On This Day in History for May 28

Events in History

Events 1 - 100 of 136

  • 585 BC Solar eclipse, as predicted by Greek philosopher Thales, while Lydians at war with the Medes leads to a truce. One of the cardinal dates from which other dates calculated.
  • 640 Severinus begins his reign as Catholic Pope (elected in 638)
  • 1037 German emperor Koenraad II removes "Constitutio the Feudis"
  • 1156 Battle at Brindisi: Norman-Sicillian King William beats Byzantine fleet under John Doukas and Alexios Bryennios
  • 1349 60 Jews murdered in Breslau Silesia
  • 1358 Daint-Leu at Oise begins French boer uprising

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1431 Joan of Arc is accused of relapsing into heresy by donning male clothing again, providing justification for her execution

French Soldier and National Heroine Joan of Arc
French Soldier and National Heroine
Joan of Arc

AgreementTreaty of Interest

1521 Pope Leo X signs treaty with Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

Pope Leo X
Pope
Leo X
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V
  • 1588 Spanish Armada under the Duke of Medina-Sidonia departs Lisbon to invade England
  • 1608 Claudio Monteverdi's "Arianna" premieres in Mantua
  • 1635 Zorilla's "El Desafio de Carlos V" premieres in Madrid
  • 1644 Bolton Massacre by Royalist troops under the command of the Earl of Derby. (English Civil War)
  • 1664 1st Baptist Church organizes (Boston)
  • 1731 All Hebrew books in Papal State are confiscated
  • 1741 Spain & Bavaria sign treaty

BattleBattle of Interest

1754 Battle of Jumonville Glen: forces led by George Washington kill French Canadian officer Joseph Coulon de Jumonville

First US President George Washington
First US President
George Washington
  • 1774 1st Continental Congress convenes (Virginia)
  • 1818 1st steam vessel to sail Great Lakes launched
  • 1830 US Congress authorizes native Indian to be removed from all states to the western prairie
  • 1845 Fire in Quebec, Canada, 1,500 houses destroyed
  • 1849 Princess Marianne of the Netherlands & Albrecht of Prussia separate
  • 1858 Dion Boucicault's "Foul Play" premieres in London
  • 1863 1st black regiment (54 Mass) leaves Boston to fight in Civil War
  • 1866 Dutch government of Zuylen van Nijevelt/Heemskerk forms
  • 1871 Paris communards revolt put down

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1889 Édouard and André Michelin incorporate the Michelin tyre company

Industrialist André Michelin
Industrialist
André Michelin

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1892 Sierra Club forms by John Muir in SF, for conservation of nature

Environmental Philosopher John Muir
Environmental Philosopher
John Muir
  • 1900 Fire in Cincinnati nearly destroys Reds' grandstand
  • 1900 Total solar eclipse occurs
  • 1900 In China, rioters provoked by Boxers burn the Fengtai Railway Station, where many Belgians work
  • 1900 Paul Kruger, President of the Boer Republic of South Africa, flees its capital, Pretoria, and goes to Watervalboven to evade the advancing British.
  • 1901 Laws against phosphor matches enacted (inhibition white phosphorous)
  • 1907 Auto-Cycle Union Tourist Trophy, 1st held
  • 1918 Azerbaijan gains independence and declares itself a Democratic Republic
  • 1919 Armenia declares its Independence
  • 1923 Attorney General says it is legal for women to wear trousers anywhere
  • 1923 US unemployment has nearly ended
  • 1926 Military coup by Gen Manuel Gomes da Costa in Portugal
  • 1926 US Customs Court created by congress

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1928 Dodge Brothers Inc and Chrysler Corporation merge

Founder of Chrysler Walter Chrysler
Founder of Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
  • 1929 1st all color talking picture "On With the Show" exhibited (NYC)
  • 1930 Georges Forbes succeeds Joseph Ward as premier of New Zealand
  • 1932 Dam closed, at current monument (South Seas)
  • 1934 Near Callander, Ontario, the Dionne quintuplets are born to Olivia and Elzire Dionne, later becoming the first quintuplets to survive infancy
  • 1934 The Glyndebourne festival in Sussex, England, inaugurated
  • 1936 Alan Turing submits "On Computable Numbers" for publication, in which he set out the theoretical basis for modern computers.
  • 1937 Golden Gate Bridge in SF opens to vehicular traffic

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

1937 Neville Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
British Prime Minister
Neville Chamberlain
  • 1938 Foundation for Tel Aviv harbor laid
  • 1940 Belgium surrenders to Germany, King Leopold III gives himself up
  • 1940 British-French troops capture Narvik, Norway
  • 1941 1st night game at Washington, D.C., Griffith stadium (Yanks 6, Senators 5)
  • 1941 British army begins evacuation of Crete
  • 1942 1,800 Czechs murdered by Nazis during attack on Heydrich
  • 1946 1st night game at Yankee stadium (Senators 2, Yanks 1)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1946 Manuel Roxas was inaugurated as the last President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines

5th President of the Philippines Manuel Roxas
5th President of the Philippines
Manuel Roxas
  • 1948 Israeli Air Force is officially founded shortly after the start of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War
  • 1948 Iraq captures Ge'ulim settlement
  • 1951 Bernardus J Alfrink appointed bishop's asst of Utrecht
  • 1952 Memphis Kiddie Park opens in Brooklyn, Ohio. The park's Little Dipper roller coaster would become the oldest operating steel roller coaster in North America.
  • 1952 The women of Greece are given the right to vote.
  • 1955 Henry Bolte becomes Premier of the state of Victoria.
  • 1956 Dale Long becomes 1st to hit HRs in 8 straight games

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1956 Eisenhower signs farm bill allows government to store agricultural surplus

34th US President & WWII General Dwight D. Eisenhower
34th US President & WWII General
Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • 1957 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1958 French government of Pflimlin resigns/200,000 demonstrate against De Gaulle
  • 1959 Congressional Committee of Astronautics meets Project 7 astronauts
  • 1959 Monkeys Able & Baker zoom 300 mi (500 km) into space on Jupiter missile, became 1st animals retrieved from a space mission
  • 1961 Amnesty Intl founded (Nobel Peace Prize 1977)
  • 1961 Last trip (Paris to Bucharest) on Orient Express (after 78 years)
  • 1961 Record 27 HRs hit in 7 AL games
  • 1962 Suit alleging de facto school segregation filed in Rochester NY
  • 1962 US stock market drops $20.8 B in 1 day
  • 1963 Cyclone hits Chittagong, Bangladesh; about 1 million houses destroyed
  • 1963 Estimated 22,000 die in another cyclone in Bay of Bengal (India)
  • 1964 Dmitri Shostakovitch completes his 9th String quartet

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1964 Jawaharlal Nehru cremated in New Dehli

1st Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru
1st Prime Minister of India
Jawaharlal Nehru
  • 1964 Palestine National Congress forms the PLO in Jerusalem
  • 1964 Unmanned Apollo 2 Saturn test launched into Earth orbit
  • 1965 Fire & explosion at Dhori mine in Dhanbad India kills 400
  • 1966 Dmitri Shostakovitch's 11th String quartet premieres in Leningrad
  • 1967 Dmitri Shostakovitch completes his 2nd Violin concert
  • 1967 Francis Chichester arrives home at Plymouth from Round-the-world trip
  • 1967 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1968 AL announces it is splitting into 2 divisions

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1968 Senator Eugene McCarthy wins Democrate primary in Oregon

Politician and Presidential Candidate Eugene McCarthy
Politician and Presidential Candidate
Eugene McCarthy
  • 1970 The formerly united Free University of Brussels officially splits into two separate entities, the French-speaking Université Libre de Bruxelles and the Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
  • 1970 Arms Trial Begins: several men are charged in a Dublin court with conspiracy to illegally import arms for use by the Irish Republican Army (IRA)
  • 1971 USSR Mars 3 launched, 1st spacecraft to soft land on Mars
  • 1972 White House "plumbers" break into the Democratic National Headquarters at Watergate in Washington D.C.
  • 1972 Four Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteers and four civilians killed when a bomb they were preparing exploded prematurely at a house in Belfast
  • 1974 Emmy 1st Daytime Award presentation
  • 1974 Italian fascists bomb demonstrators in Brescia, 6 killed
  • 1975 Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 18 launches
  • 1975 Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is established by the Treaty of Lagos
  • 1977 Beverly Hills Supper Club fire in Southgate, Kentucky kills 168
  • 1978 Second round of the presidential elections in Upper Volta. The election is won by incumbent Sangoulé Lamizana.
  • 1979 European Market accepts Greece as member
  • 1980 2 Oakland A's steal home in 1st inning

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1982 Pope John Paul II is 1st reigning pope to visit Great Britain (Adrian IV was born in England, as Nicholas Breakspear)

264th Pope John Paul II
264th Pope
John Paul II

Birthdays in History

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 107

  • 1140 Xin Qiji, Chinese poet (d. 1207)
  • 1371 John, the Fearless, Burgundy France, Duke of Burgundy/warrior

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1524 Selim II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1566-74, born in Constantinople, Ottoman Empire (d. 1574)

Ottoman Sultan Selim II
Ottoman Sultan
Selim II
  • 1577 Floris II van Pallandt, Dutch earl of Culemborg/politician
  • 1582 William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele, English statesman (d. 1662)
  • 1588 Pierre Seguier, Chancellor of France (d. 1672)
  • 1641 Janez Vajkard Valvasor, Slovenian polymath (d. 1693)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1660 George I, King of England (1714-27), born in Hanover, Holy Roman Empire (d. 1727)

King George I
King
George I
  • 1676 Jacopo Riccati, Italian mathematician (d. 1754)
  • 1738 Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, French physician and freemason who proposed and became the namesake of the guillotine, born in Saintes, France (d.1814)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1759 William Pitt the Younger, British Prime Minister (Tory: 1783-1801, 1804-06), born in Hayes, Kent, England (d. 1806)

British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger
British Prime Minister
William Pitt the Younger
  • 1779 Thomas Moore, Irish poet (d. 1852)
  • 1782 Wouter J van Troostwijk, Dutch painter
  • 1789 Bernard Severin Ingemann, Danish author (Tomorrow- og Aftensange)
  • 1807 Jan van Swieten, Dutch general/governor of West-Sumatra
  • 1807 Louis Agassiz, Switzerland, naturalist/geologist/teacher
  • 1810 Alexandre Calamo, Switzerland, painter/etcher/lithographer
  • 1818 Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, US Confederate gen (Hero of Sumter)
  • 1819 William Birney, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Huntsville, Alabama (d. 1907)
  • 1820 Willem Doorenbos, [Keerom], literary/critic
  • 1828 Alpheus Baker, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1891)
  • 1828 Bartel Wilton, machinefabrikant/ship builder
  • 1830 George Lucas Hartsuff, American Major General (Union Army), born in Tyre, New York (d. 1874)
  • 1836 Alexander Mitscherlich, German chemist (d. 1918)
  • 1837 George Ashlin, Irish architect (d. 1921)
  • 1837 Tony Pastor, American vaudeville performer (d. 1908)
  • 1838 Basil Wilson Duke, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1916)
  • 1853 Carl Larsson, Swedish painter (d. 1919)
  • 1858 Carl Rickard Nyberg, Swedish inventor (d. 1939)
  • 1863 Georg Adler, German state economist
  • 1865 Gerrit Grijns, Dutch physiologist (Vitamin E)
  • 1868 Claude Anet, [Jean Schopfer], French writer (Fille Perdue)
  • 1872 Marian Smoluchowski, Polish physicist (d. 1917)
  • 1878 Paul Pelliot, French sinologist (d. 1945)
  • 1879 Milutin Milankovic, Yugoslavian astronomer/meteorologist
  • 1883 Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Indian activist (d. 1966)
  • 1883 Clough Williams-Ellis, Welsh architect (d. 1978)
  • 1884 Edvard Benes, premier/president of Czechoslovakia (1921-22, 35-48)
  • 1884 Theo(door) van Reijn, Dutch sculptor/lithographer
  • 1886 Santo Trafficante, Sr., Sicilian-born American mobster (d. 1954)
  • 1900 Owen Aisher, president (Marley)
  • 1903 Gaston Duribreux, Flemish writer (Golden Sail)
  • 1906 Mary Ralton, director (British WRAC)
  • 1907 Frederick George Emmison, archivist/historian
  • 1907 Patrick Browne, British Lord justice of appeal
  • 1909 John Schepens, [Jean Baudoux], Flemish journalist/writer (Polyfoto)
  • 1910 Stuart Piggott, archaeologist
  • 1911 Jean-Pierre Levy, resistance leader
  • 1912 Leslie Monson, diplomat
  • 1912 Patrick White, Australia, novelist (Happy Valley, Nobel 1973)
  • 1912 Herman Johannes, Indonesian scientist and politician (d. 1992)
  • 1913 Gordon Wolstenholme, British physician (Ciba Foundation)
  • 1914 W G G Duncan-Smith, fighter pilot
  • 1915 Joseph Greenberg, American linguist (d. 2001)
  • 1916 C Wright Mills, US sociologist (Power Elite) [or Aug 28]
  • 1916 Gerald McArthur, detective
  • 1916 Walker Percy, writer (Adventures of a Bad Catholic), born in Birmingham, Alabama
  • 1917 Barry Commoner, biologist (Science & Survival), born in Brooklyn, New York
  • 1917 Gerald Cash, Gov-Gen (Bahamas)
  • 1919 Charles John Robert Manners, 10th Duke of Rutland, British land owner/multimillionaire
  • 1919 John Eldridge, CEO (Matthews Wrightmson)
  • 1921 Heinz G. Konsalik, German author (d. 1999)
  • 1921 Tom Uren, Australian politician, Australian heritage and conservation campaigner, born in Sydney, New South Wales (d. 2015)
  • 1922 John Alderson, chief constable (Devon & Cornwall UK)
  • 1922 Barney Rosset, publisher and free speech advocate (publisher of Tropic for Cancer), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 2012)
  • 1923 Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao, India, film star (Patala Bhairavi)
  • 1924 Edward du Cann, CEO (Lonrho)
  • 1924 Lord Rippon, British MP
  • 1924 Reginald Eyre, solicitor/MP
  • 1925 Bülent Ecevit, four term Turkish Prime Minister (between 1974 and 2002), born in Istanbul, Turkey
  • 1927 Francois Nourissier, French writer (Un petit bourgeois)
  • 1927 Norman Ireland, CEO (Bowater)
  • 1927 Robert Evans, CEO (British Gas)
  • 1928 Albert Booth, British government minister
  • 1929 Patrick McNair-Wilson, MP
  • 1930 Edward Seaga, PM (Jamaica)
  • 1931 Stephen Birmingham, American author (Real Lace: America's Irish Rich), born in Hartford, Connecticut (d. 2015)
  • 1932 Lord Renton, MP (Conservative)
  • 1933 Philip Otton, high court judge
  • 1934 Dionne Quintuplets, secluded quintuplets, born Annette, Alive Cecile, Alive Emelie, Dead 1954 Marie, Dead 1970 Yvonne, Alive, First known set of surviving quintuplets, these girls were treated as
  • 1935 Kenneth Kleinwort, English banker/multi-millionaire
  • 1936 Claude Forget, French-Canadian politician

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1940 Betty Shabazz, American educator and civil rights activist who was the widow of Malcolm X, born in Pinehurst, Georgia (d. 1997)

Civil Rights Activist Betty Shabazz
Civil Rights Activist
Betty Shabazz
  • 1940 Thomas E Petri, (Rep-R-WI, 1979- )
  • 1940 Maeve Binchy [Snell], Dalkey, Ireland, novelist (Light a Penny Candle), (d. 2012)
  • 1941 Guntram Vesper, writer
  • 1942 Stanley B. Prusiner, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 1943 Ray Mitchell, governor (Albany Prison, England)
  • 1944 Adriaan T "Ad" Zuiderent, poet/critic (On the Droge)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1944 Rudy Giuliani, American Mayor of New York City (Republican: 1994-2001) at the time of the September 11 attacks, born in NYC, New York

Mayor of New York City Rudy Giuliani
Mayor of New York City
Rudy Giuliani
  • 1945 Hunter "Patch" Adams, American doctor
  • 1945 John N. Bambacus, American politician
  • 1946 Satchidanandan, Indian poet
  • 1947 Zahi Hawass, Egyptian Egyptologist
  • 1947 Lynn Johnston, Canadian cartoonist
  • 1950 Ian Bradley, British writer and academic
  • 1954 George E Mahlberg, Astrophysicist, Mt Palomar/Mt Wilson CA (1974-78)
  • 1954 John Tory, Canadian politician
  • 1956 Germaine Montenesdro, 2nd victim of NYC's Zodiac killer (survives)
  • 1956 Mark Alexander Lees, rowing Coach

Weddings in History

  • 1894 Belgium Princess Josephine marries Prince Karl von Hohenzollern

HeartWedding of Interest

1959 Muppeteer Jim Henson (22) weds Jane Nebel (24) in Salisbury, Maryland

Muppeteer Jim Henson
Muppeteer
Jim Henson

HeartWedding of Interest

1988 Journalist Harry Reasoner (65) weds Lois Harriett Weber

Journalist Harry Reasoner
Journalist
Harry Reasoner

HeartWedding of Interest

1988 Senator Bernie Sanders (46) weds social worker Jane O'Meara

US Senator Bernie Sanders
US Senator
Bernie Sanders
  • 1989 Delta Burke (Designing Women) weds Gerald McRaney (Major Dad)
  • 2016 The daughter of the duke of Wellington Lady Charlotte Anne Wellesley weds financier Alejandro Santo Domingo (39) in Íllora, Spain

Divorces in History


Broken heartDivorce of Interest

1533 The Archbishop of Canterbury voids the marriage of King Henry VIII & Anne Boleyn

King of England Henry VIII
King of England
Henry VIII

Deaths in History

  • 1089 Lanfrance, Archbishop of Canterbury, dies
  • 1259 Christoffel I, King of Denmark, dies
  • 1317 Guy van Avesnes/Henegouwen, bishop of Utrecht, dies at about 63
  • 1357 Afonso IV, King of Portugal (1325-57), dies at 66
  • 1521 Willem van Croij, duke of Soria, dies at about 62
  • 1534 Dirk Martens, Flemish printer/humanist, dies at about 83
  • 1556 Saitō Dōsan, Japanese daimyo (b. 1494?)
  • 1672 Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, English soldier, admiral and patron of Samuel Pepys, killed at the Battle of Solebay at 46
  • 1672 John Trevor, English politician (b. 1626)
  • 1685 Pieter de la Court, economist/historian, dies at about 67
  • 1747 Luc de Clapiers, marquis de Vauvenargues, French writer (b. 1715)
  • 1750 Emperor Sakuramachi of Japan (b. 1720)
  • 1808 Richard Hurd, English bishop and writer (b. 1720)
  • 1811 Henry Dundas, British minister (b. 1742)
  • 1816 Ras Wolde Selassie, Ethiopian warlord
  • 1828 Daikokuya Kōdayū, Japanese castaway (b. 1751)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1843 Noah Webster, American lexicographer (Webster's Dictionary), dies at 84

Lexicographer Noah Webster
Lexicographer
Noah Webster
  • 1849 Anne Brontë, English novelist (The Tenant of Wildfell Hall), dies at 29
  • 1862 Lev A Ms, Russian nobleman/poet, dies at 40 [5/16]
  • 1863 Edmund Kirby Jr, American Brigadier General (Union Army), dies of injuries at 23
  • 1864 Henry H Giesy, US Union-brigadier general, dies in battle
  • 1864 Simion Bărnuţiu, Romanian philosopher and liberal politician, dies at 55

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1878 John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, British Prime Minister (Whig: 1846-52 and 1865-66), dies at 85

British Prime Minister John Russell
British Prime Minister
John Russell
  • 1889 Willem M d'Ablaing, lawyer, dies at 37
  • 1911 Stephanus J du Toit, So Afr theologist/journalist (Afr Bond), dies
  • 1913 Lord Avebury, [John Lubbock], British banker/politician, dies
  • 1916 Ivan Franko, Ukrainian writer and political activist, dies at 59
  • 1921 Geo Mestdagh, Belgian aviation pioneer, dies
  • 1927 Georges Eekhoud, Belgian writer (Belgian Kempen), dies
  • 1927 Boris Kustodiev, Russian painter (b. 1878)
  • 1937 Alfred Adler, Austria psychiatrist (Individual Psychology), dies at 67
  • 1940 Friedrich Karl von Hessen (b. 1868)
  • 1944 Katri Vala, Finnish poet, dies at 42
  • 1947 August Eigruber, Austrian war criminal (b. 1907)
  • 1948 Unity Mitford, English fascist sympathizer and one of the Mitford sisters, dies from the effects of a bullet in her head at 33
  • 1953 Hori Tatsuo, Japanese writer (b. 1904)
  • 1968 Fyodor Matveyevich Okhlopkov, Yakut-born Soviet sniper (b. 1908)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1972 Edward VIII, King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire and Emperor of India (Jan 20th, 1936 until his abdication on Dec 11th, 1936), dies at 77

King of Great Britain Edward VIII
King of Great Britain
Edward VIII
  • 1975 Eric Emerson, entertainer, dies
  • 1976 Steffan Danielsen, Faroese painter (b. 1922)
  • 1980 Rolf Nevanlinna, Finnish mathematician (b. 1895)
  • 1981 Stefan Wyszynski, Polish Cardinal, dies
  • 1982 Lt Col 'H'. Jones VC, Commanding Officer, 2nd Battalion, Parachute Regiment (British Army) (Falklands War) (b. 1940)
  • 1983 Erastus Corning 2nd, American politician, 72nd Mayor of Albany, New York (b. 1909)
  • 1990 Giorgio Manganelli, writer, dies at 67
  • 1990 Hussein Bin Onn, 1st minister of Malasia (1976-81), dies
  • 1991 Brigitte B Fischer, writer, dies
  • 1991 Ethel Lois Payne, American journalist (Chic Defender), dies at 79
  • 1994 Rita Gillespie, tV Director, dies at 65
  • 1995 Jean Muir, British fashion designer, dies at 66
  • 1996 John "Jack" Layden, local politician, dies at 70
  • 1996 Sidney Greenbaum, grammarian, dies at 66
  • 2001 Francisco Varela, Chilean biologist and philosopher (b. 1946)
  • 2001 Joe Moakley, American politician (b. 1927)
  • 2003 Oleg Makarov, cosmonaut (b. 1933)
  • 2003 Ilya Prigogine, Russian-born physicist and chemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (b. 1917)
  • 2004 Umberto Agnelli, Swiss-born automobile executive (b. 1934)
  • 2007 Toshikatsu Matsuoka, Japanese politician (b. 1945)
  • 2008 David Mitton, Scottish-born director (b. 1938)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

2014 Maya Angelou [Marguerite Johnson], American author ("I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings"), poet and actress (Nyo-Roots), dies at 86

Author, Poet and Activist Maya Angelou
Author, Poet and Activist
Maya Angelou
  • 2016 Harambe, Western lowland gorilla resident at Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden, shot and killed at 17 by a zoo worker to protect a 3 year old boy who had climbed into it's enclosure