 Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière, French general, dies at 59
  • Sep 16 Christian Julius De Meza, Danish general (b. 1792)
  • Sep 20 William H Revere Jr, US Union brigadier general, dies
  • Sep 22 Heinrich Christian Pander, Russian zoologist, dies at 71
  • Sep 30 Samuel David Luzzatto, Italian-Jewish scholar, dies at 65
  • Oct 16 Andrés Bello, Venezuelan poet, lawmaker, philosopher, and sociologist (b. 1781)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Oct 18 Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, British Prime Minister (1855-58 and 1859-65), dies of fever at 80

British Prime Minister Henry John Temple
British Prime Minister
Henry John Temple
  • Oct 20 Champ Ferguson, Confederate guerrilla (b. 1821)
  • Oct 31 William Parson, 3rd Earl of Rosse & maker of large telescopes, dies
  • Nov 10 Henry Wards, Confederate prison supt, executed for excessive cruelty
  • Nov 12 Elizabeth Gaskell, English novelist (b. 1810)
  • Nov 17 James McCune Smith, African-American doctor and abolitionist (b. 1813)
  • Nov 23 René E de Russy, West Indian/US brigadier general, dies at about 75
  • Nov 25 Heinrich Barth, German historian/geographer (Central Africa), dies
  • Nov 29 Herman van Sonsbeeck, Dutch lawyer and statesman, dies at 69
  • Dec 1 Constant van Crombrugghe, Flemish monastery founder, dies at 76
  • Dec 1 Abraham Emanuel Fröhlich, Swiss poet (b. 1796)
  • Dec 10 King Léopold I of Belgium (b. 1790)
  • Dec 14 Johan Georg Forchhammer, Danish geologist (b. 1794)
  • Dec 24 Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, British painter and writer (b. 1793)