On This Day in History for March 12

Events in History

Events 1 - 100 of 148

  • 538 Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths, ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving the city in the hands of the victorious Roman general, Belisarius.
  • 1054 Pope Leo IX escapes captivity & returns to Rome
  • 1088 Odo of Lagery elected as Pope Urban II, succeeding Victor III
  • 1144 Gherardo Caccianemici elected Pope Lucius II, succeeding Callistus II
  • 1350 Orvieto city says it will behead & burn Jewish-Christian couples
  • 1365 University of Vienna founded
  • 1455 First record of Johann Gutenberg's Bible, letter dated this day by Enea Silvio Piccolomini refers to the bible printed a year before
  • 1496 Jews are expelled from Syria
  • 1572 Luis Vaz de Camoes publishes "Os Lusíados" in Portugal
  • 1594 Company of Distant established for business on East-Indies
  • 1597 England routes troops to Amiens
  • 1609 Bermuda becomes an English colony
  • 1619 Dutch settlement on Java changes name to Batavia
  • 1622 Ignatius of Loyola declared a saint
  • 1642 Abel Tasman is 1st European in New Zealand
  • 1664 1st naturalization act in American colonies
  • 1664 New Jersey becomes an English colony
  • 1689 Former English King James II lands in Ireland

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1737 Galileo's body moved to Church of Santa Croce in Florence, Italy

Astronomer & Physicist Galileo Galilei
Astronomer & Physicist
Galileo Galilei
  • 1755 1st steam engine in America installed, to pump water from a mine
  • 1773 Jeanne Baptiste Pointe de Sable found settlement now known as Chicago
  • 1794 Theatre Royal in London's Dury Lane opens after being rebuilt
  • 1799 Austria declares war on France
  • 1848 2nd republic established in France
  • 1849 1st gold seekers arrive in Nicaragua en route to Calif
  • 1850 1st US $20 gold piece issued
  • 1860 Congress accepts Pre-emption Bill: free land in West for colonists
  • 1867 Last French troops leave Mexico
  • 1868 Great Britain annexes Basutoland in Africa (later renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho)
  • 1868 US Congress abolishes manufacturer's tax
  • 1868 Henry O'Farrell attempts to assassinate Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh.
  • 1877 Great Britain annexes Walvis Bay at Cape colony, Southern Africa.
  • 1884 Mississippi establishes 1st US state college for women
  • 1888 2nd day of the Great blizzard of '88 in NE US (400 die)
  • 1889 Battle at Metema (Gallabad): Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV, defeated
  • 1889 Start of South Africa's 1st Test, v England, Port Elizabeth
  • 1894 Pittsburgh issues free season tickets for ladies on Tuesday & Friday
  • 1894 Coca-Cola is sold in bottles for the first time in Vicksburg, Mississippi
  • 1900 President Steyn of Orange Free state flees from Bloemfontein
  • 1901 Ground is broken for Boston's 1st AL ballpark (Huntington Ave Grounds)
  • 1904 1st main line electric train in UK (Liverpool to Southport)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1904 Andrew Carnegie establishes Carnegie Hero Fund

Industrialist and Philanthropist Andrew Carnegie
Industrialist and Philanthropist
Andrew Carnegie
  • 1905 The continuing strikes and disorders that unsettle Italy force out Premier Giovanni Giolitti, though he will return in March, 1906
  • 1906 Heavy storm ravages Dutch west coast
  • 1908 The Pan-Macedonian group is formed in Athens to support the Greek Struggle for Macedonia.
  • 1909 Alarmed over increasing German naval strength, Parliament passes a new naval appropriations bill

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1912 Girl Guides (Girl Scouts) forms in Savannah, by Juliette Gordon Low

Founder of Girl Scouts of the USA Juliette Gordon Low
Founder of Girl Scouts of the USA
Juliette Gordon Low
  • 1912 Helen Hayes Theater opens at 238 W 44th St NYC
  • 1912 Establishment of the first football club in Bulgaria - Botev Plovdiv
  • 1913 Foundation stone of the Australian capital in Canberra laid
  • 1916 French airship sinks British submarine D3
  • 1917 [OS Feb 27] Russian Duma sets up the Provisional Committee; Soviets form Executive Committee
  • 1917 Stalin, Kamenev & Muranov arrives in Petrograd/St Petersburg
  • 1917 A German submarine sinks an unamred US merchant ship, the 'Algonquin' on the same day that US President Wilson gives executive order to arm US merchant ships
  • 1919 Austrian National Meeting affirms Anschluss (incorporate into Germany)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1919 George Bernard Shaw's "Augustus Does His Bit" premieres in NYC

AgreementAgreement of Interest

1925 British government of Stanley Baldwin refuses to ratify Geneva agreement

British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
British Prime Minister
Stanley Baldwin
  • 1926 Denmark begins unilateral disarmament
  • 1926 Pope Pius XI names J E van Roey archbishop of Malines Belgium
  • 1928 In California, the St. Francis Dam fails, killing over 600 people.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1930 Mohandas Gandhi begins 200m (300km) march protesting British salt tax

Pacifist and Spiritual Leader Mahatma Gandhi
Pacifist and Spiritual Leader
Mahatma Gandhi
  • 1930 Stanislawa Walasiewicz [Stella Walsh] sets record for the 220-yard dash (0:26.1)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1933 FDR conducts his 1st "fireside chat"

32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • 1934 Acting Pres Constantine Päts commits coup in Tallinn Estonia
  • 1934 Josip Broz (Tito) freed from jail
  • 1934 Paul Hindemith's "Mathis der Maler" premieres in Berlin
  • 1935 England establishes 30 MPH speed limit for towns & villages
  • 1938 Nazi Germany invades Austria (Anschluss)
  • 1939 Pope Pius XII crowned in Vatican ceremonies
  • 1940 Finland surrenders to Russia during WW II, gives Karelische Isthmus
  • 1941 German occupiers confiscate AVRO studios in Netherlands
  • 1942 British troops vacate the Andamanen in Gulf of Bengal
  • 1943 Soviet troops liberate Wjasma
  • 1945 30 Amsterdammers executed by nazi occupiers
  • 1945 Italy's Communist Party (CPI) calls for armed uprising in Italy
  • 1945 NY is 1st to prohibit discrimination by race & creed in employment
  • 1945 USSR returns Transylvania to Romania
  • 1947 Belgian government of Huysmans resigns

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1947 US President Harry Truman introduces Truman-doctrine to fight communism

33rd US President Harry Truman
33rd US President
Harry Truman
  • 1948 -5°F lowest temperature ever recorded in Cleveland in March
  • 1950 Belgium votes (58%) for return of King Leopold III
  • 1950 Pope Pius XII encyclical "On combating atheistic propaganda"
  • 1951 Baseball Commish Happy Chandler loses fight (9-7) to stay in office
  • 1951 Communist troops driven out of Seoul
  • 1956 Dow Jones closes above 500 for 1st time (500.24)
  • 1957 German DR accepts 22 Russian divisions
  • 1958 British Empire Day is renamed "Commonwealth Day"
  • 1959 Dutch Liberal Party wins 2nd parliamentary elections
  • 1959 US House joins Senate approving Hawaii statehood
  • 1962 Dutch Premier De Quay announces secret talks with Indonesia
  • 1964 Jimmy Hoffa sentenced to 8 years
  • 1964 S. N. Behrman's play "But for Whom Charlie" premieres in NYC
  • 1966 Pioneer Plaza dedicated
  • 1966 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1967 Indonesian congress strips president Sukarno of authority and names General Suharto as acting President

2nd President of Indonesia Suharto
2nd President of Indonesia
Suharto
1st President of Indonesia Sukarno
1st President of Indonesia
Sukarno
  • 1968 Mauritius gains independence from Britain (National Day)
  • 1968 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1969 120 cannabis joints found at George & Patti Harrison's home
  • 1970 US lowers voting age from 21 to 18
  • 1971 Syrian premier Hafez Assad elected president

Birthdays in History

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 120

  • 1270 Charles of Valois, son of Philip III of France (d. 1325)
  • 1336 Edward, Duke of Guelders (1361-71) and Count of Zutphen (d. 1371)
  • 1479 Giuliano de' Medici, monarch of Florence
  • 1607 Paul Gerhardt, German hymnist (d. 1676)
  • 1613 André Le Nôtre, French landscape architect (d. 1700)
  • 1620 Johann Heinrich Hottinger, Swiss philologist and theologian (d. 1667)
  • 1626 John Aubrey, English antiquary and writer (d. 1697)
  • 1637 Anne Hyde, wife of James II of England (d. 1671)
  • 1647 Victor-Maurice, comte de Broglie, French general (d. 1727)
  • 1672 Richard Steele, Irish writer and politician (d. 1729)
  • 1685 George Berkeley, Ireland, philosopher/bishop of Cloyne
  • 1718 Joseph Damer, English politician (d. 1798)
  • 1755 Georges Couthon, French politician
  • 1758 Leopold earl of Limburg Stirum, Dutch general/politician [or March 22]
  • 1781 Frederica of Baden, Queen of Sweden (d. 1826)
  • 1788 Pierre J David, [David d'Angers], French sculptor
  • 1800 Louis-Prosper Gachard, Belgian historian
  • 1806 Jane Means Appleton Pierce, 1st lady (1853-57)
  • 1808 Gerrit van der Linde Jz, "Schoolmaster", Dutch poet
  • 1816 David Stuart, Brigadier General (Union volunteers), (d. 1868)
  • 1818 John Lorimar Worden, Capt (Union Navy), (d. 1897)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1821 John Abbott, 3rd Canadian Prime Minister (1891-92), born in Saint-Andre, Quebec (d. 1893)

3rd Prime Minister of Canada John Abbott
3rd Prime Minister of Canada
John Abbott
  • 1821 Luitpold von Bayern, Prince-regent of Bayern
  • 1823 William Flank Perry, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1901)
  • 1824 Gustav R Kirchoff, Prussia, physicist (spectral analysis)
  • 1827 John Robert Jones, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1901)
  • 1827 William Richard Terry, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1897)
  • 1830 William Felix Brantley, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1870)
  • 1831 Clement Studebaker, automobile pioneer (Studebaker)
  • 1832 Charles Boycott, Ireland, estate manager/caused boycotts
  • 1835 Simon Newcomb, US, scientist/mathematician/astronomer
  • 1838 William Perkin, inventor (1st artificial dye)
  • 1859 Abraham H. Cannon, Mormon apostle (d. 1896)
  • 1862 Jane Delano, US, nurse/teacher/founder (Red Cross)
  • 1863 Adolf A Wolfschoon, Curacao, poet
  • 1863 Gabriele D'Annunzio, Italy, writer/military hero (Intruder)
  • 1863 Vladimir Vernadsky, Russian mineralogist (d. 1945)
  • 1864 W. H. R. Rivers, British psychiatrist (d. 1922)
  • 1877 Wilhelm Frick, German protector of Bohemia/Moravia
  • 1878 Gemma Galgani, Italian saint
  • 1880 Henry Drysdale Dakin, British-American biochemist, known for the Dakin-West reaction (d. 1952)
  • 1881 Daniel Webster Hoan, Wisc (Mayor-Socialist-Milwaukee)
  • 1881 Gunnar Nordström, Finnish physicist (d. 1923)
  • 1883 Zoltán Meskó, Hungarian Nazi (d. 1959)
  • 1885 Raphael HLAJM Verwilghen, Flemish architect/urban developer
  • 1889 Philip Guedalla, historian
  • 1889 Þórbergur Þórðarson, Icelandic author (d. 1974)
  • 1890 A Evert Taube, Swedish writer/troubadour
  • 1890 William Dudley Pelley, American leader of the Silver Legion (d. 1965)
  • 1891 Michael Polany, Hungarian/English chemist/economist/sociologist
  • 1891 George W. Mason, American industrialist (d. 1954)
  • 1895 William C. Lee, U.S. Army general (d. 1948)
  • 1900 David Croll, QC senator
  • 1907 (Margaret Peggy McCrorie) Herbison, politician
  • 1907 Dorrit Hoffleit, American astronomer (d. 2007)
  • 1908 David Saul Marshall, diplomat lawyer/politician
  • 1908 Rita Angus, New Zealand painter (d. 1970)
  • 1910 Roger L Stevens, producer (Giant)
  • 1910 Wilhelmus L Reijers, sculptor
  • 1910 Masayoshi Ohira, Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1980)
  • 1911 Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, president of Mexico
  • 1912 James McKay, lord provost of Edinburgh
  • 1912 Kylie Tennant, novelist (Battlers, Lost Haven)
  • 1912 Irving Layton, Canadian poet (d. 2006)
  • 1915 Alberto Burri, Italian physician/sculptor/abstract painter
  • 1917 Tom Normanton, British MP
  • 1918 Elaine de Kooning, American artist (d. 1989)
  • 1921 Giovanni Agnelli, Italian CEO (Fiat Automakers)
  • 1921 Max de Metz, Dutch publisher/translator
  • 1921 Ülo Jõgi, Estonian freedom fighter (d. 2007)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1922 Jack Kerouac, Beat writer (On the Road, Mexico Blues), born in Lowell, Massachusetts (d. 1969)

Writer Jack Kerouac
Writer
Jack Kerouac
  • 1922 Lane Kirkland, union president (AFL-CIO)
  • 1923 Walter M Schirra Jr, Hackensack NJ, Capt USN/ast (Mer 8, Gem 6, Ap 7)
  • 1925 Harry [Maxwell] Harrison, UK, sci-fi author (Deathworld Trilogy), (d. 2012)
  • 1925 Leo Esaki, [Esaki Reona], Japan, physicist (Tunnel effect-Nobel 1973)
  • 1925 William G Whitehurst, (Rep-R-Va)
  • 1926 David Oliver Williams, trade unionist (COHSE)
  • 1926 George R Ariyoshi, (Gov-D-Hawaii)
  • 1926 John C[lellon] Holmes, US writer (Horn)
  • 1926 Ronald Alley, art gallery manager (Tate Gallery)
  • 1927 Raul Alfonsin, president (Argentina)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1928 Edward Albee, American playwright (Who's Afraid of Virgina Woolf?), born in Virginia (d. 2016)

Playwright Edward Albee
Playwright
Edward Albee
  • 1928 Phil Jones, principal (Trinity College of Music)
  • 1928 Roland Moyle, British deputy chairman (Police Complaints Authority)
  • 1928 Thérèse Lavoie-Roux, Quebec politician and senator
  • 1929 Lupe Anguiano, Mexican-American civil rights activist
  • 1929 U Win Tin, jailed Burmese journalist
  • 1930 Antony Acland, provost of Eton/British ambassador (to US)
  • 1930 Robin Cavendish, disabled campaigner
  • 1931 Geoffrey de Bellaigue, director (Royal Collection)
  • 1931 Herbert Kelleher, Southwest Airlines co-founder
  • 1932 Andrew Young, US ambassador to UN (1977-79)/(Mayor-D-Atlanta)
  • 1934 Rudolph Agner, CEO (Consolidated Gold Fields)
  • 1935 John Gross, author (Age of Kipling, Dickens & 20th Century)
  • 1936 Anthony Loehnis, vice chairman (S G Warburg & Co)
  • 1936 Patrick Procktor, painter
  • 1938 Karl Soderlund, Duluth Minn, Mr Sally Jesse Raphael
  • 1938 Norman Hogg, British MP
  • 1939 David Mlinaric, British interior director
  • 1942 Salvatore "the Bull" Gravano, mobster (testified against Gotti)

Deaths in History

  • 417 Innocent I, Italian Pope (401-417), dies
  • 604 Gregory I the Great, Pope (590-604), dies at 64
  • 1209 Djamal al-din Abu Mohammed Iljas Nizami, Persian poet, dies
  • 1289 King Demetre II of Georgia (b. 1259)
  • 1374 Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan (b. 1336)
  • 1447 Shah Rukh, ruler of Persia and Transoxonia (b. 1377)
  • 1471 Dionysius the Carthusian/van Rijkel, Dutch scholastic theologist, dies
  • 1496 Johannes de Lapide, [Johan Heynlin], German philosopher, dies
  • 1507 Cesare Borgia, cardinal/soldier/politician, killed in battle at 31
  • 1570 Jacob van den Eynden, Grand Pensionary of Holland, dies
  • 1608 Koriki Kiyonaga, Japanese warlord (b. 1530)
  • 1648 Tirso de Molina, Spanish author, dies at about 63
  • 1681 French van Mieris, the Elder, Dutch genre painter, dies at 45
  • 1699 Peder Griffenfeld, Danish statesman (b. 1635)
  • 1734 Antonius Schultingh, [Schultingius], Dutch lawyer, dies at 74
  • 1753 George Berkeley, philosopher/bishop (Cloyne), dies on 68th birthday
  • 1790 Andreas Hadik, Austro-Hungarian general (b. 1710)
  • 1834 Karl W Feuerbach, mathematician (circle of Feuerbach), dies at 33
  • 1872 Zeng Guofan, Chinese politician and general (b. 1811)
  • 1888 Henry Bergh, founder (ASPCA), dies at 76
  • 1889 Yohannes IV, [Kasa], Emperor of Ethiopia (1872-89), dies in battle
  • 1894 Illarion Pryanishnikov, Russian painter (b. 1840)
  • 1898 Zacharias Topelius, Finnish-Swedish writer (b. 1818)
  • 1902 John Peter Altgeld, German/US governor of Illinois, dies at 54
  • 1905 Rudolf von Alt, Austrian painter, dies at 92
  • 1908 Edmondo de Amicis, Italian writer (L'idioma Gentile), dies at 61
  • 1909 Joe Petrosino, NYPD lieutenant (b. 1860)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1914 George Westinghouse, US engineer (Westinghouse Electric), dies at 67

Entrepreneur and Engineer George Westinghouse
Entrepreneur and Engineer
George Westinghouse
  • 1916 M v Ebner-Eschenbach, writer, dies at 39
  • 1924 Hilaire Comte de Chardonnet, inventor (rayon), dies

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1925 Sun Yat-sen, Chinese revolutionary and father of modern China, dies of liver cancer at 58

Father of Modern of China Sun Yat-sen
Father of Modern of China
Sun Yat-sen
  • 1929 Asa Griggs Candler, American businessman (b. 1851)
  • 1930 Alois Jirásek, Czech writer (b. 1851)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1930 William George Barker, Canadian fighter ace (Victoria Cross recipient), dies in a training accident at 35

First World War Flying Ace William George Barker
First World War Flying Ace
William George Barker
  • 1932 Ivar Kreuger, "Swedish Match King" industrialist, commits suicide

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1936 David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty and British Admiral of the Fleet dies of heart failure at 65 in London, England

British Admiral of the Fleet David Beatty
British Admiral of the Fleet
David Beatty
  • 1942 Robert Bosch, German industrialist (b. 1861)
  • 1943 Gustav Vigeland, Norwegian sculptor (b. 1869)
  • 1944 Artur Gavazzi, Croatian geographer (b. 1861)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1945 Anne Frank, diarist (Diary of Anne Frank), killed in Belsen Camp aged 15

Jewish Victim & Diarist of the Holocaust Anne Frank
Jewish Victim & Diarist of the Holocaust
Anne Frank
  • 1946 Philip Merivale, dies at 59
  • 1947 "Winston Churchill the American", American novelist (b. 1871)
  • 1950 L Heinrich Mann, German/US writer (Between the Races), dies at 78
  • 1955 Theodor Plievier, writer, dies
  • 1958 Ingeborg, Princess of Sweden, dies at 79
  • 1973 Manuel Rojas Sepulveda, Chilean writer (Hijo de Ladron), dies at 77
  • 1974 Billy Fox, Protestant Dublin MP, assassinated
  • 1974 George D. Sax, Drive-in bank and instant loan innovator. Owner of the Saxony Hotel. (b. 1904)
  • 1982 Elisabeth Zernike, Dutch writer (Course of Events), dies at 90
  • 1983 Jevsei G Liberman, Ukraine economist (Plan, profit, bonus), dies at 85
  • 1988 William Camp, dies at 74
  • 1990 Wallace Breem, British author (b. 1926)
  • 1991 Etienne Decroux, French mime (Voyage, Surprise), dies at 92
  • 1991 Ragnar Granit, Finnish neuroscientist, Nobel laureate (b. 1900)
  • 1992 Hans G Kresse, Dutch cartoonist (Eric the Viking), dies at 70
  • 1992 Ida Oosterbaan, Dutch founder (Women Action Committee), dies
  • 1992 Karel Poons, father of Paul Deen, dies
  • 1992 Philippe Soupault, writer, dies
  • 1992 Salvo Lima, mayor (Palermo)/MP (chr-dem), murdered
  • 1993 Andreas J A I Bruggeman, Dutch mayor (Leiderdorp), dies at 62
  • 1993 Wang Zhen, marxist/vice-premier of China (1988), dies
  • 1994 Sandra Paretti, German/Swiss author (Drums of Winter), dies at 59
  • 1996 Charles Bruce Perry, professor of medicine, dies at 92
  • 1996 Gyula Kallai, PM of Hungry (1965-67), dies at 85
  • 1996 John Anthony Bowden Cuddon, writer/teacher, dies at 67
  • 1998 Beatrice Wood, American artist and ceramist (b. 1893)
  • 2001 Morton Downey, Jr., American television talk show host (b. 1933)
  • 2001 Robert Ludlum, American author (b. 1927)
  • 2002 Spyros Kyprianou, Cypriot politician (b. 1932)
  • 2002 Jean-Paul Riopelle, Quebec painter and sculptor (b. 1923)
  • 2003 Zoran Đinđić, Prime Minister of Serbia (b. 1952)
  • 2003 Howard Fast, American author (b. 1914)
  • 2005 Bill Cameron, Canadian journalist (b. 1943)
  • 2006 Victor Sokolov, Russian dissident journalist and priest (b. 1947)
  • 2008 Lazare Ponticelli, the last "poilu", French foot soldier of World War One, dies at 110 (b. 1897)
  • 2010 Miguel Delibes, Spanish novelist (b. 1920)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

2015 Terry Pratchett, English author of fantasy novels (Discworld), dies of Alzheimer's disease at 66

Novelist Terry Pratchett
Novelist
Terry Pratchett

Person of interestPerson of Interest

2015 Michael Graves, American postmodernist architect and designer, dies at 80

Architect Michael Graves
Architect
Michael Graves
  • 2016 Lloyd Shapley, American Mathematician (2012 Nobel Prize, Game Theory), dies at 92