1878 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 4 Sofia is emancipated from Ottoman rule.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 8 Secret meeting of King Leopold II's agent & Henry Morton Stanley

Journalist and Explorer Henry Morton Stanley
Journalist and Explorer
Henry Morton Stanley
  • Jan 9 Umberto I becomes King of Italy.
  • Jan 10 US Senate proposes female suffrage
  • Jan 14 US Supreme court rules race separation on trains unconstitutional
  • Jan 16 Captain Burago with a squadron of Russian Imperial army dragoons liberates Plovdiv from Ottoman rule.
  • Jan 24 Revolutionary Vera Zasulich shoots at Fyodor Trepov, Governor of Saint Petersburg.
  • Jan 28 1st telephone exchange (New Haven, CT)
  • Jan 28 George W Coy hired as 1st full-time telephone operator
  • Jan 28 Yale Daily News published, 1st college daily newspaper
  • Feb 2 Greece declares war on Turkey
  • Feb 10 Peace of Zanjón signed between Chileans and the Spanish brings 10 Years War to an end
  • Feb 11 1st weekly weather report published in UK
  • Feb 16 Silver dollar became US legal tender
  • Feb 17 1st telephone exchange in SF opens with 18 phones
  • Feb 18 John Tunstall is murdered by outlaw Jessie Evans, sparking the Lincoln County War in Lincoln County, New Mexico.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 19 Thomas Edison patents the gramophone (phonograph)

Inventor Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
  • Feb 21 World's 1st telephone directory issued, 50 subscribers (New Harbor, Connecticut)
  • Feb 22 Greenback Labor Party forms (Toledo Ohio)
  • Feb 28 US congress authorizes large-size silver certificate
  • Mar 1 First winter ascent of Aneto
  • Mar 3 Bulgaria liberated from Turkey (Peace of San Stefano)
  • Mar 24 British frigate Eurydice sunk; 300 lost
  • Mar 26 Hastings College of Law founded in California
  • Mar 26 Sabi Game Reserve, world's 1st official designated game reserve, opens
  • Apr 2 1st issue of Rotterdam's Newspaper
  • Apr 10 California St Cable Car RR Co starts service
  • Apr 15 Harley Procter introduces Ivory Soap
  • Apr 21 First Lady Lucy Hayes begins egg rolling contest on White House lawn
  • Apr 21 NY installs 1st firehouse pole
  • Apr 21 Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Inscrutabili
  • Apr 21 Ship Azor leaves Charleston with 206 blacks for Liberia
  • Apr 23 1st Dutch test drive of steam tram
  • May 2 US stops minting 20 cent coin
  • May 14 Vaseline is granted a patent (U.S. Patent 127,568)
  • May 19 Blanche Kelso Bruce appointed register of treasury by President Garfield
  • May 23 Atty John Henry Smyth named US minister to Liberia
  • May 24 CA Parker (Harvard) wins 1st American bike race, Beacon Park Boston
  • May 31 German battleship SMS Grosser Kurfürst sinks, 284 killed
  • May 31 US Congress accepts decrease in dollar circulation
  • Jun 4 Cyprus ceded by Turkey to Britain for administrative purposes
  • Jun 11 DC is given a new government by Congress, 3 commissioners appointed by president (change in 1974)
  • Jun 13 Congress of Berlin redraws the terms of Treaty of San Stefano to give Russia less influence in old Ottoman empire
  • Jun 15 1st attempt at motion pictures (used 12 cameras, each taking 1 picture) done to see if all 4 of a horse's hooves leave the ground
  • Jul 1 Canada joins the Universal Postal Union.
  • Jul 5 The coat of arms of the Baku governorate was established.
  • Jul 7 Social-Democratic United forms in Amsterdam
  • Jul 9 An improved corncob pipe patents by Henry Tibbe, Washington, Mo
  • Jul 12 Fever epidemic in New Orleans begin, it will kill 4,500
  • Jul 13 Congress of Berlin discussing division of African colonies ends
  • Jul 13 Treaty of Berlin amended terms of Treaty of San Stefano
  • Jul 17 Nqwiliso, tribal chief of Western Pondoland and eldest son of Ndamase, signs a treaty with H.G. Elliott ceding sovereign rights and shipping in the Umzimvubu River mouth to the Cape government, Southern Africa
  • Jul 20 1st telephone introduced in Hawaii
  • Jul 26 In California, the poet and American West outlaw calling himself "Black Bart" makes his last clean getaway when he steals a safe box from a Wells Fargo stagecoach. The empty box will be found later with a taunting poem inside.
  • Jul 30 German anti-semitism begins during the Reichstag election
  • Aug 21 American Bar Association organizes at Sarasota, NY
  • Sep 1 1st female telephone operator starts work (Emma Nutt in Boston)
  • Sep 3 British passenger paddle steamer Princess Alice sunk in a collision on the River Thames with the collier Bywell Castle; 645 die
  • Sep 12 Cleopatra Needle installed in London
  • Sep 25 British physician Dr. Charles Drysdale warns against the use of tobacco in a letter to The Times newspaper in one of the earliest public health announcements on the dangers of smoking
  • Sep 30 1st Portuguese immigrants arrive in Hawaii
  • Sep 30 Great Flood hits New Zealand's South Island
  • Oct 15 Edison Electric Light Company incorporated

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

Oct 17 After serving as the opposition for five years, John A. Macdonald is re-elected as Prime Minister of Canada

Prime Minister of Canada John A. Macdonald
Prime Minister of Canada
John A. Macdonald
  • Oct 18 Edison makes electricity available for household use

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 21 German republic chancellor Bismarck delegates end of "Socialism"

German Statesman Otto Von Bismarck
German Statesman
Otto Von Bismarck
  • Nov 1 Edward Scripps & John Sweeney found Penny Press (Cleveland Press)
  • Nov 6 Henrik Ibsen's "Samfundets Stotter" premieres in Oslo
  • Nov 10 Aleksandr Ostrovsky's "Bespridannitsa" premieres in Moscow
  • Nov 17 First assassination attempt against Umberto I of Italy.
  • Dec 1 1st White House telephone installed
  • Dec 3 Settlers arrive at Petach Tikvah, Israel
  • Dec 9 Joseph Pulitzer buys St Louis Dispatch for $2,500
  • Dec 12 Joseph Pulitzer begins publishing "St Louis Dispatch"
  • Dec 18 French SS Byzantin sinks after collision in Dardanelles, 210 killed
  • Dec 18 John Kehoe, the last of the Molly Maguires, is executed in Pennsylvania.
  • Dec 26 1st US store to install electric lights, Philadelphia
  • Dec 28 Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Quod apostolici muneris (socialism)

Birthdays in History

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 123

  • Jan 1 Agner Krarup Erlang, Danish scientist and engineer (d. 1929)
  • Jan 4 Alfred Edgar Coppard, England, writer (Black Dogs & Other Stories)
  • Jan 4 Augustus John, Welsh painter (d. 1961)
  • Jan 6 Carl Sandburg, US, poet/biographer of Lincoln (The People, Yes)
  • Jan 6 Dame Adeline Genée, Danish-British ballerina (d. 1970)
  • Jan 9 John Broadus Watson, Travelers Rest South Carolina, American Psychologist (behaviorism approach)
  • Jan 11 Theodorus Pangalos, Greek general/dictator (1926)
  • Jan 12 Ferenc Molnar, Hungarian/US playwright (A Pal Utrai Fiuk)
  • Jan 13 Lionel Groulx, Canadian nationalist (d. 1967)
  • Jan 14 Victor A D Segalen, [Max Anely], French writer
  • Jan 16 Robert Garbe, German poet (Gorniek)
  • Jan 18 Hendrik Baels, Belgian politician
  • Jan 22 Francis Picabia, French painter/illustrator
  • Jan 23 Oton Zupancic, Slovenian poet (Zimzelen pod Snegom)
  • Jan 25 Ernst Alexanderson, Swedish-born television pioneer (d. 1975)
  • Jan 29 Barney Oldfield, Ohio, daredevil
  • Jan 30 Anton Hansen Tammsaare, Estonian author (d. 1940)
  • Jan 31 Willem J M van Eysinga, Dutch international law jurist
  • Feb 1 Hattie Wyatt Caraway, politician/teacher/1st woman elected to senate
  • Feb 1 Milan Hodža, Slovak politician (d. 1944)
  • Feb 2 Christian Gauss, educator/writer (Phi Beta Kappa award namesake)
  • Feb 3 Joseph Gordon Coates, PM of New Zealand (1925-28)
  • Feb 5 André Citroën, French automobile pioneer (d. 1935)
  • Feb 8 Martin Buber, German/Israeli philosopher/theologist (Ich und Du)
  • Feb 14 Julius Nieuwland, Hansbeke Belgium, Belgian-American Chemist (inventor of neoprene)
  • Feb 21 The Mother, Indian spiritual leader (d. 1973)
  • Feb 22 Walter Ritz, Swiss physicist (d. 1909)
  • Feb 23 Kazimir Malevich, Ukrainian painter and art theorist (d. 1935)
  • Feb 27 Alvan T. Fuller, 50th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1958)
  • Feb 28 Pierre Fatou, French mathematician (d. 1929)
  • Mar 2 Wander J de Haas, Dutch physicist/son-in-law of Lorentz
  • Mar 2 William Kissam Vanderbilt II, member of the Vanderbilt family (d. 1944)
  • Mar 4 Peter D. Ouspensky, Russian philosopher (d. 1947)
  • Mar 7 Boris Kustodiev, Russian painter (d. 1927)
  • Mar 10 Karel van de Woestijne, Flemish writer/poet (God at Sea)
  • Mar 12 Gemma Galgani, Italian saint
  • Mar 14 Carel T Scharten, Dutch poet/writer (Forces of the Future)
  • Mar 15 Rezā Shāh Pahlavi [Rezā Khan], Shah of Iran (1925-41)
  • Mar 16 Clemens A Graaf von Galen, cardinal/bishop of Munster/anti-nazi
  • Mar 24 Top Naeff, [Anthonetta van Rhijn-N-Naeff], Dutch writer
  • Mar 25 Henry graaf de Baillet-Latour, Belgian President of IOC (1925-42)
  • Apr 1 Carl Sternheim, German playwright (Hyperion/Tabula Rasa)
  • Apr 2 Émilie Charmy, Saint-Etienne France, avant-garde artist
  • Apr 6 Erich Mühsam, German author (d. 1934)
  • Apr 7 Jozef C Bittremieux, Flemish theologist (Virgin & Mother of God)
  • Apr 12 Richard B Goldschmidt, German/US zoologist
  • Apr 15 Robert Walser, Swiss writer, born in Biel (d. 1956)
  • Apr 21 Albert Weisgerber, German painter/graphic artist
  • Apr 22 Kitty Gordon, Folkestone England, entertainer
  • Apr 24 Jean Crotti, Swiss artist (d. 1958)
  • Apr 26 Saint Rafael Guízar Valencia, Mexican Catholic bishop
  • May 10 Gustav Stresemann, German chancellor (1923, Nobel 1926)
  • May 11 Jan Machiel Reyskens, oldest male resident of the Netherlands, (d. 1990 aged 111)
  • May 21 Glenn Hammond Curtiss, US, inventor (hydroplane)
  • May 21 Louis L H de Visser, Dutch MP (CPN)
  • May 24 Lillian Moller Gilbreth, engineer (CIOS Gold Medal-1954)
  • May 28 Paul Pelliot, French sinologist (d. 1945)
  • Jun 1 John Masefield, British writer and poet (Salt-Water Ballads), Poet Laureate (1930-67), born in Ledbury, Herefordshire (d. 1967)
  • Jun 4 Frank N D Buchman, US theologist (Moral Rearmament)
  • Jun 5 [Francisco] Pancho Villa, Mexico, revolutionary/guerrilla leader
  • Jun 6 Vincent de Moro-Giafferi, French criminal attorney (d. 1956)
  • Jun 12 James O Curwood, US, journalist/writer (Kazan the wolfdog)
  • Jun 17 Albert Thomas, French socialist politician (Minister of Armament WW1), born in Champigny-sur-Marne (d. 1932)
  • Jun 19 James M Kilroe, priest of St Mary Star of the Sea, in the Bronx
  • Jun 27 Jean François van Royen, Dutch bibliophile/secretary-general of PTT
  • Jul 6 Eino Leino, Finnish poet (d. 1926)
  • Jul 15 Willem Paerels, Neth/Belgian painter/graphic artist
  • Jul 19 Robert H Woltjer, classical/AR-1st-Member of parliament (About Plato)
  • Jul 22 Lucien Febvre, French historian (Un destin: Martin Luther)
  • Jul 24 Lord Dunsany, [Edward JMD Plunkett], Irish sci-fi writer (Time & Gods)
  • Jul 27 Th to de Weeme, painter
  • Jul 29 Don Marquis, Ill, journalist/poet (archy & mehitabel) (d. 1937)
  • Aug 2 Aino J M Kallas, Finnish writer (White Ship, Estonian Tales)
  • Aug 2 Princess Ingeborg, of Sweden
  • Aug 10 Alfred Döblin, German writer (d. 1957)
  • Aug 13 Salomon "Sam" de Wolff, Dutch zionist/socialist theorist
  • Aug 14 Harald Kidde, Danish writer (Aage og Else)
  • Aug 15 Pjotr N Wrangel, Russian baron/general (White Armies, WW II)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Aug 19 Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, Second President of the Philippines (1935-42), born in Baler, Aurora, Philippines (d. 1944)

2nd President of the Philippines Manuel L. Quezon
2nd President of the Philippines
Manuel L. Quezon
  • Aug 28 George Hoyt Whipple, Ashland New Hampshire, American physician and biomedical researcher (Nobel-1934)
  • Aug 30 Paul Hazard, French literature historian
  • Sep 1 Princess Alexandra of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (d. 1942)
  • Sep 2 Werner von Blomberg, German minister of Reichswehr
  • Sep 9 Adelaide Crapsey, American poet (d. 1914)
  • Sep 9 Sergio Osmeña, 4th President of the Philippines (d. 1961)
  • Sep 16 Karl Albiker, German sculptor (German Art, female nudes)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Sep 20 Upton Beall Sinclair, US writer (Jungle), born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 1968)

  • Sep 22 Shigeru Yoshida, Japanese Prime Minister (1946-54), born in Yokosuka (d. 1967)
  • Sep 24 C. F. Ramuz, Swiss writer (d. 1947)
  • Oct 1 Othmar Spann, Austria economist/sociologist (Geschichtsfilosofie)
  • Oct 2 Francois C Schlumberger, French physicist
  • Oct 12 Karl Buresch, Austria politician
  • Oct 13 Patrick Joseph Hartigan, Australian Roman Catholic priest (d. 1952)
  • Oct 15 Paul Reynaud, premier France (May-June 1940)
  • Oct 18 James Truslow Adams, historian (Pul-1921, Founding of New England)
  • Oct 24 Hermann Claudius, German folk poet (Meister Bertram)
  • Oct 25 Nico van Suchtelen, Dutch publisher
  • Oct 29 Alex E von Falkenhausen, German general (China, WW II)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Nov 1 Carlos Saavedra Lamas, Argentine jurist (Nobel Peace Prize 1936), born in Buenos Aires, Argentina (d. 1959)

Nobel Peace Laureate Carlos Saavedra Lamas
Nobel Peace Laureate
Carlos Saavedra Lamas
  • Nov 1 Konrad Mägi, Estonian painter (d. 1925)

Weddings in History

HeartWedding of Interest

Dec 4 Novelist Bram Stoker (31) weds Florence Balcombe (20) in Dublin, Ireland

Novelist Bram Stoker
Bram Stoker

Deaths in History

  • Jan 7 François-Vincent Raspail, French chemist (b. 1794)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jan 9 Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia (1849-61) and Italy (1861-78), dies at 57

King of Sardinia and Italy Victor Emmanuel II
King of Sardinia and Italy
Victor Emmanuel II
  • Jan 18 Antoine César Becquerel, French physicist (b. 1788)
  • Jan 19 Henri V Regnault, French physicist/chemist, dies at 67
  • Feb 1 George Cruikshank, English illustrator (Grimm), dies at 85
  • Feb 7 Pius IX, "Pio Nono", [Giovanni Ferretti], Pope (1846-78), dies at 85
  • Feb 8 Elias M Fries, Swedish botanist (mycologicum), dies at 83
  • Feb 17 Jose Amador de los Rios, Spanish historian/poet, dies at 59
  • Feb 18 Peter D Regout, industrialist (Sphinx, Maastricht), dies at 76
  • Feb 19 Charles F Daubigny, French restaurateur/painter, dies at 61
  • Mar 16 William Banting, English undertaker, dies
  • Mar 20 Julius Robert von Mayer, German physician and physicist (b. 1814)
  • Mar 27 George Gilbert Scott, architect, dies
  • Apr 1 John Corry Wilson Daly, Canadian politician (b. 1796)
  • Apr 4 Richard Brewer, American gunslinger/cowboy (b. 1850)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Apr 12 William Magear Tweed "Boss Tweed", New York corrupt politician dies in prison at 55

Politician Boss Tweed
Boss Tweed
  • Apr 23 Friedrich Preller, landscape painter, dies
  • Apr 25 Anna Sewell, English author (Black Beauty), dies at 58
  • May 14 Ookubo Toshimichi, Japanese statesman, samurai, and one of the three great nobles who led the Meiji Restoration (b. 1830)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

May 28 John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, British Prime Minister (Whig: 1846-52 and 1865-66), dies at 85

British Prime Minister John Russell
British Prime Minister
John Russell
  • Jun 6 Robert Stirling, Scottish inventor (b. 1790)
  • Jun 12 Hendrik J Jut, Dutch murderer [Head of Jut], dies at 26
  • Jun 12 William Cullen Bryant, American poet, dies at 83
  • Jun 16 Crawford Long, American physician (b. 1815)
  • Jun 23 George Backing, English sea officer/explorer (B's River), dies at 81
  • Jun 26 Mercedes of Orleans, queen of Spain (b. 1860)
  • Jul 7 Yegor Ivanovich Zolotarev, Russian mathematician (b. 1847)
  • Jul 17 Aleardo [Gaetano] Aleardi, Italian/Aust poet (Tre Fiumi), dies at 65
  • Jul 23 Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, Bohemian physician (b. 1804)
  • Jul 28 George Law Curry, Newspaper publisher and Governor of Oregon (b. 1820)
  • Aug 17 Richard Upjohn, US architect, died
  • Sep 12 Friedrich August von Alberti, geologist (Triasic Age), dies at 83
  • Nov 28 Orson Hyde, American religious leader (b. 1805)
  • Dec 19 Bayard Taylor, American author and poet (b. 1825)
  • Dec 25 Anna Claypoole Peale, US painter of miniatures, dies