1891 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 1 French troops occupy Nioro, West-Sudan, 3000 killed
  • Jan 1 King Pakketvaart sails to Neth Indies

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 26 Oscar Wilde's "Duchess of Padua" premieres in NYC

Writer and Poet Oscar Wilde
Writer and Poet
Oscar Wilde
  • Jan 27 Mine explosion kills 109 at Mount Pleasant Pennsylvania
  • Jan 29 Liliuokalani is proclaimed Queen of Hawaii, its last monarch.
  • Jan 31 The first attempt of a Portuguese republican revolution breakes out in the northern city of Porto.
  • Feb 6 1st great train robbery by Dalton Gang (Southern Pacific #17)
  • Feb 9 1st shipment of asparagus arrives in SF from Sacramento
  • Feb 15 AIK is founded at Biblioteksgatan 8 in Stockholm by Isidor Behrens.
  • Feb 18 Capt Archinard's army fights with Nyamina of Niger in West-Sudan
  • Feb 24 French troops under capt Archinard occupy Diena West Sudan
  • Feb 26 1st buffalo purchased for Golden Gate Park
  • Feb 26 Henrik Ibsen's "Hedda Gabler" premieres in Oslo
  • Feb 28 Oscar Grundén skates world record 500m (50.8 sec)
  • Mar 3 US Congress creates Courts of Appeal
  • Mar 3 US Congress creates Office of Superintendent of Immigration (Treasury Dept)
  • Mar 3 The Penalty Spot Kick rule in Association Football is conceived, but does not come into effect until the next season.
  • Mar 9 Great Blizzard of 1891 begins in England (lasts until 13th March; 200 people and 6,000 animals killed)
  • Mar 10 Almon Strowger, an undertaker in Topeka, Kansas, patents the strowger switch, a device which led to the automation of telephone circuit switching.
  • Mar 17 British Steamer "Utopia" sinks off Gibraltar killing 574
  • Mar 18 Britain is linked to the continent by Telephone
  • Apr 1 London-Paris telephone connection opens
  • Apr 1 Painter Gauguin leaves Marseille for Tahiti
  • Apr 1 The Wrigley Company is founded in Chicago, Illinois.
  • Apr 7 Nebraska introduces 8 hour work day
  • Apr 11 8-year old Jewish tailor's daughter disappears in Greece, rumor spreads that she was a Christian girl ritually killed by Jews
  • Apr 23 Jews are expelled from Moscow Russia
  • Apr 24 Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Final Problem"

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 25 US President Benjamin Harrison visits San Francisco

23rd US President Benjamin Harrison
23rd US President
Benjamin Harrison
  • May 7 Battle in Bunyoro: Capt F Lugard stops Muslim rebellion, 300 killed

MurderAssassination Attempt

May 11 The Otsu Scandal: While visiting Japan, Prince Nicholas (later Tsar Nicholas II) survives an assassination attempt

  • May 12 Riot against tax increase in Paramaribo, Suriname
  • May 15 British Central African Protectorate (now Malawi) forms
  • May 15 Operations begin at Philips & Co in Holland
  • May 15 Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Rerum novarum
  • May 16 George A. Hormel & Co establishes Geo. A.Hormel & Co. (Hormel Foods Corporation) in Austin, Minnesota
  • May 19 Rice Institute, which became Rice University, is chartered

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 20 History of cinema: The first public display of Thomas Edison's prototype kinetoscope to members of the National Federation of Women's Club

Inventor Thomas Edison
Inventor
Thomas Edison
  • May 31 Work on trans-Siberian railway begins
  • Jun 9 Painter Gauguin arrives in Papeete, Tahiti
  • Jun 11 Puerto Rican flag adopted

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jun 16 John Abbott becomes Canada's third prime minister.

3rd Prime Minister of Canada John Abbott
3rd Prime Minister of Canada
John Abbott
  • Jun 29 US National Forest Service organized
  • Jun 29 Street railway in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, commences operation.
  • Jul 5 Hail kills 6 horses in Rapid City, SD
  • Jul 7 Marcellus F. Berry, an American Express employee is granted four copyrights for what he called "the travelers cheque"
  • Jul 8 61°F, highest temp for July 1891, in Baltimore & Phila
  • Jul 14 John T Smith patents corkboard
  • Jul 26 Henry James' "American" premieres in London
  • Jul 26 France annexes Tahiti.
  • Jul 27 Titus van Wyck succeeds M de Savornin Lohman as governor of Suriname
  • Aug 5 world's 1st traveler's cheques issued (American Express)
  • Aug 15 San Sebastian Church in Manila, the first all-steel church in Asia, is officially inaugurated and blessed.
  • Aug 16 President Benjamin Harrison attends the dedication of the Bennington Battle Monument in Bennington, Vermont
  • Aug 17 1st public bathhouse with showers opens in NYC (People's Bath)
  • Aug 17 Electric self-starter for automobile patented
  • Aug 18 Hurricane hits Martinique, about 700 die
  • Aug 19 William Huggins describes astronomical application of spectrum
  • Aug 21 Dutch Mackay government resigns
  • Aug 24 Thomas Edison patents motion picture camera
  • Sep 3 Cotton pickers organize union & stage strike in Texas
  • Sep 3 John Stephens Durham named US minister to Haiti
  • Sep 7 Captain Frederick Lugard's army reaches Kavalli, Equatoria
  • Sep 11 The Jewish Colonization Association is established by Baron Maurice de Hirsch.
  • Sep 14 "Empire State Express" train goes from NYC to East Buffalo, a distance of 436 miles, in a record 7H6M
  • Sep 18 Harriet Maxwell Converse is 1st white woman to become an Indian chief
  • Sep 20 The first gasoline-powered car debuts in Springfield, Massachusetts, United States.
  • Oct 1 In the U.S. state of California, Stanford University opens its doors.
  • Oct 12 Astronomical Society of France is inaugurated
  • Oct 20 1st International 6 day bike race at New York's Madison Square Garden begins
  • Oct 25 1st International 6 day bike race (NY Madison Square Garden) ends
  • Oct 28 Quake strikes Mino-Owari, Japan kills 7,300
  • Nov 10 1st Women's Christian Temperance Union meeting held (in Boston)
  • Nov 10 Granville T Woods patents electric railway
  • Nov 30 Pope Leo XIII's encyclical "Rerum novarum" published
  • Dec 2 52nd Congress (1891-93) convenes
  • Dec 7 52nd US Congress (1st to appropriate $1 billion) holds 1st session
  • Dec 19 1st Negro Catholic priest ordained in US, Charles Uncles, Baltimore
  • Dec 20 Strongman Louis Cyr withstands pull of 4 horses
  • Dec 29 Edison patents "transmission of signals electrically" (radio)

Birthdays in History

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 141

  • Jan 3 Osip E Mandelstam, Polish/Russian poet/author (Kamenj) [NS=Jan 15]
  • Jan 4 Edward Brooker, Premier of Tasmania (d. 1948)
  • Jan 7 Zora Neale Hurston, Notasulga Alabama, American writer
  • Jan 8 Bronislava Nijinska, ballet choreographer
  • Jan 8 Walter Bothe, Germany, subatomic particle physicist (Nobel 1954)
  • Jan 8 Storm Jameson, English writer (d. 1986)
  • Jan 9 August Gailit, Estonia, writer (Ekke Moor)
  • Jan 10 Jos Speybrouck, Flemish painter
  • Jan 15 Osip E Mandelstam, Russian poet (Noise of Time), born in Warsaw, Poland
  • Jan 17 Norman "Squab" Read, US aviator who lived to be 101
  • Jan 17 Walter Eucken, German economist
  • Jan 22 Franz Alexander, Hungarian/US psycho analytical
  • Jan 22 Moise Kisling, Polish/French painter (La Souris Boiteuse)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jan 23 Antonio Gramsci, Italian philosopher and marxist theorist, born in Ales, Sardinia, Italy (d. 1937)

Marxist Theorist and Politician Antonio Gramsci
Marxist Theorist and Politician
Antonio Gramsci
  • Jan 24 Walter Model, German field marshal
  • Jan 25 William C Bullitt, 1st US ambassador to USSR
  • Jan 26 Ilya G Ehrenburg, writer (Fall of Paris, The Thaw), born in Kiev, Ukraine

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jan 26 Frank Costello, Italian-American gangster (The Prime Minister of the Underworld), born in Lauropoli, Calabria, Italy (d. 1973)

Gangster Frank Costello
Gangster
Frank Costello
  • Jan 26 Wilder Penfield, American-born Canadian neurosurgeon (d. 1976)
  • Jan 27 Ilja Ehrenburg, writer
  • Jan 28 Camille Melloy, [Paepe], Belgian poet (Parfum des Buis)
  • Feb 2 Antonio Segni, premier/president (Italy)
  • Feb 3 Jan Donner, Dutch minister of Justice (1926-33)
  • Feb 4 Madabhushi Ananthasayanam Ayyangar, Speaker of Lok Sabha (d: 1978).
  • Feb 5 Karl L Schmidt, German/Swiss theologist (Urchristentum)
  • Feb 9 Pietro Nenni, Italy, socialist/minister of foreign affairs (1946-47)
  • Feb 10 Harold RLG, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, Gov-gen of Canada (1945-52)
  • Feb 13 Grant Wood, American painter (American Gothic), born near Anamosa, Iowa (d. 1942)
  • Feb 13 Kate Roberts, Welsh nationalist and writer (d. 1985)
  • Feb 16 Hans F. K. Günther, German eugenicist (d. 1967)
  • Feb 17 Georg Britting, writer
  • Feb 22 Vlas Chubar, Soviet politician (d. 1939)
  • Feb 27 David Sarnoff, US, radio/TV pioneer/CEO (RCA)
  • Feb 27 Anne Samson, oldest-ever nun documented (d. 2004)
  • Mar 3 Jan Donner, Dutch minister of Justice/president High Council
  • Mar 4 Lois Wilson, founder of Al-Anon (d. 1988)
  • Mar 7 Marcel Barger, [Meyer Streliskie], cabaret performer (I keep Susy)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 9 Jose Paciano Laurel y Garcia, 3rd President of the Philippines (1942-44), born in Tanauan, Batangas (d. 1959)

3rd President of the Philippines José P. Laurel
3rd President of the Philippines
José P. Laurel
  • Mar 10 Jacob van Gelderen, economist/sociologist/Dutch 2nd Chamber (SDAP)
  • Mar 12 Michael Polany, Hungarian/English chemist/economist/sociologist
  • Mar 12 George W. Mason, American industrialist (d. 1954)
  • Mar 14 John P Strijbos, Dutch writer (Wandering through South-Africa)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 19 Earl Warren, Governor of California/14th supreme court chief justice (1953-69), born in Los Angeles, California

Jurist and Governor of California Earl Warren
Jurist and Governor of California
Earl Warren
  • Mar 24 Annie "Charley" Toorop, Dutch painter (3 Generations)
  • Mar 24 John Knittel, Swiss writer, born in Dharwar, India (d. 1970)
  • Mar 24 Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov, Soviet physicist (d. 1951)
  • Mar 28 Karel MJF Cruysberghs, Flemish author
  • Mar 28 Peter Suhrkamp, German publisher (Suhrkamp Verlag)
  • Mar 29 Ivan Goll, French-German writer (the Landless John), born in Saint-Dié (d. 1950)
  • Mar 29 Alfred Neubauer, German racing team manager (Mercedes Benz) (d. 1980)
  • Mar 31 Ion Pillat, Romaniams poet/senator (Umbra timpului)
  • Apr 2 Max Ernst, Germany, painter/sculptor (founded surrealism)
  • Apr 7 Ole Kirk Christiansen, Danish inventor (d. 1958)
  • Apr 13 Maurice Vincent Buckley, Australian winner of the Victoria Cross (d. 1921)
  • Apr 13 Nella Larsen, African-American novelist (d. 1964)
  • Apr 14 B. R. Ambedkar [Baba Saheb], Indian politician, jurist (architect of the Constitution of India) and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist Movement, born in Mhow, India (d. 1956)
  • Apr 19 Ricardo Bacchelli, Italian writer/poet (La Ronda)
  • Apr 22 Harold Jeffreys, English astronomer (d. 1989)
  • Apr 22 Nicola Sacco, American anarchist (d. 1927)
  • Apr 22 Vittorio Jano, Italian engineer (d. 1965)
  • Apr 30 Watze Cuperus, Frisian author (Swart mar leaflik)
  • May 3 Tadeusz Peiper, Polish poet (d. 1969)
  • May 4 Johan W F Werumeus Buning, Dutch poet (Daily Bread)
  • May 7 Harry McShane, Scottish socialist (d. 1988)
  • May 11 Henry Morgenthau Jr, US Secretary of Treasury (1934-45)
  • May 15 David Vogel, Ukraine, author (Huwelijksleven)
  • May 15 Fritz Feigl, Austria, chemist (spot tests)
  • May 15 Mikhail Bulgakov, Russia, playwright/novelist (Black Snow)
  • May 17 Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife (d. 1959)
  • May 18 Rudolf Carnap, philosopher (German Logical Positivist)
  • May 19 Oswald Boelcke, German World War I pilot (d. 1916)
  • May 22 Johannes R. Becher, German writer and politician, born in Munich (d. 1958)
  • May 22 Robert Gordon Sproul, educator/college pres (Univ of California)
  • May 23 Pär Lagerkvist, Swedish writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1974)
  • May 24 Benedictus H Danser, Dutch botanist
  • May 24 William F Albright, US old testament scholar/archaeologist
  • May 25 Robert W P Peereboom, Dutch editor in chief (Haarlem Newspaper)
  • May 30 Iman J van den Bosch, Belgian resistance fighter
  • Jun 2 Thurman Arnold, American attorney and jurist (d. 1969)
  • Jun 6 Vladislac Vancura, writer
  • Jun 7 Koos [Jacobus J] Vorrink, Dutch politician (SDAP/AJC/PvdA)
  • Jun 18 Hans Ruin, Finnish Swedish-language historian
  • Jun 20 John A. Costello, second Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland (d. 1976)
  • Jun 21 Pier Luigi Nervi, Italian architect (Nuove Struttura)
  • Jun 22 Franz de Backer, Flemish writer (White Enemy)
  • Jun 26 Sidney Coe Howard, US, dramatist (Swords, Pulitzer 1925)
  • Jun 26 Vladislav Vancura, Czech physician/(stage)author/resistance fighter
  • Jun 28 Carl Panzram, American serial killer (d. 1930)
  • Jun 28 Esther Forbes, American writer (d. 1968)
  • Jun 28 Carl Spaatz, Boyertown, Pennsylvania, American Air Force general (d. 1974)
  • Jul 5 John Northrop, US, biochemist, crystallized enzymes (Nobel 1946)
  • Jul 5 Tin Ujević, Croatian poet (d. 1955)
  • Jul 8 Elisabeth Zernike, Dutch writer (Poor Part, Bruidstijd)
  • Jul 8 Josef Hora, Czech writer/poet (Working Day)
  • Jul 23 Maurus H Hulsman, Dutch priest/editor (Amigoe di Curacao)
  • Jul 26 Jacques Pirenne, Belgian historian
  • Jul 29 Bernhard Zondek, German/Israeli gynaecologist
  • Aug 2 Viktor Maksimovich Zhirmunsky, Russian literary historian, linguist (d. 1971)
  • Aug 6 William Slim, British general (d. 1970)
  • Aug 21 Emiliano Mercado del Toro, World's oldest living man 2004-2007 (d. 2007)

Weddings in History

  • Mar 21 A Hatfield marries a McCoy, ends long feud in West Virginia it started with an accusation of pig-stealing & lasted 20 years

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 24 56th UK Prime Minister Bonar Law (32) weds Annie Robley at West Free Church in Helensburgh, Scotland

British Prime Minister Bonar Law
British Prime Minister
Bonar Law

HeartWedding of Interest

Jul 8 Future US President Warren G. Harding (25) weds publisher Florence DeWolfe (30) in Marion, Ohio

29th US President Warren G. Harding
29th US President
Warren G. Harding

Deaths in History

  • Jan 4 Antoine Labelle, Quebec catholic priest (b. 1833)
  • Jan 5 Guillaume L Baud, Dutch minister of Colonies (1848-49), dies at 89
  • Jan 11 Georges-Eugene Haussmann, French senator/baron, dies at 81

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jan 17 George Bancroft, American historian and father of U.S. History, dies at 90

Father of U.S. History George Bancroft
Father of U.S. History
George Bancroft
  • Jan 20 David Kalakahua, emperor of Hawaii, dies
  • Jan 23 Boudouin LPMCAJL, prince of Belgium/count of Flaanders, dies at 21
  • Jan 26 Nicholaus Otto, German auto pioneer (internal combustion engine), dies. (b. 1833)
  • Jan 31 Ernest Meissonier, French painter/etcher/sculptor, dies at 75
  • Feb 9 Johan B Jongkind, Dutch/French painter (Winter View), dies at 71
  • Feb 10 Sofia Kovalevskaya, Russian mathematician (b. 1850)
  • Feb 13 David Dixon Porter, US rear admiral (Union), dies at 77

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Feb 14 William Tecumseh Sherman, Union Civil War General, dies at 71

  • Mar 15 Théodore de Banville, French writer (b. 1823)
  • Mar 15 Joseph Bazalgette, English civil engineer (b. 1819)
  • Mar 17 Napoleon JKP Bonaparte, French prince/member National Convention, dies at 68

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 29 Georges Seurat, French painter (Pointillism), dies at 31

Post-Impressionist Painter Georges Seurat
Post-Impressionist Painter
Georges Seurat
  • Apr 7 Phineas T Barnum, US circus promoter (B & Bailey), dies at 88
  • Apr 24 Count Helmuth K B von Moltke, Prussian gen/fieldmarshal, dies
  • Apr 25 Nathaniel Woodard, English educationalist (b. 1811)
  • May 4 Sherlock Holmes, "dies" at Reichenbach Falls
  • May 8 Helena Petrovina Blavatsky, Russian theosophist, dies
  • May 11 Edmond Becquerel, French physicist who studied the solar spectrum, magnetism, electricity and optics (photovoltaic effect), dies at 71
  • May 16 Ion Brătianu, Romanian statesman (b. 1821)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jun 6 John A. Macdonald, 1st Prime Minister of Canada (1867-73 and 1878-91), dies of a stroke at 76

Prime Minister of Canada John A. Macdonald
Prime Minister of Canada
John A. Macdonald
  • Jun 23 Wilhelm Eduard Weber, German physicist (b. 1804)
  • Jul 4 Hannibal Hamlin, U.S. Vice President (b. 1809)
  • Jul 31 Jean-Baptist Capronnier, French/Belgian painter, dies at 77
  • Aug 4 George Washington Williams, historian (History of Negro), dies at 41
  • Aug 12 James Russell Lowell, poet/critic/diplomat, dies
  • Aug 22 Jan Neruda, Czech author (b. 1834)
  • Sep 7 Lorenzo Sawyer, 9th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of California (b. 1820)
  • Sep 9 Jules Grévy, President of France (b. 1813)
  • Sep 18 William Ferrel, American mathematician (b. 1817)
  • Sep 27 Ivan Goncharov, Russian author (b. 1812)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Sep 28 Herman Melville, American writer (Billy Budd, Moby-Dick), dies at 72

Moby Dick Author Herman Melville
Moby Dick Author
Herman Melville
  • Sep 30 Georges Boulanger, French general and politician (b. 1837)
  • Oct 3 Edouard Lucas, French mathematician (b. 1842)
  • Oct 6 Charles S Parnell, English/Irish Home Rule Party leader, dies at 45
  • Oct 9 Johannes Tideman, theologist, dies at 83
  • Oct 11 Charles Stewart Parnells remains buried in Ireland
  • Oct 15 Gilbert Arthur a Beckett, English writer (b. 1837)
  • Oct 16 Sarah Winnemucca, indian scout, dies
  • Oct 22 Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow, Austrian physiologist (b. 1846)
  • Nov 1 John A Neuhuys, painter, dies at 59

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Nov 10 Arthur Rimbaud, French poet/arms merchant (Saison en Enfer), dies of a bone cancer at 37

  • Dec 5 JKLSBFXvPSMGRG Pedro II of Alcantara, emp of Brazil (1831-89), dies
  • Dec 11 Johan C J van Schagen, Dutch poet/writer (Narrenwijsheid), dies
  • Dec 17 Msiri, ruler of the Garanganze Kingdom, Congo (Katanga), dies in battle against Belgian funded expedition
  • Dec 17 Omer Bodson, Belgian captain, dies in battle against Msiri, ruler of Garanganze Kingdom in the Congo
  • Dec 29 Leopold Kronecker, German mathematician, dies at 68