On This Day in History for August 31

Events in History

Events 1 - 100 of 140

  • 1142 Possible date for establishment of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) League - with the aid of Hiawatha and Deganawidah
  • 1230 Bishop Willebrand of Utrecht grants Swells state justice
  • 1310 German king Heinrich VII makes his son Johan king of Bohemia
  • 1422 Henry VI becomes King of England at the age of 9 months
  • 1745 Jacobite Rising 1745: Bonnie Prince Charlie reaches Blair Castle, Scotland
  • 1751 British troops under Sir Robert Clive occupy Arcot, India
  • 1772 Hurricane destroy ships off Dominica
  • 1778 British kill 17 Stockbridge indians in Bronx during Revolution
  • 1836 HMS Beagle anchors in Postage Praia, Cape Verde Islands
  • 1842 Micah Rugg patents a nuts & bolts machine
  • 1842 US Naval Observatory authorized by an act of Congress
  • 1843 Liberty Party nominates James Birneyas presidential candidate
  • 1850 California pioneers organized at Montgomery & Clay Streets
  • 1864 Atlanta Campaign: Battle of Jonesboro Georgia, 1900 casualties
  • 1876 Ottoman sultan Murat V is deposed and succeeded by his brother Abd-ul-Hamid II.
  • 1886 1st major earthquake recorded in eastern US, at Charleston, South Carolina, 110 die
  • 1886 Crocker-Woolworth National Bank organized
  • 1888 The body of Jack the Ripper's first victim, Mary Ann 'Polly' Nichols, is found in Whitechapel , in London's East End.
  • 1889 Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Cardboard Box" (BG)
  • 1894 The Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act passed by Richard Seddon’s Liberal government, making New Zealand the first country in the world to outlaw strikes in favour of compulsory arbitration
  • 1895 1st pro football game (QB John Brallier paid $10 & won 12-0)
  • 1896 Louis Napoleon Parker's "Rosemary" premieres in NYC

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1897 British General Kitchener's army occupies Berber, North of Khartoum

General and Secretary of War Horatio Kitchener
General and Secretary of War
Horatio Kitchener
  • 1900 British troops over run Johannesburg
  • 1902 Split skirt 1st worn by Mrs Adolph Landeburg (horse rider)
  • 1903 Joe McGinnity wins his 3rd doubleheader of month
  • 1905 Mbunga rebellion takes German Fort Mahenge East Africa
  • 1907 Britain & Russia sign treaty with Afghanistan, Persia & Tibet
  • 1907 Britain, Russia & France form Triple Entente

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1910 Theodore Roosevelt makes a speech in Kansas advocating a 'square deal': property shall be 'the servant and not the master of the commonwealth'

26th US President Theodore Roosevelt
26th US President
Theodore Roosevelt
  • 1911 Anthony Fokker's demonstrates aircraft "Snip"
  • 1913 Massive protest rally on Sackville Street attacked by the Dublin Metropolitan Police; two strikers killed by the police
  • 1914 24.8 cm rainfall at Bloomingdale, Michigan (state record)
  • 1914 General von Kluck decides not to attack Paris
  • 1914 German troops reconquer Soldau/Neidenburg East-Prussia
  • 1914 Ecuador becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
  • 1915 Brazil becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

1917 In China, Sun Yat-sen and his supporters' 'rump' parliament establishes a military government and elects Sun Yat-sen as commander-in-Chief

Father of Modern of China Sun Yat-sen
Father of Modern of China
Sun Yat-sen
  • 1919 John Reed forms American Communist Labor Party in Chicago
  • 1919 Petlyura's Ukrainian Army kills 35 members of a Jewish defense group
  • 1919 Ukranian (Petlyura) Army recaptures Kiev
  • 1920 Belgium starts paying old age pensions
  • 1920 Detroit radio station is 1st to broadcast a news program on the air
  • 1923 League of Nations gives Belgium mandate of Ruanda-Urundi (was German)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1923 Italian troops occupy Corfu

Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini
Italian Dictator
Benito Mussolini
  • 1923 Mussolini orders the Greek Government to apologize for the deaths of an Italian general and his staff on the Greco-Albanian border

Sports record brokenWorld Record

1924 Paavo Nurmi runs world record 10,000m (30:06.2)

Runner nicknamed the
Runner nicknamed the "Flying Finn"
Paavo Nurmi

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1929 Committee chaired by Owen D. Young finalizes the "Young Plan" to reduce German reparations from World War I to 112 billion Gold Marks ($US8 billion) paid over 59 years

Diplomat and Industrialist Owen D. Young
Diplomat and Industrialist
Owen D. Young
  • 1935 1st national skeet championship (Indianapolis)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1935 FDR signs an act prohibiting export of US arms to belligerents

32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • 1935 Russian Aleksei Stachanov digs 105 tons of cabbages in 6 hours
  • 1937 Det's rookie Rudy York sets record for HRs of 18 HRs in August
  • 1939 Japanese invasion army driven out of Mongolia
  • 1939 Staged "Polish" assault on radio station in Gleiwitz
  • 1940 1st edition of illegal opposition newspaper Free Netherlands
  • 1940 RAF Fighter Command loses 39 aircraft against Luftwaffe's 41
  • 1940 German occupiers in Netherlands begin soap rationing
  • 1940 US National Guard assembles
  • 1942 Battle at Alam Halfa: German & Italians assault
  • 1942 U-boats sink and damage 131 allied ships this month (639,946 tons)
  • 1943 1st battle of Essex/new Yorktown: US assault on Marcus Island
  • 1943 Japanese occupiers intern Jewish Congregation of Sorabajo
  • 1944 Allied offensive at "Gothen-linie" Italy
  • 1944 French provisional government moves from Algiers to Paris
  • 1944 French troops liberate Bordeaux
  • 1944 Soviet & Romanian troops march into Bucharest

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1945 The Liberal Party of Australia is founded by Robert Menzies

12th Australian Prime Minister Robert Menzies
12th Australian Prime Minister
Robert Menzies
  • 1947 Hungarian communist party wins election
  • 1948 Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands celebrates golden jubilee
  • 1951 1st 33 1/3 album introduced in Dusseldorf
  • 1954 Hurricane Carol hits New England, 70 die, Costliest ever hurricane at the time and 1st storm name to be retired.
  • 1954 Indians beat Yanks 6-1 for record tying 26 wins in August (1931 A's)
  • 1955 1st sun-powered automobile demonstrated (Chicago, Illinois)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1957 Federation of Malaya gains independence from Great Britain

Malaysia's Founding Father Tunku Abdul Rahman
Malaysia's Founding Father
Tunku Abdul Rahman
  • 1959 Sandy Koufax breaks Dizzy Dean's NL mark of 18 strikeouts in a game
  • 1960 Agricultural Hall of Fame forms
  • 1961 Amsterdam National Ballet forms
  • 1962 Trinidad & Tobago gain independence from Britain (National Day)
  • 1964 Ground is broken for Anaheim Stadium, future home of Angels
  • 1965 US Congress establishes Department of Housing & Urban Development
  • 1965 The Aero Spacelines Super Guppy Aircraft makes its first flight.
  • 1968 12,000 die in 7.8 quake destroys 60,000 buildings in NE Iran
  • 1968 Roy Face ties W Johnson's record of 802 pitching appearances with club
  • 1968 Verne Gagne beats Dick Beyers (Dr X) in Minn, to become NWA champ
  • 1970 Lonnie McLucas, a Black Panther activist, convicted
  • 1970 Molukkers occupy Indonesian ambassador's home in Wassenaar
  • 1970 Peter Yarrow arrested for taking "immoral liberties" with girl, 14
  • 1971 An inquiry into allegations of brutality by the security forces against those interned without trial in Northern Ireland is announced
  • 1973 PBA National Championship Won by Earl Anthony
  • 1974 Pirate Radio Veronica moves into Scheveningen harbor
  • 1976 Mexican peso devalued
  • 1976 Trinidad & Tobago adopts constitution
  • 1977 Aleksandr Fedotov sets aircraft alt rec of 38.26 km (125,524')
  • 1977 Spyros Kyprianou appointed president of Cyprus
  • 1977 Ian Smith, espousing racial segregation, wins Rhodesian general election with 80% of overwhelmingly white electorate's vote
  • 1978 Constitution adopted by Sri Lanka
  • 1978 Emily & William Harris plead guilty to 1974 kidnapping of Patty Hearst
  • 1978 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1979 Comet Howard-Koomur-Michels collides with Sun
  • 1979 Donald McHenry named to succeed Andrew Young as US UN ambassador

Birthdays in History


Person of interestPerson of Interest

12 Caligula [Gaius Caesar], 3rd Roman Emperor (37-41 AD), born in Anzio, Italy (d. 41)

3rd Roman Emperor Caligula
3rd Roman Emperor
Caligula

Person of interestPerson of Interest

161 Commodus, Roman Emperor (180-192 AD), born in Lanuvium, Italy (d. 192)

Roman Emperor Commodus
Roman Emperor
Commodus
  • 1569 Jahangir, 4th Mughal Emperor of India (1605-27), born in Fatehpur Sikri, Mughal Empire (d. 1627)
  • 1602 Amalia, countess of Solms-Braunfels, wife of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange
  • 1663 Guillaume Amontons, French physicist, born in Paris (d. 1705)
  • 1721 George Hervey, 2nd Earl of Bristol, British statesman (d. 1775)
  • 1741 Husein Gradaščević, Bosniak general, born in Gradačac, Bosnia and Herzegovina (d. 1834)
  • 1749 Alexander Radishchev, Russian writer (Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow), born in Moscow (1802)
  • 1811 Théophile Gautier, French writer, historian and poet (Albertus, La Chanson de Roland, Émaux et camées), born in Tarbes, France (d. 1872)
  • 1811 Goode Bryan, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Hancock County, Georgia (d. 1885)
  • 1822 Fitz John Porter, American Major General (Union Army), born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire (d. 1901)
  • 1823 Galusha Aaron Grow, American politician, born in Ashford, Connecticut (d. 1907)
  • 1828 George Leonard Andrews, American professor, civil engineer, and Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Bridgewater, Massachusetts (d. 1899)
  • 1843 Georg von Hertling, Chancellor of Germany (1917-18), born in Darmstadt, Germany (d. 1919)
  • 1852 Joris Helleputte, Belgian Catholic minister, born in Ghent, Belgium (d. 1925)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1870 Maria Montessori, Italian educator (spontaneous response), born in Chiaravalle, Marche, Italy (d. 1952)

  • 1871 James E. Ferguson, American Democratic politician and Texan Governor (1915-17), born in Salado, Texas (d. 1944)
  • 1874 Edward Thorndike, American psychologist (father of modern educational psychology), born in Williamsburg, Massachusetts (d. 1949)
  • 1879 Yoshihito [Taishō], 123rd Emperor of Japan (1912-26), born in Akasaka Palace, Tokyo City, Japan (d. 1926)
  • 1879 Alma Mahler, Viennese composer and Wife of Gustav Mahler, Walter Gropius and Franz Werfel, born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1964)
  • 1880 Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands (1890-1948), born in Noordeinde Palace, The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1962)
  • 1884 George Al Sarton, Belgian-American chemist and historian, born in Ghent, Belgium (d. 1956)
  • 1885 DuBose Heyward, American novelist (Porgy, Star Spangled Virgin), born in Charleston, South Carolina (d. 1940)
  • 1887 Friedrich A Paneth, Austrian-British chemist, born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1958)
  • 1888 Ramon de Basterra, Spanish writer and diplomat (La Obra de Trajano), born in Bilbao, Spain (d. 1928)
  • 1893 Lily Laskine, French harpist, born in Paris (d. 1988)
  • 1894 Albert Facey, Australian writer (A Fortunate Life), born in Maidstone, Victoria, Australia (d. 1982)
  • 1896 Félix-Antoine Savard, French-Canadian priest and novelist, born in Quebec, Canada (d. 1982)
  • 1897 Marianne Bruns, German writer, born in Leipzig, Germany (d. 1994)
  • 1899 Paul E Garber, American founder/1st curator of National Air & Space Museum, born in Atlantic City, New Jersey (d. 1992)
  • 1900 Gino Lucetti, Italian anarchist, born Carrara, Italy (d. 1943)
  • 1903 Vladimir Jankélévitch, French philosopher, born in Bourges, France (d. 1985)
  • 1905 Dore Schary, American producer, writer and director (Act 1, Boys Town, Big City), born in Newark, New Jersey (d. 1958)
  • 1905 Sal Tas, Dutch journalist & CIA agent (Het Parool) [or 1897]
  • 1906 Vivienne Byerley, publicist
  • 1907 Augustus F. Hawkins, American politician (Rep-D-CA, 1963-75), born in Shreveport, Louisiana (d. 2007)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1907 Ramon Magsaysay, 7th President of the Philippines (US Legion of Merit-1952), born in Iba, Zambales, Philippines (d. 1957)

7th President of the Philippines Ramon Magsaysay
7th President of the Philippines
Ramon Magsaysay
  • 1907 William Shawn, American magazine editor (New Yorker, 1952-87), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1992)
  • 1907 Altiero Spinelli, Italian citizen and advocate of European federalism, born in Rome, Italy (d. 1986)
  • 1908 William Saroyan, American novelist and playwright (Time of Your Life), born in Fresno, California (d. 1981)
  • 1909 Marie-Louise Grog-Carven, French fashion designer (Ma Griffe perfume), born in Châtellerault, Poitou-Charentes (d. 2015)
  • 1911 Hilde Jarecki, educationist
  • 1913 Michiel P Gorsira, 1st Dutch Antillean in charge of Curacao (1951-67)
  • 1913 Sir Bernard Lovell, English radio astronomer, founded Jodrell Bank Observatory, born in Oldland Common, Bristol (d. 2012)
  • 1919 Amrita Preetam, Indian poet and author, born in Gujranwala, Pakistan (d. 2005)
  • 1921 Raymond Williams, Welsh academic and novelist (Second Generation), born in Llanfihangel Crucorney, Wales (d. 1988)
  • 1926 Georgiy Petrovich Katys, Russia, cosmonaut (Voskhod 1 backup)
  • 1926 Jan de Koning, minister of Agriculture/Social Businesses (CDA)
  • 1928 Jeremy Stephen Maas, writer/art dealer
  • 1929 Julio Ramon Ribeyro, writer
  • 1930 Owen B Pickett, (Rep-D-Virginia)
  • 1932 Benito Wogatzki, writer
  • 1932 Robert [Franklin] Adams, US, sci-fi author (Castaways in Time)
  • 1935 Eldridge Cleaver, Black Panther turned Republican
  • 1936 Marva Nettles Collins, educator (west side preparatory school)
  • 1938 Martin Bell, British journalist
  • 1941 Henk Terlingen, Dutch radio/TV-host (Paul Meier Show)
  • 1941 William DeWitt, Jr., American businessman
  • 1942 Eugenio Trias, philosopher, born in Barcelona, Spain (d. 2013)
  • 1943 Leonid Ivashov, Russian general
  • 1945 Leonid Ivanovich Popov, USSR, cosmonaut (Soyuz 35/37, 40, T-7)
  • 1946 Jerome Corsi, American writer
  • 1947 Luca di Montezemolo, Italian businessman
  • 1947 Yumiko Ōshima, Japanese manga artist
  • 1952 Herbert Reul, German politician
  • 1953 Marcia Clark, [Kleks], LA DA (O.J. Simpson Case), born in Berkeley, California
  • 1953 György Károly, Hungarian author
  • 1954 Tula, [Barry Kenneth Cossey], England, transsexual (For Your Eyes Only)
  • 1956 Masashi Tashiro, Japanese television performer
  • 1958 David H Mattheisen, Blue Island Ill, PhD/astronaut (STS 73 alt)
  • 1964 Raymond P. Hammond, American poet and editor
  • 1966 Jan Einar Thorsen, Norwegian Alpine skier
  • 1969 Andrew Phillip Cunanan, serial killer (Gianni Versache)
  • 1970 Queen Rania Al-Abdullah of Jordan, born in Kuwait City
  • 1980 Laura Mulleavy, American fashion designer (Rodarte), born in California
  • 1982 G. Willow Wilson, American journalist and comic book writer
  • 1984 Ted Ligety, American alpine skier

Weddings in History

  • 2013 "Blue Crush" actress Kate Bosworth (30) weds director Michael Polish (42) in Philipsburg, Montana

Deaths in History

  • 651 Saint Aidan of Lindisfarne, Irish bishop and missionary
  • 1056 Theodora, Byzantine Empress (b. 981)
  • 1057 Leofric, count of Mercia/husband of Lady Godiva, dies
  • 1158 Sancho III, King of Castile, dies
  • 1218 Al-Malik ab-Adil/Saphadin/Saif al-Din), brother of Saladin, dies
  • 1234 Emperor Go-Horikawa of Japan (b. 1212)
  • 1372 Ralph Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford, English soldier (b. 1301)
  • 1422 Henry V, King of England (1413-22) and France (1416-19), dies at 36
  • 1590 Floris Thin, politician/land advocate of Utrecht, dies
  • 1645 Francesco Bracciolini, Italian poet (b. 1566)
  • 1654 Ole Worm, Danish physician (b. 1588)
  • 1688 John Bunyan, preacher/novelist/author (Pilgrim's Progress), dies
  • 1741 Johann Gottlieb Heineccius, German jurist, dies at 59
  • 1772 William Borlase, English naturalist (b. 1695)
  • 1796 John McKinly, American physician and President of Delaware, dies at 75
  • 1799 Nicolas-Henri Jardin, French architect (b. 1720)
  • 1814 Arthur Phillip, British admiral, first Governor of New South Wales (b. 1738)
  • 1862 George William Taylor, US Union brigadier general, dies in battle
  • 1864 Ferdinand Lassalle, French politician (ADA), dies at 39
  • 1867 Charles [Pierre] Baudelaire, French poet and translator (Les Fleurs du mal), dies at 46
  • 1869 Mary Ward, Irish scientist, first automobile accident victim (b. 1827)
  • 1873 Charles F Pahud de Montagnes, gov-gen (Dutch East Indies), dies at 70
  • 1875 Oskar Peschel, German geographer (Physicist Erdkunde), dies at 49
  • 1879 William Barber, 6th US chief engraver (1844-79), dies

MurderMurder of Interest

1888 Mary Ann Nichols, a 42-year-old prostitute, was found stabbed to death in London, 1st of at least five murders by Jack the Ripper

First Victim of Jack the Ripper Mary Ann Nichols
First Victim of Jack the Ripper
Mary Ann Nichols
  • 1902 Mathilde Wesendonk, German author/poetess, dies at 73
  • 1918 Joe English, Irish/Flemish signaler (WW I), dies at 36
  • 1920 Wilhelm Wundt, German physiologist, psychologist and philosopher, dies at 88
  • 1931 Marcel Planiol, French private law scholar, dies
  • 1934 Johan H A Schaper, Dutch MP (SDAP), dies
  • 1935 Abraham Isaac Kook, rabbi/author (Hokhmat Ha-kodesh), dies
  • 1940 Georges Gauthier, French Canadian Roman Catholic archbishop of Montreal (b. 1871)
  • 1941 Marian Zwetajewa, writer, dies
  • 1941 Marina Tsvetaeva, Russian poet (b. 1892)
  • 1942 Von Bismarck, German major general, (Africa Corps), dies in battle
  • 1948 Andrei A Zjdanov, Rus politician (against kosmopolitism), dies at 52
  • 1949 Andre Debierne, French chemist/physicist (actinium), dies
  • 1952 Henri Bourassa, French Canadian political leader (b. 1868)
  • 1959 Charles Delaney, dies at 67
  • 1963 Georges Braque, French cubist painter and sculptor (My bicycle) who helped develop Cubism with Pablo Picasso, dies at 81
  • 1966 Kasimir Edschmid, [Karl E Schmidt], German writer, dies at 75
  • 1967 Ilja G Ehrenburg, Russian poet/writer (9th wave), dies at 76
  • 1967 Michael Fitzmaurice, dies of lymphoma at 59
  • 1968 George P Gooch, English historian/House of Commons leader, dies
  • 1973 Raymond Keane, dies at 66
  • 1974 William Pershing Benedict, American pilot
  • 1974 Norman Kirk, New Zealand prime minister (b. 1923
  • 1976 Kornelis H Miskotte, theologist (If the Gods Keep Silent), dies at 81
  • 1978 John Wrathall, President of Rhodesia (b. 1913)
  • 1981 Joseph H Hirschhorn, US art collector/founder H Museum, dies at 82
  • 1985 Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Australian biologist, Nobel laureate (b. 1899)
  • 1986 Henry Moore, English artist and sculptor (known for Three Piece Sculpture: Vertebrae), dies at 88
  • 1986 Urho K Kekkonen, premier/president of Finland, dies at 85
  • 1991 Leigh Watson, US aviation pioneer/air force general, dies at 93
  • 1993 Gerben Wagenaar, Dutch resistance fighter (communist), dies at 80
  • 1994 Barbara Hammer Avedon, scriptwriter, dies at 69
  • 1995 Beant Singh, PM of Punjab province of India, assassinated at 73
  • 1995 David Richard Holloway, literary Editor, dies at 71
  • 1995 Hajime Miterai, industrialist, dies at 56
  • 1995 Horst Janssen, graphic Artist, dies at 65
  • 1995 John Erik Jonsson, American businessman and Mayor of Dallas, dies at 93
  • 1996 David Scott, British priest, Chaplain to the Queen, dies at 72
  • 1996 Harald James Penrose, pilot, dies at 92
  • 1996 David Pollock, Viscount Hanworth, British barrister, dies at 80

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1997 Diana Spencer, Princess of Wales, dies in car crash in Paris at 36

Princess of Wales Diana Spencer
Princess of Wales
Diana Spencer
  • 2002 George Porter, English chemist, Nobel laureate (b. 1920)
  • 2005 Joseph Rotblat, Polish-British physicist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1908)
  • 2006 Derrick Wayne Frazier, American convicted murderer (b. 1977)
  • 2008 Ike Pappas, American news correspondent (b. 1933)
  • 2009 Eraño Manalo, Filipino religious figure (b. 1925)
  • 2011 Valery Rozhdestvensky, Soviet cosmonaut (Soyuz 23), dies at 72
  • 2015 Colin Hope, British Industrialist (Turner and Newall), dies at 83