1868 in History

Events in History

Events 1 - 100 of 102

  • Jan 3 Meiji Restoration returns authority to Japan's emperors
  • Jan 4 Wilkie Collins' "The Moonstone" is first serialized in "All the Year Round" owned by Charles Dickins
  • Jan 7 Arkansas constitutional convention meets in Little Rock
  • Jan 7 Mississippi constitutional convention meets in Jackson
  • Jan 14 NC constitutional convention meets in Raleigh
  • Jan 14 SC constitutional convention meets with a black majority
  • Jan 16 Refrigerator car patented by William Davis, a fish dealer in Detroit
  • Jan 20 Florida constitutional convention meets in Tallahassee
  • Feb 10 Conservatives & military seize Convention Hall in Florida
  • Feb 16 Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks forms (NY)
  • Feb 24 1st US parade with floats (Mardi Gras-Mobile Alabama)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 24 US House of Representatives vote 126 to 47 to impeach President Andrew Johnson

17th US President Andrew Johnson
17th US President
Andrew Johnson

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 29 1st British government of Benjamin Disraeli forms

British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli
British Prime Minister
Benjamin Disraeli
  • Mar 2 University of Illinois opens
  • Mar 5 Stapler patented in England by C H Gould
  • Mar 5 US Senate organizes to decide charges against President Andrew Johnson
  • Mar 12 Great Britain annexes Basutoland in Africa (later renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho)
  • Mar 12 US Congress abolishes manufacturer's tax
  • Mar 12 Henry O'Farrell attempts to assassinate Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh.
  • Mar 13 Senate begins US President Andrew Johnson's impeachment trial
  • Mar 17 Postage stamp canceling machine patent issued

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 20 Jesse James Gang robs bank in Russelville, Kentucky, of $14,000

Outlaw Jesse James
Jesse James
  • Mar 21 1st US professional women's club, Sorosis, forms in NYC
  • Mar 23 University of California founded (Oakland California)
  • Mar 24 Metropolitan Life Insurance Co forms
  • Mar 27 The Lake Ontario Shore Railroad Company is organized in Oswego, New York.
  • Mar 31 Chinese Embassy arrives aboard steamship China
  • Apr 1 Hampton Institute opens
  • Apr 3 A Hawaiian surfs on highest wave ever - a 50-foot tidal wave
  • Apr 7 Thomas D'Arcy McGee, one of the Canadian Fathers of Confederation is assassinated by the Irish, in one of the few Canadian political assassinations, and only federal politician.
  • Apr 10 1st performance of John Brahms' "A German Requiem"
  • Apr 10 British defeat King of Abyssinia at Magdala
  • Apr 11 The Shogunate is abolished in Japan.
  • Apr 13 Abyssinian War ends as British and Indian troops capture Magdala and Ethiopian Emperor commits suicide
  • Apr 14 SC voters approved constitution, 70,758 to 27,228
  • Apr 16 Louisiana voters approve new constitution
  • Apr 18 San Francisco Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals formed
  • May 9 The city of Reno, Nevada, is founded.
  • May 14 Japanese Boshin War: end of the Battle of Utsunomiya Castle, former Shogunate forces withdraw northward to Aizu by way of Nikkō.
  • May 15 Dutch government of Zuylen van Nijevelt falls
  • May 16 US Senate fails to impeach President Andrew Johnson by one vote.
  • May 20 Republican National Convention, meets in Chicago, nominates Grant
  • May 22 Train robbery at Marshfield, Indiana by the Reno Brothers Gang, who make off with $98,000
  • May 26 President Andrew Johnson avoids impeachment by 1 vote
  • May 29 The assassination of Michael Obrenovich III, Prince of Serbia, in Belgrade.
  • May 30 'Decoration Day', later called Memorial Day, first observed in Northern US states
  • May 31 1st Memorial Day parade held in Ironton, Ohio
  • Jun 1 Texas constitutional convention meets in Austin
  • Jun 1 Treaty of Bosque Redondo is signed allowing the Navajos to return to their lands in Arizona and New Mexico.
  • Jun 4 Van Bosse/Fock government begins
  • Jun 9 1st meeting of Board of Regents, University of California
  • Jun 13 Oscar J Dunn (a black) is elected Lt Governor of Louisiana
  • Jun 19 Maj Gen E R S Canby removes mayor of Columbia SC
  • Jun 22 Arkansas re-joins the US
  • Jun 23 Christopher Latham Sholes patents the "Type-writer"
  • Jun 25 FL, AL, LA, GA, NC & SC readmitted to US
  • Jun 25 US President Andrew Johnson passes a law that government workers would work 8 hr day
  • Jul 4 Battle at Ueno, Japan: last Tokugawa armies defeated
  • Jul 4 In New Zealand, Maori leader Te Kooti and 300 of his followers captured the schooner Rifleman and sailed for New Zealand; the fugitives landed at Whareongaonga six days later
  • Jul 7 Ed Pooley takes 12 dismissals as keeper in match Surrey v Sussex
  • Jul 9 1st black cabinet member in SC (Francis L Cardozo-sect of state)
  • Jul 13 Oscar J Dunn, former slave, installed as lt governor of Louisiana
  • Jul 14 Alvin J Fellows patents tape measure
  • Jul 20 1st use of tax stamps on cigarettes
  • Jul 25 US Congress forms Wyoming Territory (Dakota, Utah & Idaho)
  • Jul 28 US Secretary of State William H. Seward announces 14th Amendment ratified by states, grants citizenship to ex-slaves
  • Aug 8 Earthquake destroyes Arica, Chile
  • Aug 13 Earthquakes kill 25,000 & causes $300 million damages (Peru & Ecuador)
  • Aug 18 French Astronomer Pierre Janssen discovers helium in solar spectrum during eclipse
  • Sep 8 New York Athletic Club forms
  • Sep 22 Race riots in New Orleans, La
  • Sep 23 Grito de Lares proclaims Puerto Rico's independence (crushed by Spain)
  • Sep 25 The Imperial Russian steam frigate Alexander Nevski shipwrecks off Jutland while carrying Grand Duke Alexei of Russia.
  • Sep 28 Battle of Alcolea, causes Queen Isabella II of Spain to flee to France
  • Sep 28 Opelousas Massacre at St Landry Parish Louisiana (200 blacks killed)
  • Sep 30 Spain's Queen Isabella is deposed, flees to France
  • Oct 1 1st edition of Maasbode published

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 1 "Little Women" by Louisa May Alcott is published in America by Roberts Brothers of Boston

  • Oct 7 Cornell University (Ithaca NY) opens
  • Oct 10 1st written account of a Canadian football game
  • Oct 10 Cuba revolts for independence against Spain
  • Oct 17 Constitution of Grand Duchy of Luxembourg comes into effect
  • Oct 21 Severe earthquake at 7:53 AM, centered in Hayward, Calif
  • Oct 26 White terrorists kill several blacks in St Bernard Parish La
  • Oct 30 John Menard of Louisiana is 1st African American elected to US Congress
  • Oct 31 Standard uniform approved for US postal carriers
  • Nov 2 Time zone: New Zealand officially adopts a standard time to be observed nationally
  • Nov 3 First black Congressman elected (John W Menard, Louisiana)

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

Nov 3 Ulysses Grant (R) wins US presidential election over Horatio Seymour (D)

US President & Union General Ulysses S. Grant
US President & Union General
Ulysses S. Grant
  • Nov 11 1st American amateur track & field meet (NYC)
  • Nov 13 American Philological Association organized in NY
  • Nov 23 Louis Ducos du Hauron patents trichrome color photo process

BattleBattle of Interest

Nov 27 Battle at Washita River, Oklahoma. General Custer attacks group of Native American Indians, their chief Black Kettle dies in the attack

  • Nov 30 The inauguration of a statue of King Charles XII of Sweden takes place in the King's garden in Stockholm.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Dec 1 John D. Rockefeller begins anti oil war

Oil Industrialist John D. Rockefeller
Oil Industrialist
John D. Rockefeller

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Dec 3 1st blacks on US trial jury appointed for Jefferson Davis trial

President of the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis
  • Dec 7 Jesse James gang robs bank in Gallatin Missouri, kills 1
  • Dec 9 1st British government of Gladstone forms
  • Dec 9 The first traffic lights are installed outside the Palace of Westminster in London. Resembling railway signals, they use semaphore arms and are illuminated at night by red and green gas lamps.

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 3 Franz V M Cumont, Belgian religious historian
  • Jan 7 Abraham M "Mark" Lidzbarski, Polish/German orientalist
  • Jan 8 Frank Dyson, proved Einstein right about light bent by gravity
  • Jan 9 S. P. L. Sørensen, Danish chemist (d. 1939)
  • Jan 11 Cai Yuanpei, Chinese educator (d. 1940)
  • Jan 14 Catharina A M de Savornin Lohman, Dutch author (Belief)
  • Jan 15 Noach Zjordanija, Georgian veterinarian/premier (1918-21)
  • Jan 19 Gustav Meyrink, writer
  • Jan 31 Theodore William Richards, chemist (atomic weights, Nobel-1914)
  • Feb 4 Constance Gore-booth Markiewicy, Irish patriot/playwright/MP
  • Feb 10 William Allen White, Emporia KS, editor (Pulitzer 1942)
  • Feb 12 Johan H A Schaper, Dutch MP/founder (SDAP)
  • Feb 14 Henricus A Poels, Dutch RC theologist/social foreman
  • Feb 16 Wilhelm Schmidt, German anthropologist/linguist (Anthropos)
  • Feb 22 Henri Polak, union leader/politician (soc-dem)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Feb 23 William E B Du Bois, Great Barrington Massachusetts, civil rights activist and writer (Souls of Black Folk)

Civil Rights Activist W.E.B. Du Bois
Civil Rights Activist
W.E.B. Du Bois
  • Feb 25 Anthony J Block, Dutch lawyer (strafproces)
  • Mar 3 Alain, [Emile-Auguste Chartier], French philosopher/writer
  • Mar 5 Prosper Poullet, Belgian viscount/jurist/minister
  • Mar 15 Grace Chisholm Young, English mathematician (d. 1944)
  • Mar 20 Obe Postma, Frisian poet/geography/historian (Frisian Clay Farm)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 22 Robert A. Millikan, American physicist (photoelectric effect; Nobel 1923), born in Morrison, Illinois (d. 1953)

  • Mar 23 Dietrich Eckart, early supporter of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party and member of Thule Society (d. 1923)
  • Mar 26 Fuad I, king of Egypt (1922-36)
  • Mar 28 Cuno Amiet, Swiss painter

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 28 Maxim Gorky [Alexei Maximovich Peshkov], Russian playwright and author (Mother and The Lower Depths), born in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (d. 1936)

Playwright & Author Maxim Gorky
Playwright & Author
Maxim Gorky
  • Mar 31 Karl Bonhoeffer, German psychiatrist/neurologist
  • Apr 1 Edmond Rostand, France, poet/playwright (Cyrano de Bergerac)
  • Apr 12 Akiyama Saneyuki, Japanese naval commander (d. 1918)
  • Apr 14 Peter Behrens, German architect (d. 1940)
  • Apr 17 Charles R Gallas, Dutch lexicographer (French dictionary)
  • Apr 18 Didericus G van Epen, genealogist (Dutch Patriciate)
  • Apr 21 Robert Herrick, American novelist (Common lot), born in Cambridge, Massachusetts (d. 1938)
  • Apr 22 Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria (d. 1924)
  • Apr 25 John Bevins Moisant, pioneer aviator, first to cross English Channel with passenger and a cat, killed in New Orleans whose present day airport was originally name for him. (D. 1910)
  • Apr 26 Harold Sidney Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere/Newspaper publisher
  • Apr 28 Georgy Voronoy, Russian mathematician (d. 1908)
  • May 6 Wladyslaw Stanislaw Reymont, Poland, novelist (Chiopi, Nobel-1924)
  • May 6 Gaston Leroux, French writer (d. 1927)
  • May 12 Halsey William Wilson, US, publisher of reference books
  • May 17 Horace Elgin Dodge, American automobile manufacturer (d. 1920)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

May 18 Nicholas II Alexandrovich, Last tsar of Russia (1894-1917), born in Saint Petersburg, Russia (d. 1918)

  • May 19 John Fillmore Hayford, Rouses Point New York, American Geodesist who established the theory of isostasy and founded the modern science of geodesy (precise measurements of the shape of the earth)
  • May 24 Charles E. Taylor, First aircraft maintenance professional (d. 1956)
  • May 28 Claude Anet, [Jean Schopfer], French writer (Fille Perdue)
  • Jun 3 Aristides Agramonte y Simoni, Camagüey Cuba, Cuban-American Physician, Pathologist and Bacteriologist (yellow fever)
  • Jun 5 James Connolly, Irish socialist (d. 1916)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jun 6 Robert Falcon Scott, British leader of ill-fated south pole expedition, born in Plymouth, England (d. 1912)

Polar Explorer Robert Scott
Polar Explorer
Robert Scott
  • Jun 7 Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Scottish architect, designer, and illustrator (d. 1928)
  • Jun 14 Karl Landsteiner, Austria, immunologist/pathologist (Nobel 1930)
  • Jun 18 Miklos Horthy von Nagybanya, Hungarian admiral/regent (1910-44)
  • Jun 20 Helen Miller Shepard, philanthropist/established Hall of Fame
  • Jun 21 Edwin Stephen Goodrich, English zoologist (d. 1946)
  • Jun 29 George Ellery Hale, American astronomer (d. 1938)
  • Jul 4 Henrietta Swan Leavitt, American astronomer (d. 1921)
  • Jul 6 Petrus A Euwens, Dutch vicar/editor (Amigoe di Curacao)
  • Jul 6 Princess Victoria of the United Kingdom (d. 1935)
  • Jul 12 Stefan George, Germany, lyric poet (Algabal)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 14 Gertrude Bell, British archaeologist (Desert & The Sown), born in Washington Hall, County Durham, England (d. 1926)

Archaeologist and Writer Gertrude Bell
Archaeologist and Writer
Gertrude Bell
  • Jul 20 Miron Cristea, 1st Patriarch of All Romania (d. 1939)
  • Jul 28 George Morren, Flemish painter/sculptor, born in Antwerp (d. 1941)
  • Jul 28 Thomas P Krag, Norwegian writer (Jon Graeff, Ulf Ran)
  • Jul 30 Alfred Weber, German economist/sociologist
  • Aug 2 Constantine I, king of Greece
  • Aug 6 Paul Claudel, France, diplomat/poet (L'Otage-1909)
  • Aug 7 Ladislaus Bortkiewicz, Russian mathematician (d. 1931)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Aug 10 Hugo Eckener, German inventor and commander of the famous Graf Zeppelin during its record-setting flights, born in Flensburg, Schleswig-Holstein (d. 1954)

Inventor and Zeppelin Commander Hugo Eckener
Inventor and Zeppelin Commander
Hugo Eckener
  • Aug 12 Frederic Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, 22nd Governor of New South Wales (1908-13) and Viceroy of British India (1916-21), born in London, England (d. 1933)
  • Aug 16 Bernarr McFadden, American physical culture advocate, credited with beginning the culture of health and fitness in the United States, born in Mill Spring, Missouri (d. 1955)
  • Aug 22 Willis Rodney Whitney, Jamestown New York, American Chemist, founder of the General Electric research laboratory, and pioneer of industrial scientific research
  • Sep 1 Henri Bourassa, French Canadian politician and publisher (d. 1952)
  • Sep 6 Heinrich Häberlin, Swiss Federal Councilor (d. 1947)
  • Sep 9 Mary Austin, Ill, feminist/nature writer (Land of Little Rain)
  • Sep 15 Dirk B Nanninga, Dutch painter
  • Sep 17 James Alexander Calder, Canadian politician (d. 1956)
  • Oct 4 Marcelo Torcuato the Alvear, President of Argentina (1922-28)
  • Oct 8 Max Slevogt, German painter
  • Oct 16 Franz X Ritter von Epp, German general (China)
  • Oct 18 Ernst Didring, Swedish author (d. 1931)
  • Oct 19 Bertha Landes, 1st woman elected mayor of a major US city (Seattle)
  • Oct 23 Rama V, [Chulalongkorn], leader of Thailand (-1910)
  • Oct 23 Frederick Lanchester, , English Engineer who built the first British petrol automobile (1896), born in London, England
  • Oct 24 Alexandra David-Néel, French explorer and writer (d. 1969)
  • Nov 8 Felix Hausdorff, German mathematician (d. 1942)
  • Nov 9 Emmanuel K de Bom, Flemish author (Wrakken)
  • Nov 10 Gichin Funakoshi, Japanese martial artist (d. 1957)
  • Nov 11 Edouard Vuillard, French painter/graphic artist
  • Nov 22 John Nance Garner, (D) 32nd VP (1933-41)
  • Dec 2 Francis Jammes, French poet/writer (Jammisme)
  • Dec 4 Richard N Roland Holst, Dutch artist/painter
  • Dec 5 Arnold Sommerfeld, German physicist (d. 1951)
  • Dec 9 Fritz Haber, German phycist-chemist (Nobel 1919)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Dec 20 Harvey Firestone, Columbiana Ohio, Industrialist and founder of Firestone Tire and Rubber Company ("where the rubber meets the road"), (d. 1938)

Tire Industrialist Harvey Firestone
Tire Industrialist
Harvey Firestone
  • Dec 22 John Nance Garner, Texas, (VP-D-1933-41)
  • Dec 24 Emanuel Lasker, Germany, world chess champion (1894-21)
  • Dec 28 Marie van Regteren Altena, Dutch painter (Amsterdam's Joffers)

Weddings in History

HeartWedding of Interest

Apr 6 Brigham Young marries his 27th & final wife

Founder of Salt Lake City and President of the LDS Church Brigham Young
Founder of Salt Lake City and President of the LDS Church
Brigham Young

HeartWedding of Interest

Aug 13 Prime Minister of Canada Wilfrid Laurier (26) weds Zoé Lafontaine (27) in Montreal, Canada

Prime Minister of Canada Wilfrid Laurier
Prime Minister of Canada
Wilfrid Laurier

Deaths in History

  • Jan 28 Adalbert Stifter, Austrian author (Witiko), commits suicide at 62
  • Feb 11 Leon Foucault, discovers 1st physical proof of Earth's rotation, dies at 48
  • Feb 29 Ludwig/Louis I, King of Bavaria, dies at 81
  • Mar 4 Jesse Chisholm, American pioneer of the Chisholm Trail (b. 1805)
  • Mar 28 James Thomas Brudenell, 7th earl of Cardigan, dies at about 70
  • Apr 7 D'Arcy McGee, Canadian journalist and Father of Confederation (b. 1825)
  • Apr 13 Tewodros II / Theodorus II, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. 1818) commits suicide
  • Apr 21 Henry James O'Farrell, Australian would-be assassin of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh
  • May 7 Henry Peter Brougham, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain (b. 1778)
  • May 10 Henry Bennett, American politician (b. 1808)
  • May 17 Isami Kondo, Shinsengumi Commander (b. 1834)
  • May 22 Julius Plucker, German mathematician/physicist (formula of P), dies

Person of interestPerson of Interest

May 23 Kit Carson, American frontiersman, Indian fighter and army officer, dies of an aortic aneurysm at 58

Frontiersman Kit Carson
Kit Carson
  • May 26 Michael Barrett, Irish nationalist, last British public execution
  • May 29 Michael Obrenovich III, Prince of Serbia (b. 1823)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jun 1 James Buchanan, 15th US president (1857-61), dies at 77

15th US President James Buchanan
15th US President
James Buchanan

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jun 9 James Brooke, British adventurer and 1st Rajah of Sarawak (1841-68), dies of a stroke at 65

1st White Rajah of Sarawak James Brooke
1st White Rajah of Sarawak
James Brooke
  • Jun 10 Michael Obrenovic, ruler of Sweden, murdered
  • Jun 22 Heber C. Kimball, American religious leader (b. 1801)
  • Jun 25 Carlo Matteucci, Italian physicist (b. 1811)
  • Jul 6 Sanosuke Harada, Shinsengumi Captain (b. 1840)
  • Jul 15 William Thomas Morton, dentist (1st to use ether), dies
  • Jul 19 Soji Okita, Japanese samurai, 1st Captain of the Shinsengumi (b. 1842 or 1844)
  • Jul 24 George Cattermole, painter/illustrator, dies
  • Aug 5 Jacques Boucher de Crèvecœur de Perthes, French archaeologist (b. 1788)
  • Aug 11 Thaddeus Stevens, architect of Radical Reconstruction, dies at 76
  • Aug 25 Costache Negruzzi, Romanian author/poet, dies at about 60
  • Aug 25 Henry P Scholte, Dutch/US vicar (Iowa), dies at 62
  • Aug 25 Jacob van Lennep, Dutch 2nd member of parliament, dies at 66
  • Sep 6 Pierre Adolphe Rost, Louisiana judge, Confederate commissioner (b. 1797)
  • Sep 17 Roman Nose (Wiquini), Cheyenne indian leader, dies
  • Sep 19 William Sprague, American minister and politician from (b. 1809)
  • Sep 26 August Ferdinand Möbius, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1790)
  • Sep 27 Alexander Walewski, French earl/duke/diplomat/Foreign minister, dies
  • Sep 28 Thomas Carmichael Hindman, attorney/Confederate gen-mjr, shot at 40
  • Oct 1 Rama IV, [Phra Chomklao Chaoyuhua], king of Thai (1851-68), dies at 63

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Oct 17 Laura Secord, Canadian heroine of the war of 1812 (b. 1775)

Canadian War Heroine Laura Secord
Canadian War Heroine
Laura Secord
  • Oct 23 Cullen Whipple, American Inventor (pointed screw machine), dies at 67
  • Oct 26 B F Randolph, SC state senator, assassinated
  • Nov 19 Ivane Andronikashvili, Georgian general (b. 1798)
  • Dec 6 August Schleicher, German linguist (b. 1821)
  • Dec 13 Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, German botanist (b. 1794)
  • Dec 24 Adolphe d'Archiac, French paleontologist and geologist (b. 1802)
  • Dec 25 Linus Yale, developer of cylinder lock, dies