1884 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 4 Last sighting of an eastern cougar (Ontario)
  • Jan 4 The Fabian Society is founded in London.
  • Jan 8 Chrome tanning process for leather patented by Augustus Schultz
  • Jan 18 General Charles Gordon departs London for Khartoum
  • Jan 18 Dr. William Price attempts to cremate the body of his infant son, Iesu Grist (Welsh for Jesus Christ) Price, setting a legal precedent for cremation in the United Kingdom.
  • Jan 26 1st Dutch Wagner version of Elizabeth aria
  • Feb 1 1st volume of the Oxford English Dictionary, A-Ant, published
  • Feb 18 General Charles Gordon arrives in Khartoum

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 18 Police seize all copies of tolstoy's "What I Believe In"

Novelist Leo Tolstoy
Leo Tolstoy
  • Feb 19 Tornadoes in Miss, Ala, NC, SC, Tenn, Ky & In kill 800 people
  • Feb 26 British & Portuguese treaty signed in Congo by Leopold II
  • Mar 8 1st performance of Edward MacDowell's 2nd Piano suite
  • Mar 8 Susan B. Anthony addresses the U.S. House Judiciary Committee arguing for an amendment to the U.S. Constitution granting women the right to vote. Anthony's argument came 16 years after legislators had first introduced a federal women's suffrage amendment.
  • Mar 12 Mississippi establishes 1st US state college for women
  • Mar 13 Siege of Khartoum, Sudan begins by Mahdist forces, lasts 10 months
  • Mar 13 US adopts Standard Time
  • Mar 17 John Joseph Montgomery makes 1st glider flight, Otay, Calif
  • Mar 27 1st long-distance telephone call, Boston-NY
  • Apr 2 London prison for debtors closed
  • Apr 10 US Senate accepts Belgian administration of Congo
  • Apr 20 Pope Leo XIII encyclical "On Freemasonry"
  • Apr 21 Potters Field reopened as Madison Park
  • Apr 22 Thomas Stevens starts 1st bike trip around world (2 yrs 9 mos)
  • Apr 22 US recognizes King Leopold II's Congo Free State
  • Apr 24 National Medical Association of Black physicians organizes (Atlanta)
  • May 1 Construction begins on Chicago 1st skyscraper (10 stories)
  • May 1 Proclamation of the demand for eight-hour workday in the United States.
  • May 13 Institute for Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE) forms in New York
  • May 14 Anti-Monopoly party forms in US
  • May 17 Alaska becomes a US territory
  • May 19 Ringling Brothers circus premieres
  • May 24 Anti-Monopoly party & Greenback Party forms People's Party in US
  • May 29 1st steam cable trams start in highgate
  • May 31 Dr John Harvey Kellogg patents "flaked cereal"
  • Jun 3 John Lynch (R-MS) chosen 1st black major-party national convention chair
  • Jun 5 William Sherman refuses Republican presidential nomination saying "I will not accept if nominated & will not serve if elected"
  • Jun 16 1st roller coaster used (Coney Island NY)
  • Jun 24 John Lynch is 1st black elected chairman of Republican convention
  • Jul 3 Dow Jones publishes its 1st stock index, the Dow Jones Transportation Average
  • Jul 4 1st US bullfight held (Dodge City Ks)
  • Jul 4 Statue of Liberty presented to US in Paris
  • Jul 5 German consul-general Gustav Nachtigal takes possession of Cameroon
  • Jul 5 US Congress accept 2nd Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Jul 27 The East Cleveland Street Railway Company begins the first U.S. commercial electric streetcar line in Cleveland, Ohio, on the Bentley-Knight system
  • Aug 2 Dutch Queen Emma appointed regent
  • Aug 5 Cornerstone for Statue of Liberty laid on Bedloe's Island (NYC)
  • Aug 7 Germany annexes Angra Pequena (Southwest-Africa)
  • Aug 28 First known photograph of a tornado is made near Howard, SD
  • Aug 28 Mickey Welsh strikes-out 1st 9 men he faces
  • Sep 4 Britain ends its policy of penal transportation to New South Wales in Australia.
  • Sep 10 Congressman John R Lynch presides over Republican National Convention
  • Sep 20 6.2 mile Arlberg railroad tunnel completed in Austria
  • Sep 20 Equal Rights Party nominates female candidates for US President and Vice President
  • Sep 23 American Herman Hollerith patents his mechanical tabulating machine, the beginning of data processing
  • Sep 26 Suriname army shoots on British-Indian contract workers, 7 killed
  • Oct 6 Naval War College forms in Newport RI
  • Oct 13 Greenwich in London established as the universal time meridian of longitude

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 14 George Eastman patents paper-strip photographic film

Founder of the Eastman Kodak Company George Eastman
Founder of the Eastman Kodak Company
George Eastman
  • Oct 22 General Gordon receives letter of Mahdi
  • Oct 22 International Meridian Conference in Washington, D.C. adopts Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) worldwide, creating 24 international time zones with longitude zero at the Greenwich meridian
  • Oct 27 Architect Henry Hardenberghs Dakota-complex opens in NYC

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Nov 4 Grover Cleveland (D) beats James G Blaine (R) for his 1st presidential term. The only American president to serve 2 non-consecutive terms

US President Grover Cleveland
US President
Grover Cleveland
  • Nov 6 British protectorate proclaimed over southeast New Guinea
  • Nov 6 Montreal Foot Ball Club (QFRU) defeats Toronto Argonauts (ORFU) 30-0 in 1st CRFU Championship game
  • Nov 8 German government recognizes King Leopold II's Congo Free State
  • Nov 15 Colonization of Africa orgainized at international conference in Berlin
  • Nov 17 Cops arrest John L Sullivan in 2nd round for being "cruel"
  • Nov 22 T Thomas Fortune starts NY Freeman (NY Age) newspaper
  • Nov 25 John B Meyenberg of St Louis patents evaporated milk
  • Dec 1 American Old West: Near Frisco, New Mexico, deputy sheriff Elfego Baca holds off a gang of 80 Texan cowboys who want to kill him for arresting Charles McCarthy.
  • Dec 6 Aluminum capstone set atop Washington Monument, Wash, DC
  • Dec 9 Levant Richardson patents ball-bearing skate

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Dec 10 "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" by Mark Twain is first published in the UK and Canada (US Feb 1885, due to printing error)

Author Mark Twain
Mark Twain
  • Dec 12 1st Test match played at the Adelaide Oval
  • Dec 16 Great Britain recognizes King Leopold II's Congo Free State
  • Dec 19 Italy recognizes King Leopold II's Congo Free State
  • Dec 24 Austria-Hungary admits King Leopold II's Congo Free State
  • Dec 27 Netherlands recognizes King Leopold II's Congo Free State

Birthdays in History

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 131

  • Jan 2 Jacques Chardonne, [Boutelleau], French writer (l'Epithalame)
  • Jan 3 Eli S Jones, US, evangelist (Christ of Indian road)
  • Jan 18 Arthur Ransome, English author (Swallows & Amazons)
  • Jan 20 A[braham P] Merritt, US, sci-fi author (Moon Pool, Creep Shadow!)
  • Jan 21 Katie Sandwina, Germany, legendary woman weight-lifter
  • Jan 21 Roger Nash Baldwin, founder (American Civil Liberties Union)
  • Jan 26 Edward Sapir, Germany, linguist/antropologist (indians)
  • Jan 26 Roy Chapman Andrews, US, scientist/explorer
  • Jan 28 Auguste Piccard, Switzerland, scientist/explorer (balloonist), twin brother of Jean Felix Piccard
  • Jan 28 Jean Felix Piccard, Switzerland, scientist/explorer (balloonist) twin brother of Auguste Piccard
  • Jan 28 Lucien H d'Azambuja, France, astronomer (chromosome of sun)
  • Jan 31 Theodor Heuss, 1st President of Germany (Bundespräsident) (d. 1963)
  • Feb 1 Yevgeny Zamyatin, Russia, novelist/playwright (We)
  • Feb 2 Julis Deutsch, Austria politician/General Spanish rep army
  • Feb 4 Julius Callewaert, Flemish dominican/bringing up children
  • Feb 9 Frederik Gerretson, [Geerten Gossaert], Dutch poet/politician)
  • Feb 10 Frederick Hawksworth, GWR Chief mechanical engineer. (d. 1976)
  • Feb 12 Max Beckmann, German painter/graphic artist
  • Feb 12 Marie Vassilieff, Russian artist (d. 1957)
  • Feb 12 Johan Laidoner, Estonian military commander (d. 1953)
  • Feb 14 Hezekiah M. Washburn, missionary (d. 1972)
  • Feb 14 Kostas Varnalis, Greek poet (d. 1974)
  • Feb 16 Robert Flaherty, Father of documentary film (Nanook of North), born in Iron Mountain, Michegan (d. 1957)
  • Feb 17 Arthur Vanderpoorten, Flemish minister of Internal affairs (1940)
  • Feb 18 Andrew Watson Myles, Canadian politician (d. 1970)
  • Feb 23 Herman Courtens, Belgian painter
  • Feb 26 Hildo Krop, Dutch modernistic sculptor
  • Mar 11 Lewi Pethrus, Swedish politician (d. 1974)
  • Mar 13 Emanuel Stickelberger, Swiss writer (Bluthochzeit)
  • Mar 13 Hugh S Walpole, NZ, novelist/playwright (Jeremy, Maradick at 40)
  • Mar 13 Oskar Loerke, German writer (Longest Day-1926)
  • Mar 14 Albert Egges van Giffen, Dutch archaeologist
  • Mar 18 Bernard Cronin, Australian author and journalist (d. 1968)
  • Mar 21 George D Birkhoff, US mathematician (Aesthetic measure)
  • Mar 24 Peter Debye, Holland, physical chemist (Nobel 1936)
  • Mar 25 Georges Imbert, Alsatian chemist (d. 1950)
  • Mar 31 Adriaan van Maanen, Dutch-American astronomer (d. 1946)
  • Apr 2 Sir John Squire, British poet, writer, and historian (d. 1958))
  • Apr 4 Isoroku Yamamoto, Marshall Admiral and Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese fleet (WWII), born in Nagaoka, Niigata (d. 1943)
  • Apr 7 Charles Dodd, English new testament authority
  • Apr 7 Louis H N Bosch van Rosenthal, Dutch politician/resistance fighter
  • Apr 12 Otto Meyerhof, Germany, psychologist/biochemist (Nobel-1922)
  • Apr 17 Leo Frank, American convict, hanged in 1915 by a lynch mob
  • Apr 20 Princess Beatrice of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (d. 1966)
  • Apr 22 John van Capel, oldest man in Netherlands (Died Sept 3, 1992)
  • May 2 Francois de Vries, Dutch economist
  • May 5 Wang Tjing-Wei, premier China (1932-35)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

May 8 Harry Truman, 33rd US President (D - 1945-53), born in Lamar, Missouri (d. 1972)

33rd US President Harry Truman
33rd US President
Harry Truman
  • May 21 Manuel Pérez y Curis, Uruguayan poet (d. 1920)
  • May 23 Corrado Gini, Italian sociologist (d. 1965)
  • May 28 Edvard Benes, premier/president of Czechoslovakia (1921-22, 35-48)
  • May 28 Theo(door) van Reijn, Dutch sculptor/lithographer
  • Jun 5 Ivy Compton-Burnett, novelist
  • Jun 7 Julius P Hoste, Belgium minister/daily newspaper publisher (Last News)
  • Jun 13 Anton Drexler, founder of the German Worker's Party (d. 1942)
  • Jun 13 Gerald Gardner, British occultist (d. 1964)
  • Jun 13 Etienne Gilson, French philosopher (d. 1978)
  • Jun 17 Christina C Bakker-van Bosse, feminist/pacifist
  • Jun 18 Edouard Daladier, premier France (1933..40)
  • Jun 19 Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes, French Dadaist artist and writer (d. 1974)
  • Jun 21 Claude "Auk" Auchinleck, British fieldmarshal North-Africa
  • Jun 25 Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, German art promoter (d. 1979)
  • Jun 27 Gaston Bachelard, French philosopher (La psychanalyse du feu)
  • Jun 28 Lamina Sankoh, early Sierra Leonean nationalist (d. 1964)
  • Jun 30 Georges Duhamel, French author (d. 1966)
  • Jul 2 Alfons Maria Jakob, German neurologist (d. 1931)
  • Jul 4 Alexander Byvanck, Dutch art historian/archaeologist
  • Jul 6 Andre Dunoyer de Segonzac, French painter/cartoonist
  • Jul 6 Harold Vanderbilt, NY, America Cup (1930,34,37)/inv contract bridge
  • Jul 6 Willem Dudok, Dutch architect (town hall Hilversum/Beehive Rotterdam)
  • Jul 7 Lion Feuchtwanger, German dramatist (d. 1958)
  • Jul 12 Amedeo Modigliani, Italy, painter/sculptor (Reclining Nude)
  • Jul 13 Francis B Young, British physician/writer (White Ladies)
  • Jul 16 Anna Vyrubova, Russian memoirist (d. 1964)
  • Jul 18 Alberto di Jorio, former head of the Vatican Bank and secretary of the 1958 conclave (d. 1979)
  • Jul 23 Albert Warner, US producer (Warner Bros)
  • Jul 24 Abraham Rutgers, Dutch governor (Suriname, 1928-33)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 25 Davidson Black, Canadian paleoanthropologist and doctor of anatomy who identified "Peking Man", born in Toronto, Ontario (d. 1934)

Paleoanthropologist Davidson Black
Davidson Black
  • Jul 29 Henri Liebrecht, Belgian playwright/journalist
  • Jul 29 Ralph A. Bard, U.S. Navy Undersecretary (d. 1975)
  • Jul 31 Carl Friedrich Goerdeler, German Leipzig mayor and Nazi regime opponent (20th July Plot)
  • Aug 2 Rómulo Gallegos, President of Venezuela (d. 1969)
  • Aug 8 Sara Teasdale, US, poet (1st Pulitzer Prize-1918-"Love Songs")
  • Aug 10 Panait Istrati, Romanian writer (d. 1935)
  • Aug 12 Frank Arthur Swinnerton, English novelist (Summer Storm, Sanctuary)
  • Aug 16 Adrian S Oppenheim, Dutch lawyer/adviser (British Petroleum/Shell)
  • Aug 16 Hugo Gernsback, sci-fi writer (1960 Hugo)
  • Aug 16 Walther von Reichenau, German field marshal (d. 1942)
  • Aug 23 Ogden L. Mills, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, 1927-1932 (d. 1937)
  • Aug 26 Earl Biggers, author ("Charlie Chan" detective series)
  • Aug 27 Vincent Auriol, president of France (1947-53)
  • Aug 29 Ehm Welk [Thomas Trimm], German writer, born in Biesenbrow, Brandenburg (d. 1966)
  • Aug 30 Theodor Svedberg, Sweden, chemist, worked with colloids (Nobel 1926)
  • Aug 31 George Al Sarton, Belgian/US historian
  • Sep 2 Frank Laubach, Benton Pa, educator, taught reading through phonetics
  • Sep 17 Bastiaan de Gaay Fortman, Dutch historian/Justice of Curacao

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Sep 20 Maxwell Perkins, American editor and publisher, born in NYC, New York (d. 1947)

  • Sep 24 Hugo Schmeisser, German weapons designer (d. 1953)
  • Sep 25 Cornelis "Kees" Boeke, Dutch educationalist
  • Oct 5 Hendrik W Tilanus, Dutch artillery officer/politcian (CHU 1939-63)

Weddings in History

HeartWedding of Interest

Jan 19 Painter Thomas Eakins (39) weds painter and photographer Susan Macdowell (32) in a Quaker ceremony

Painter Thomas Eakins
Thomas Eakins

HeartWedding of Interest

Jan 24 Abolutionist Frederick Douglass marries 2nd wife suffragist Helen Pitts

Abolitionist Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
  • May 1 "Poems of Passion" author Ella Wheeler Wilcox (33) weds Robert M. Wilcox in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

HeartWedding of Interest

May 3 Mechanical engineer Frederick Winslow Taylor (28) weds Louise M. Spooner

Mechanical Engineer Frederick Winslow Taylor
Mechanical Engineer
Frederick Winslow Taylor

HeartWedding of Interest

May 29 Irish writer Oscar Wilde marries Constance Lloyd at St. James Church, Paddington, London

Writer/Poet Oscar Wilde
Oscar Wilde

HeartWedding of Interest

Oct 1 Politician William Jennings Bryan (24) weds Mary sweetheart Elizabeth Baird

US Politician William Jennings Bryan
US Politician
William Jennings Bryan

Deaths in History

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jan 6 Gregor Mendel, Austrian Augustine monk/heredity pioneer, dies at 61

Monk/Geneticist Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel
  • Jan 6 Paul Taglioni, "the Great," Ital/Austrian choreographer, dies at 75
  • Jan 17 Hermann Schlegel, German ornithologist (b. 1804)
  • Feb 8 Arnold Henry Guyot, Swiss/US geologist/meteorologist, dies at 76
  • Feb 23 Tambo Tambo, Australian aboriginal/US circus attaction, dies at 23
  • Mar 1 Isaac Todhunter, English mathematician (b. 1820)
  • Mar 13 Leland Stanford, Jr., son of American railroad magnate, Stanford University named for him (b. 1868)
  • Mar 14 Quintino Sella, Italian statesman (b. 1827)
  • Mar 21 Ezra Abbot, American bible scholar (b. 1819)
  • Mar 31 Jan T Beelen, Neth/Belgian catholic bible expert, dies at 77
  • Apr 3 Carel JCH van Nispen tot Sevenaer, Dutch Cath politician, dies at 59
  • Apr 4 Marie Bashkirtseff, Russian artist and diarist (b. 1860)
  • Apr 6 Emanuel Geibel, writer, dies at 68
  • Apr 7 Maria van Ackere-Doolaeghe, Flemish poet (Avondlamp), dies at 80
  • May 7 Judah P Benjamin, confederate minister of War, dies at 72
  • May 9 Hermanus W Witteveen, theologist, dies at 69

Person of interestPerson of Interest

May 13 Cyrus Hall McCormick, American inventor (mechanical reaper), dies at 75

Inventor of the Mechanical Reaper Cyrus Hall McCormick
Inventor of the Mechanical Reaper
Cyrus Hall McCormick
  • Jun 18 Juan B Alberdi, [Figarillo], Argentine writer (Crime of War), dies at 74
  • Jun 21 Alexander, prince/last male descendent of Johan W Friso, dies
  • Jul 10 Paul Charles Morphy, US lawyer/chess wizard, dies at 47
  • Jul 18 Ferdinand von Hochstetter, Austrian geologist (b. 1829)
  • Aug 1 Heinrich Laube, writer, dies
  • Aug 6 Robert Spear Hudson, English businessman (b. 1812)
  • Aug 14 Arnoldus Pannevis, South African shipping agent/linguist, dies at 46
  • Sep 20 Leopold Fitzinger, Austrian zoologist (b.1802)
  • Oct 3 Hans Makart, Austrian painter (Geur), dies at 44
  • Oct 31 Marie Bashkirtseff, Russian painter (b. 1858)
  • Nov 11 Alfred Brehm German zoologist (b. 1827)
  • Nov 16 František Chvostek, Moravian physician (b. 1835)
  • Nov 27 Franziska "Fanny" Elssler, Austrian ballerina/choreography, dies at 74
  • Dec 1 William Swainson (lawyer), second, and last, Attorney-General (New Zealand) of the Crown Colony of New Zealand (b. 1809)
  • Dec 28 Gerben Colmjon, Frisian linguist/publisher, dies at 56