On This Day in History for July 31

Events in History

Events 1 - 100 of 143


Victory in battleVictory in Battle

30 BC Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves minor victory over Octavian, but most of his army subsequently deserts, leading to Octavian's invasion of Egypt

Roman Politician and General Mark Antony
Roman Politician and General
Mark Antony
Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar
Roman Emperor
Augustus Caesar
  • 432 St Sixtus III begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 768 [Philip] begins & ends his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 781 The oldest recorded eruption of Mt. Fuji (Traditional Japanese date: July 6, 781).
  • 1291 Egyptian Mamelukken occupies Akko, crusaders driven out of Palestine
  • 1423 Hundred Years' War: Battle of Cravant - the French army is defeated by the English on the banks of the river Yonne in Burgundy
  • 1451 Jacques Cœur is arrested by order of Charles VII of France.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1498 Christopher Columbus discovers the island of Trinidad on his third voyage

Explorer of the New World Christopher Columbus
Explorer of the New World
Christopher Columbus
  • 1620 Pilgrim Fathers depart Leiden for England before heading to America
  • 1653 Fronde-leaders surrender in Bordeaux
  • 1655 Russo-Polish War (1654-1667): the Russian army enters the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilnius, which it holds for six years.
  • 1658 Aurangzeb appoints himself Mongol emperor
  • 1664 Pierre Corneille's "Othon" premieres in Paris
  • 1667 Peace of Breda: 2nd English war-Suriname vs New-Netherlands ends

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1703 Daniel Defoe is placed in a pillory for the crime of seditious libel after publishing a politically satirical pamphlet, but is pelted with flowers.

Novelist Daniel Defoe
Novelist
Daniel Defoe
  • 1737 Prince Frederick of Wales escapes English court
  • 1741 Charles Albert of Bavaria invades Upper Austria and Bohemia.
  • 1751 Fire in Stockholm destroys 1,000 houses
  • 1771 Paul Potters "Great ossendrift" sold for Ÿ9050 in Amsterdam

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1777 Marquis de Lafayette, 19, made major-general of Continental Army

French General and Aristocrat Marquis de Lafayette
French General and Aristocrat
Marquis de Lafayette
  • 1790 1st US patent granted, to Samuel Hopkins for a potash process
  • 1792 Cornerstone laid for 1st US government building: US Mint in Philadelphia
  • 1794 All Jacobijnse clubs together in Haarlem
  • 1809 1st practical US railroad track (wooden, for horse-drawn cars), Phila
  • 1813 British invade Plattsburgh, NY
  • 1849 Benjamin Chambers patents breech loading cannon
  • 1852 Hottest July in Netherlands since at least 1783 (68.4°F (20.2°C) avg)
  • 1855 Hottest July in Stockholm since at least 1756 (21.4°C avg)
  • 1856 Christchurch, New Zealand, is chartered as a city.
  • 1861 9,300 mm rainfall in July in Cherrapunji, Assam: world record

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1864 Ulysses S. Grant is named General of Volunteers

US President & Union General Ulysses S. Grant
US President & Union General
Ulysses S. Grant
  • 1865 The first narrow gauge mainline railway in the world opens at Grandchester, Australia.
  • 1874 Patrick Francis Healy, SJ, inaugurated as President of Georgetown U
  • 1876 US Coast Guard officers' training school established (New Bedford MA)
  • 1877 Second Russian assault on Plevna, Turkey fails, during Russo-Turkish War, 7,300 Russian casualties
  • 1879 The first cable connection between South Africa and Europe is laid by the British electrical engineer Charles Tilston Bright as part of his project to link the British Empire with growing telecommunications technologies
  • 1893 Henry Perky patents shredded wheat
  • 1893 Gaelic League is founded by Douglas Hyde and Eoin MacNeill in order to encourage Irish people to speak the language and take a greater interest in their culture
  • 1899 Albert Trott hits Monty Noble over the Pavilion at Lord's
  • 1900 Boer Generals Prinsloo & Roux surrender in Brandwater Basin
  • 1901 Abraham Kuyper becomes premier of Netherlands
  • 1905 Matumbi rebellion at Samanga German East Africa
  • 1910 Chic Cub King Cole no-hits St Louis, 4-0 in a 7 inning game
  • 1910 Clement van Maasdijk gives flying demonstration
  • 1911 Hungarian education is only taught in German

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1914 German Emperor Wilhelm II threatens war, orders Russia to demobilize

German Emperor and King of Prussia Wilhelm II
German Emperor and King of Prussia
Wilhelm II
  • 1914 Oil discovered in Lake of Maracaibo
  • 1917 3rd battle of Ypres begins
  • 1919 The Weimar Constitution establishing the German Republic is adopted
  • 1922 18-year-old Ralph Samuelson rides world's 1st water skis (Minn)
  • 1922 General strike in Italy against fascist violence

  • 1923 Belgian Chamber discusses bilinguality at Ghent University
  • 1925 Last allied occupying troops leave Ruhrgebied
  • 1925 Unemployment Insurance Act passed in Britain
  • 1929 Aristide Briand becomes premier of France for the 6th time
  • 1932 Cleveland Municipal Stadium opens-Philadelphia A's beat Indians 1-0
  • 1932 George Washington quarter goes into circulation
  • 1932 German Election (NSDAP gets 37.3%)
  • 1935 3rd Dutch government of Colijn sworn in
  • 1937 Politburo enables Operative Order 00447: execute 193,000 Russians
  • 1938 NY Yanks suspend Jake Powell, after he said on Chicago radio he'd "hit every colored person in Chicago over head with a club"
  • 1938 Archaeologists discover engraved gold and silver plates from King Darius in Persepolis.
  • 1940 Riechskommissar Seyss-Inquart bans homosexuals
  • 1941 U-boats sink and damage 21 allied ships this month (80,521 tons)
  • 1942 German SS gases 1,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia
  • 1943 Transport #58 departs with French Jews to nazi Germany
  • 1944 Last deportation train out Mechelen departs to Auschwitz
  • 1944 Transport #77 departs with French Jews to nazi-Germany
  • 1944 US troops occupy Sansapor, New-Guinea

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1945 Pierre Laval, fugitive former leader of Vichy France, surrenders to Allied soldiers in Austria

Prime Minister of France and Head of Vichy France Pierre Laval
Prime Minister of France and Head of Vichy France
Pierre Laval
  • 1948 US President Harry Truman dedicates Idlewild Field (now Kennedy Airport), NY
  • 1951 Japan Airlines is established.
  • 1954 First ascent of K2, by an Italian expedition led by Ardito Desio.
  • 1956 Laker takes 10-53 in Australia's 2nd innings, 19-90 for match
  • 1958 Anti-Chinese uprising in Tibet
  • 1959 1st exhibit of bongos at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo opens

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1960 Elijah Muhammad, leader of Nation of Islam, calls for a black state

Religious Leader Elijah Muhammad
Religious Leader
Elijah Muhammad
  • 1961 Israel welcomes its one millionth immigrant
  • 1963 Arturo Illia elected President of Argentina
  • 1963 Cleve ties record of 4 consecutive HRs (Held, Ramos, Francona, Brown)
  • 1964 Al Parker glides 644 miles without a motor
  • 1964 US Ranger 7 takes 4,316 pictures before crashing on Moon
  • 1965 Cigarette advertising banned on British TV
  • 1969 Mariner 6 makes its closest approach to planet Mars at 3410 km
  • 1969 National Guard mobilizes in racial disturbances in Baton Rouge, La

CommunicationBlack Tot Day

1970 Black Tot Day: the last day of the officially sanctioned rum ration in the Royal Navy (started 1740)

  • 1970 Daniel O'Hagan (19), a Catholic civilian, is shot dead by the British Army during a serious riot in the New Lodge Road area of Belfast, Northern Ireland
  • 1971 Apollo 15 astronauts take 6½ hour electric car ride on Moon
  • 1971 Venezuela's Hydrocarbons Reversion Law mandates gradual transfer to government ownership of all "unexploited concession areas" by 1974 and "all their residual assets" by 1983
  • 1972 Dick Allen is 7th to hit 2 inside-the-park homers in a game
  • 1972 Thomas Eagleton withdraws as Democratic VP candidate
  • 1972 Operation Motorman: the British Army use 12,000 soldiers supported by tanks and bulldozers to re-take the "no-go areas" controlled by the Provisional Irish Republican Army
  • 1972 Claudy bombing: nine civilians were killed when three car bombs exploded in County Londonderry, North Ireland; no group has since claimed responsibility
  • 1973 Delta Airlines DC-9 crashes in fog at Logan Airport, Boston, killing all but one of 89 aboard. Lone survivor dies 6 months later
  • 1975 The Miami Showband killings: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), a loyalist paramilitary group, shoot dead three members of an Irish showband at Buskhill, County Down, Ireland
  • 1976 Seychelles Independence (Independence day)
  • 1977 E Henry Knoche, ends term as deputy director of CIA
  • 1977 John F Blake promoted from acting to deputy director of CIA
  • 1978 Gunman shoots his way into Iraqi Embassy in Paris
  • 1978 NY Yanks now 7½ out of 1st, picked up 7 games in previous 2 weeks

Birthdays in History

  • 1143 Emperor Nijo of Japan (d. 1165)
  • 1396 Philips, the Good, Duke of Burgundy//Brabant/Limburg/count
  • 1443 Albrecht III of Saxon-Meisen, duke of Saxon
  • 1527 Maximilian II, German King/Emperor (1564-76)
  • 1578 Catharina Belgica of Nassau, daughter of Willem of Orange
  • 1597 Sebastian Stosskopf, Elzassisch painter, baptized
  • 1598 Alessandro Algardi, Italian sculptor and architect (d. 1654)
  • 1654 Jacob Hop, Dutch politician/diplomat
  • 1702 Jean Denis Attiret, French Jesuit missionary and painter, born in Dole, France (d. 1768)
  • 1704 Gabriel Cramer, Swiss mathematician (paradox of Cramer), born in Geneva, Switzerland (d. 1752)
  • 1718 John Canton, English physicist, born in Stroud, Gloucestershire, England (d. 1772)
  • 1724 Noël François de Wailly, French lexicographer, born in Amines, France (d. 1801)
  • 1737 Princess Augusta Frederica of Great Britain, born in London, England (d. 1813)
  • 1743 August R van Hekeren van Suideras, Dutch orangist
  • 1748 Isaac Ouwater, Amsterdam painter/cartoonist

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1803 John Ericsson, Swedish-American inventor (screw propeller, rotating turret), born in Långban, Sweden

Mechanical Inventor John Ericsson
Mechanical Inventor
John Ericsson
  • 1816 George Henry Thomas, American Major General (Union Army), born in Newsoms, Virginia (d. 1870)
  • 1817 Philip Cook Jr, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1894)
  • 1818 Heinrich Kiepert, German cartographer/geographer
  • 1825 Thomas Hart Taylor, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1901)
  • 1825 William S. Clark, American senator and scholar (d. 1886)
  • 1834 Peter H Hugenholtz, Dutch reformer/founder (Free Parish)
  • 1835 Henri Brisson, French statesman (d. 1912)
  • 1835 Paul du Chaillu, French explorer (d. 1903)
  • 1837 William Clarke Quantrill, Col (Confederate Army), (d. 1865)
  • 1843 Peter Rosegger, Austrian poet and Nobel Prize laureate, born in Krieglach, Austria (d. 1918)
  • 1844 Ignazio Guidi, Italian orientalist and archaeologist, born in Rome, Italy (d. 1935)
  • 1854 Jose Canalejas, premier of Spain (1910-12), born in El Ferrol, Spain (d. 1912)
  • 1858 Richard Dixon Oldham, British geologist, born in Dublin, Ireland (d. 1936)
  • 1860 Mary Vaux Walcott, American artist and naturalist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1940)
  • 1867 Sebastian S. Kresge, American merchant and philanthropist (Kmart), born in Bald Mountain, Pennsylvania (d. 1966)
  • 1880 Munshi Premchand [Dhanpat Rai], Indian author, born in Lamhi, Benares State, British India (d. 1936)
  • 1882 Grete Gulbransson, Austrian writer and poet (Geliebte Schatten), born in Thüringen, Austria (d. 1934)
  • 1884 Carl Friedrich Goerdeler, German Leipzig mayor and Nazi regime opponent (20th July Plot)
  • 1886 Salvatore Maranzano, Sicilian-born American organized crime figure, born in Sicily, Italy (d. 1931)
  • 1886 Constant Permeke, Flemish painter and statues artist (Sow), born in Antwerp, Belgium (d. 1952)
  • 1887 Hans Freyer, German sociologist and philosopher, born in Leipzig, Germany (d. 1969)
  • 1892 Joseph Charbonneau, French-Canadian Roman Catholic archbishop of Montreal (1940-50), born in Lefaivre, Canada (d. 1959)
  • 1900 Elmo Roper, pollster (Roper Poll)
  • 1901 Jean Debuffet, French painter and sculptor (Landscape with 2 Personages), born in Le Havre, France (d. 1985)
  • 1904 Brett Halliday, American writer (Dividend on Death), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1977)
  • 1905 Trenchard Cox, British museum director, born in London (d. 1995)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1912 Milton Friedman, American economist (Nobel Prize Economics 1976), born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 2006)

Economist Milton Friedman
Economist
Milton Friedman
  • 1914 Jose Ignacio Domecq, Spanish wine maker, born in Jerez, Spain (d. 1997)
  • 1914 Raymond Aubrac, French resistance leader, born in Paris, France (d. 2012)
  • 1916 Sibte Hassan, Pakistani activist, journalist and writer, born in Ambari Azamgarh Uttar Pradesh, India (d. 1986)
  • 1918 Paul D. Boyer, American biochemist and Nobel Prize Laureate, born in Provo, Utah
  • 1919 Primo Levi, Italian chemist and writer (Survival in Auschwitz), born in Turin, Italy (d. 1987)
  • 1920 James Esdras Faust, American religious leader, born in Delta, Utah (d. 2007)
  • 1921 Whitney M Young Jr, civil rights leader, head of Urban League
  • 1921 Peter Benenson, British founder of Amnesty International, born in London (d. 2005)
  • 1922 Lucy Killea, (assemblywoman-California)
  • 1923 Ahmet Ertegun, Turkish-American businessman and co-founder of Atlantic Records, born in Istanbul, Turkey (d. 2006)
  • 1926 Hilary Putnam, American philosopher, born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 2016)
  • 1927 Walter Vogt, Swiss writer (Wüthrich) and psychiatrist, born in Zurich (d. 1988)
  • 1928 Bill Frenzel, (Rep-R-MN, 1971- )
  • 1929 Oriana Fallaci, Italian journalist and writer, born in Florence, Italy (d. 2006)
  • 1929 Lynne Reid Banks, British author (The Indian in the Cupboard), born in London
  • 1930 Oleg Popov, Russian clown and circus artist, born in Vyrubovo, Moscow (d. 2016)
  • 1932 Robert W Davis, (Rep-R-MI, 1979- )
  • 1932 John Searle, American philosopher, born in Denver, Colorado
  • 1933 Cees Nooteboom, Dutch writer and journalist (Rituelen), born in The Hague, Netherlands
  • 1940 Stanley Jaffe, American producer (Fatal Attraction), born in New Rochelle, New York
  • 1941 Amarsinh Chaudhary, Indian politician, born in Surat, India (d. 2004)
  • 1943 Stephanie Forrester, frictional character (The Bold & the Beautiful)
  • 1943 William Bennett, US Secretary of Education (1985-88)/drug tsar
  • 1944 Robert C. Merton, American economist and Nobel laureate in Economics, born in NYC, New York
  • 1945 William Floyd Weld, (Gov-R-Mass)
  • 1946 Karen Zerby, American religious leader, born in Camden, New Jersey
  • 1947 Dennis Greenslade, rocker
  • 1948 Leaveil Degree, rocker (Whispers)
  • 1952 Pritawi Sudarmo, Indonesia, astronaut
  • 1952 João Barreiros, Portuguese writer (Um Dia com Júlia na Necrosfera), born in Portugal
  • 1953 Hugh McDowell, chelloist (ELO-Telephone Line)
  • 1953 Ted Baillieu, Australian Politician, Premier of Victoria (2010-13), born in Melbourne, Australia
  • 1956 Deval Patrick, 71st Governor of Massachusetts (2007-15), born in Chicago, Illinois
  • 1962 John Chiang, American politician (Democratic Party), born in NYC, New York

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1965 J. K. Rowling, English writer (Harry Potter novels), born in Yate, Gloucestershire

Novelist J. K. Rowling
Novelist
J. K. Rowling
  • 1966 Marina V A Mowatt, [Ogilvy], daughter of English princess Alexandra
  • 1969 Kenneth D. Schisler, American politician, born in Baltimore, Maryland
  • 1970 Ahmad Akbarpour, Iranian writer (The Train of That Night), born in Chah Varz, Lamerd, Iran
  • 1975 Simon Hirst, British radio DJ
  • 1990 Olga Galchenko, Russian juggler, born in Penza, Russia

Weddings in History

  • 1964 George Lascelles marries Patricia Tuckwell
  • 2010 Daughter of former US President Bill Clinton Chelsea Clinton (30) weds investment banker Marc Mezvinsky (32) at Astor Courts in Rhinebeck, New York
  • 2016 Herjavec Group CEO Robert Herjavec (53) weds former "Dancing with the Stars" Kym Johnson (39) in Los Angeles, California

Deaths in History


Person of interestPerson of Interest

54 BC Aurelia Cotta, mother of Julius Caesar, dies at 66

Mother of Julius Caesar Aurelia Cotta
Mother of Julius Caesar
Aurelia Cotta
  • 855 Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Muslim Jurisprudent (b. 780)
  • 1358 Etienne Marcel, French textile merchant/reformer/Boer leader, dies
  • 1396 William Courtenay, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1342)
  • 1508 Na'od, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. 1494)
  • 1556 Saint Ignatius of Loyola, Spanish knight from a Basque noble family, hermit, priest, theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus, dies in Rome at about 65
  • 1566 Bartholome de Casas, Spanish historian/bishop of Chiapa, dies at 92
  • 1638 Sybilla Schwarz, German baroque poet, dies at 17
  • 1648 Benedictus J van Haeften, poet (Regia thru Crucis), dies at about 60
  • 1653 Thomas Dudley, British colonial governor of Massachusetts, dies at 76
  • 1693 Willem Calf, Rotterdams still life painter, dies at 73
  • 1726 Nicolaus II Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (b. 1695)
  • 1750 Johan V, King of Portugal, dies
  • 1763 James Kent, Fredericksburgh NY, legal scholar (Columbia), dies

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1784 Denis Diderot, French writer/philosopher, dies at 70

Enlightenment Philosopher Denis Diderot
Enlightenment Philosopher
Denis Diderot
  • 1795 Jose B da Gama, Portuguese poet (East Uraguay), dies at 54
  • 1811 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Mexican hero priest, executed by Spanish
  • 1864 Louis Hachette, French publisher, dies at 64

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1875 Andrew Johnson, 17th US President (Unionist: 1865-69), dies of a stroke at 66

17th US President Andrew Johnson
17th US President
Andrew Johnson
  • 1891 Jean-Baptist Capronnier, French/Belgian painter, dies at 77
  • 1913 John Milne, British geologist (developed the first modern seismograph), dies of Bright's disease at 62
  • 1914 A J Jean Jaurès, French socialist (L'Humanité/Les Preuves), murdered=
  • 1917 Francis Ledwidge, Irish poet (b. 1881)
  • 1917 Hedd Wyn, Welsh poet (b. 1887)
  • 1937 Charles Hires, American Inventor and Manufacturer of the Hires Root Beer beverage, dies at 85
  • 1940 Whitney Krakower, US gangster, murdered by "Bugsy" Siegel
  • 1942 Francis E Younghusband, British journalist/explorer, dies at 79
  • 1951 J of Oudshoorn, [John K Feylbrief], writer (Maze of Sentences), dies
  • 1953 Robert Taft, (Sen-R-Oh) "Mr Republican", dies in NY at 63
  • 1966 Alex E von Falkenhausen, German general, dies at 87
  • 1967 Richard Kuhn, German chemist, dies
  • 1972 Paul-Henri Spaak, Belgian premier/sect-gen (NATO, 1957-61), dies at 73
  • 1977 Stacy Moskowitz, shot to death by Son of Sam, at 20
  • 1981 Gen Omar Torrijos, leader of Panama, dies in plane crash
  • 1985 Eugene Carson Blake, sec-gen World Council of Churches, dies at 78
  • 1986 Chiune Sugihara, Japanese diplomat (b. 1900)
  • 1988 Trinidad Silva, killed in auto accident at 38
  • 1990 Fernando Sancho, dies after operation for malignant tumor at 72
  • 1992 G Harold Carswell, supreme court justice candidate 1970, dies at 72
  • 1992 Joseph L George, dies of cancer at 65
  • 1992 Ralph Strait, dies of heart attack at 56
  • 1992 Sjoerd de Free, reporter (Radio Herrijzend Netherland), dies
  • 1993 Baudouin, king of Belgium (1951-93), dies at 62 from heart problems
  • 1993 Elmar Klos, director (Obzalovany, Obchod na Korze), dies at 83
  • 1993 Paul Henry, US Republicans Congressional leader, dies at 51
  • 1993 George Keyt, Sri Lankan painter, dies at 92
  • 1994 Caitlin Thomas, dies
  • 1994 G de Ru, chairman of Dutch Reformed Synode, dies
  • 1994 Pieter C Buitendijk, co-founder (Free Netherlands), dies at 92
  • 1996 Joan "Maudie" Warburton, painter, dies at 76
  • 1996 Michael Jinks, child care pioneer, dies at 59
  • 1997 Edith Fore, pitchwoman (I've fallen and I can't get up!), dies at 81
  • 1997 Ulrich Ernst Simon, theologian, dies at 63
  • 2000 Hendrik Christoffel Van de Hulst, Dutch Astronomer, dies at 81
  • 2001 Poul Anderson, American author (b. 1926)
  • 2001 Francisco da Costa Gomes, 16th President of Portugal (b. 1914)
  • 2001 Friedrich Franz, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1910)
  • 2003 Guido Crepax, Italian comics artist (b. 1933)
  • 2005 Wim Duisenberg, Dutch banker (b. 1935)
  • 2012 Gore Vidal, American author, dies from pneumonia at 86
  • 2016 Seymour Papert, South African mathematician, dies at 88