On This Day in History for September 17

Events in History

Events 1 - 100 of 163

  • 642 Arab forces under Amr ibn al-'As conquer Alexandria and destory the library

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1156 Emperor Frederick Barbarossa issues the 'Privilegium Minus' decree, which elevated Austria to a duchy.

Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa
Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick Barbarossa
  • 1176 At the Battle of Myriokephalon the Byzantines fail to recover Anatolia from Turkish rule.
  • 1394 Jews are expelled from France by order of King Charles VI
  • 1462 The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec) is fought during Thirteen Years' War.
  • 1562 Council of Trente takes ecclesiastical canon
  • 1584 Gent surrenders to Duke of Parma

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1595 Pope Clemens VIII recognizes Henry IV as King of France

  • 1598 Netherland sailors discover Mauritius
  • 1631 Battle of Breitenfeld: King Gustaaf Adolf of Sweden defeats Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly.
  • 1644 French troops occupy Mainz
  • 1678 France & Spain sign Treaties of Nijmegen
  • 1683 Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is the first to report the existence of bacteria
  • 1691 Massachusetts Bay Colony granted new charter
  • 1730 Turkish coup under Mahmud I; Sultan Ahmed III flees
  • 1737 Georg-August University opens in Göttingen
  • 1745 Edinburgh occupied by Jacobites under Charles Edward Stuart (aka the Young Pretender or Bonny Prince Charlie)
  • 1776 The Presidio of San Francisco is founded in New Spain.
  • 1778 1st treaty between the US & Indian tribes signed (Fort Pitt)
  • 1787 Prussian troops conquer Gorinchem

AgreementConstitution of the United States

1787 US constitution adopted by Philadelphia convention

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1789 William Herschel discovers Mimas, satellite of Saturn

Astronomer William Herschel
Astronomer
William Herschel
  • 1809 Peace between Sweden and Russia in the Finnish War. The territory to become Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn.
  • 1819 First whaling ship arrives in Hawaii

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1835 Charles Darwins lands on Chatham in Galapagos archipelago

Naturalist Charles Darwin
Naturalist
Charles Darwin

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1849 Harriet Tubman 1st escapes slavery in Maryland with two of her brothers

Abolitionist Harriet Tubman
Abolitionist
Harriet Tubman
  • 1850 Great fire in San Francisco

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1859 Joshua Abraham Norton, English-born resident of San Francisco, proclaims himself his Imperial Majesty Emperor Norton I, Emperor of the United States of America

Emperor of the USA Emperor Norton
Emperor of the USA
Emperor Norton

MurderMurder of Interest

1859 James Donnelly is sentenced to hang for murdering Patrick Farrell, but a petition for clemency reduces his sentence to 7 years in Kingston Penitentiary

Squatter James Donnelly
Squatter
James Donnelly
  • 1861 First class for escaped slaves taught by Mary Peake at Fortress Monroe Virginia (now Hampton University).
  • 1862 Battle of Antietam [Battle of Sharpsburg], bloodiest day in the American Civil War 23,110 die in first battle on Union soil
  • 1862 Battle of Cumberland Gap, TN-evacuted by Federals
  • 1862 Battle of Mumfordville, Kentucky, US Col J Wilder surrenders city
  • 1862 American Civil War: The Allegheny Arsenal explosion results in the single largest civilian disaster during the war; 78 workers killed.
  • 1863 Pope Pius IX encyclical On persecution in New Grenada
  • 1864 American Civil War: Grant approves Sheridan's plan for Shenandoah Valley Campaign
  • 1871 Mont Cenis railway tunnel Switzerland opens
  • 1872 Phillip W Pratt patents his sprinkler system for extinguishing fires
  • 1873 19 students attend opening class at Ohio State University
  • 1876 Race riots in South Carolina
  • 1899 1st British troops leave Bombay for South Africa
  • 1900 Commonwealth of Australia proclaimed
  • 1900 Philippine-American War: Filipinos under Juan Cailles defeat Americans under Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham at Mabitac.
  • 1900 USA, Anthracite coal miners go out on strike for better wages until the October 25, by which time the owners are persuaded that their stand is harming President McKinley's campaign
  • 1901 Battle of Blood River Port: Boer Gen Botha beats Major Gough's cavalry
  • 1901 Battle at Elands River Port: Boer Gen Smuts destroys unit 17th Lancers
  • 1902 US protests anti-semitism in Romania
  • 1903 Boston Pilgrims clinch AL pennant, beating Cleveland, 14-3
  • 1908 Thomas Selfridge becomes first fatality of powered flight
  • 1909 Denis Peyrony and Louis Capitan discover the skull of an adult male Neanderthal (La Ferrassie 1) during excavations in a rock shelter near La Ferrassie, France
  • 1911 1st transcontinental airplane flight, NY-Pasadena in 82 hrs 4 min
  • 1914 Andrew Fisher becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the third time.
  • 1916 40,000 Amsterdam demonstrators demand general voting right

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1916 The Red Baron [Manfred von Richthofen], WWI flying ace of the German Luftstreitkräfte, wins his first aerial combat near Cambrai, France

World War I Fighter Ace The Red Baron
World War I Fighter Ace
The Red Baron
  • 1920 Cards set a record of 12 consecutive hits in 4th (10) & 5th (2) innings
  • 1920 National Football League organizes in Canton, Ohio 12 teams pay $100 each to join American Prof Football Association
  • 1922 Radio Moscow begins transmitting (12 KWs-most powerful station)
  • 1923 Sutton Vane's "Outward Bound," premieres in London
  • 1924 Italy signs treaty of Rapallo
  • 1926 Hurricane hits Miami & Palm Beach Florida; about 450 die

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1927 Charles Lindbergh visits San Francisco

  • 1928 Hurricane hits Lake Okeechobee Florida drowning 1,800-2500
  • 1929 British troops begin withdrawal from occupied Germany
  • 1931 1st LP record demonstrated (RCA Victor, NYC), venture failed
  • 1934 USSR joins League of Nations (Netherland, Switz & Portugal vote no)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1935 Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina chosen 2nd President of Philippines

2nd President of the Philippines Manuel L. Quezon
2nd President of the Philippines
Manuel L. Quezon

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1938 British premier Neville Chamberlain leaves Munich

British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
British Prime Minister
Neville Chamberlain
  • 1939 German U-29 sinks British aircraft carrier Courageous, 519 die
  • 1939 Poland's President Ignacy Mościck and Prime Minister Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski flee to Romania
  • 1939 Soviet Union invades Eastern Poland, taking 217,000 Poles prisoner
  • 1939 Taisto Mäki becomes the first man to run the 10,000 metres in under 30 minutes, in a time of 29:52.6
  • 1940 Nazis deprive Jews of possessions
  • 1941 World War II: A decree issued by the Soviet State Committee of Defense, restoring Vsevobuch "Universal compulsory military training of the citizens of the USSR" in the face of the "Great Patriotic War"
  • 1941 The New Zealand Labour Party abolishes the death penalty (It is reintroduced by the National government in 1950 before being finally removed from the statute book in 1961)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1941 Famous meeting between Danish physicist Niels Bohr and German head of nuclear energy project Werner Heisenberg in Copenhagen to discuss nuclear weapons (date approximate)

Nobel Prize Winning Physicist Niels Bohr
Nobel Prize Winning Physicist
Niels Bohr
  • 1943 Load of "ammunition in transit" explodes at Norfolk Naval Air Station
  • 1943 World War II: Soviet city of Bryansk is liberated from Nazis.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1944 British Premier Winston Churchill travels to US

Soldier, Author and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Soldier, Author and British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill
  • 1944 Dutch begin railroad strike against German occupiers
  • 1944 Operation Market Garden: British airborne division lands Arnhem Neth
  • 1947 James Forrestal sworn in as 1st US Secretary of Defense
  • 1949 128 die as fire guts Canadian passenger steamer Noronic in Toronto
  • 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Council meets for 1st time
  • 1951 Romanian bishop A Pacha of Timisoara sentenced to 18 years
  • 1952 "I am an American Day" & "Constitution Day" renamed "Citizenship Day"
  • 1953 1st successful separation of Siamese (conjoined) twins

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1954 "The Lord of the Flies" by William Golding is published by Faber and Faber in London

Nobel Laureate and Novelist William Golding
Nobel Laureate and Novelist
William Golding
  • 1955 Future Hall of Famer Oriole Brooks Robinson goes 2-4 in his 1st game
  • 1956 Black students enter Clay Ky elementary school
  • 1956 Yanks clinch pennant #22 on Mantle's 50th homer of year
  • 1957 Scott Crossfield takes X-15 up for 1st powered flight
  • 1957 Thailand military coup under marshal Sarit Thanarat
  • 1957 The North East Humanists group is founded in Newcastle upon Tyne.
  • 1958 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1959 Transit 1A, 1st navigational satellite launched; failed to orbit
  • 1959 Typhoon kills 2,000 in Japan & Korea
  • 1960 Cuba nationalizes US banks

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1961 Samuel Beckett's "Happy Days," premieres in NYC

Playwright, novelist, and poet Samuel Beckett
Playwright, novelist, and poet
Samuel Beckett
  • 1961 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1962 Justice Dept files 1st suit to end segregation in public schools

Birthdays in History

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 125

  • 64 Julia Flavia, daughter of Roman Emperor Titus; lover of Domitian.
  • 879 Charles III, [The Simple], king of France (893-923)
  • 1192 Minamoto no Sanetomo, Japanese shogun (d. 1219)
  • 1271 Wenceslas II, king of Bohemia & Poland (1278-1305)
  • 1550 Pope Paul V [Camillo Borghese], 233rd pope (1605-21) and persecutor of Galileo, born in Rome (d. 1621)
  • 1580 Charlotte Brabantia, countess of Nassau/daughter of Willem of Orange
  • 1619 John Lambert, English general-major and parliamentary leader
  • 1630 Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma (d. 1694)
  • 1639 Hans Herr, Mennonite bishop (d. 1725)
  • 1643 Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury/author
  • 1677 Stephen Hales, English physiologist, chemist, and inventor (d. 1761)
  • 1687 Durastante Natalucci, Italian historian (d. 1772)
  • 1688 Maria Luisa of Savoy, first queen of Philip V of Spain (d. 1714)
  • 1714 Gottlieb W Rabener, German author (Vom Misbrauch of the Satire)
  • 1730 Friedrich WLGA von Steuben, Prus/US inspector-gen of Washington's army
  • 1739 John Rutledge, 2nd (appointed) Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1800)
  • 1743 Jean-Marie Caritat, France, mathematician

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1743 Marquis de Condorcet, French enlightenment philosopher (Condorcet Method), born in Ribemont, France (d. 1794)

Enlightenment Philosopher Marquis de Condorcet
Enlightenment Philosopher
Marquis de Condorcet
  • 1764 John Goodricke, English astronomer/member Royal Society
  • 1765 Gregory XVI, [Bartolomeo A Cappellari/Mauro], Italy, Pope
  • 1771 Johann August Apel, German jurist and writer (d. 1816)
  • 1774 Joseph Caspar Mezzofanti, Cardinal/linguist and hyperpolyglot (understood 70 languages), born in Bologna
  • 1783 Samuel Prout, water-color painter
  • 1798 Antonia M B Antonucci, Italian cardinal/diplomat
  • 1800 Franklin Buchanan, Admiral (Confederate Navy), (d. 1874)
  • 1801 Edward William Lane, translator (Thousand & 1 Nights)
  • 1819 Leon Foucault, French physicist (pendulum proved Earth rotates), born in Paris (d. 1968)
  • 1819 Marthinus Wessels Pretorius, 1st president (Republic South Africa)
  • 1819 Thomas A. Hendricks, 21st US Vice President (D); died in office in 1885
  • 1820 Earle Van Dorn, Major General (Confederate Army), (d. 1863)
  • 1820 Émile Augier, French dramatist (d. 1889)
  • 1825 Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar, MC (Confederacy), (d. 1893)
  • 1826 G F Berhard Riemann, German mathematician (zeta-function)
  • 1834 Edouard Pailleron, French attorney/stage writer
  • 1853 Clemens Baeumker, German historian (Patristischen Philosophie)
  • 1854 David Dunbar Buick, American automobile pioneer (d. 1929)
  • 1857 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, pioneer in rocket & space research
  • 1859 Frank D Adams, Canada geologist/educator
  • 1861 Owen Seaman, poet/editor (Punch)
  • 1868 James Alexander Calder, Canadian politician (d. 1956)
  • 1869 Christian Lange, Norway, pacifist/internationalist (Nobel 1921)
  • 1874 Ben[jamin] Turpin, US, comic (Uncle Tom Without the Cabin)
  • 1879 Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, Indian Social Reformer (d. 1973)
  • 1881 Alfred Francis Blakeney Carpenter, English soldier (d. 1955)
  • 1882 Anton H Blaauw, Dutch botanist (Perception of Light)
  • 1883 William Carlos Williams, American poet
  • 1884 Bastiaan de Gaay Fortman, Dutch historian/Justice of Curacao
  • 1890 Lubov Tchernicheva, Russian ballerina
  • 1893 Abel J Herzberg, Russ/Dutch writer (Persecution of Jews)
  • 1899 Winnie Lightner, Greenport NY, comedienne (Sit Tight, Side Show)
  • 1900 John Willard Marriott, American hotelier (d. 1985)
  • 1901 Francis Chichester, Barnstaple, Devon, English aviator and sailor (Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1904 Frederick Ashton, British choreographer (Cinderella), born in Guayaquil, Ecuador (d. 1988)

Choreographer Frederick Ashton
Choreographer
Frederick Ashton
  • 1906 Junius Richard Jayawardene, president (Sri Lanka, 1978-89)
  • 1906 Edgar Wayburn, American environmentalist
  • 1907 Desmond Heap, authority on British planning law
  • 1907 Warren E Burger, Minn, Supreme Court chief justice (1969-86)
  • 1909 Elizabeth Wilkinson, professor German University College London
  • 1909 Kenneth Darling, Commander-in-chief Allied Forces, Northern Europe
  • 1910 Vernon Thompson, thoracic surgeon
  • 1912 Pauline Parsons, matron in chief (PMRAFNS)
  • 1914 Shin Kanemaru, politician
  • 1916 Mary Stewart, British sci-fi author (Crystal Cave), born in Sunderland, England (d. 2014)
  • 1916 Ove J Abildgaard, Danish poet (Uglegylp)
  • 1916 Oswald Garrison Villard Jr., American Engineer (electronics) who invented the over-the-horizon radar that could detect objects thousands of miles away and peer around the Earth's curvature, born in Dobbs Ferry, New York
  • 1917 Lawrence Jacob, artist (Sanitarium), born in Atlantic City, New Jersey
  • 1918 Chaim Herzog, Israeli president (1983-93), (d. 1997)
  • 1920 Marjorie S Holt, (Rep-R-MD, 1973- )
  • 1921 Virgilio Barco Vargas, President of Colombia (1986-90), born in Cúcuta, Colombia
  • 1922 Agostinho Neto, poet/president Angola [or Dec 27]
  • 1922 Naomi Datta, geneticist
  • 1923 John Rigby Hale, British linguist and historian, born in Ashford, Kent (d. 1999)
  • 1926 Donald Acheson, England's chief medical officer
  • 1927 Ted Weiss, (Rep-D-NY, 1977-92)
  • 1928 Brian Matthew, British disc jockey (Saturday Club), born in Coventry (d. 2017)
  • 1929 John Stewart-Clark, MEP (C)
  • 1929 Lord Craig of Radley, marshal (RAF)
  • 1930 Edgar Mitchell, NASA astronaut (Apollo 14), born in Hereford Texas (d. 2016)
  • 1930 Gwyn Francis, British Forestry commissioner
  • 1930 Thomas P Stafford, Weatherford Ok, USAF/astronaut (Gem 6 9, Ap 10 18)
  • 1930 Jim Rohn, American business philosopher
  • 1932 Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani, Emir of Qatar (1972-95), born in Rayyan (d. 2016)
  • 1933 Charles E Grassley, (Sen-R-Iowa, 1981- )
  • 1933 D A Fenner, British headmaster (Alleyn's School)
  • 1933 Desmond Fennell, British high court judge
  • 1934 Orlando Cepeda, Giants player (NL MVP 1967)
  • 1935 Ken Kesey, author (One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest), born in La Junta Colorado (d. 2001)
  • 1935 Timothy Bavin, Bishop of Portsmouth
  • 1936 Jennifer Dickson, artist/photographer
  • 1936 Mischa de Vreede, poetess (Our Eternal Hunger)
  • 1936 Richard Gaskell, solicitor/president (Law Society)
  • 1937 Albertine Sarrazin, French author (L'astragale, La Cavale)
  • 1938 Alec Broers, master (Churchill College Cambridge)
  • 1939 David H Souter, Weir NH, 107th Supreme Court Justice (1990- )
  • 1940 Jan Eliasson, Swedish diplomat
  • 1941 Robert T Matsui, (Rep-D-California, 1979- )
  • 1942 Robert Graysmith, Zodiac killer researcher
  • 1943 Samuel T Durrance, PhD/astronaut (STS 35, STS 67), born in Tallahassee, Florida
  • 1943 Sarah Lucas, theatre administrator (d. 1997)
  • 1944 Reinhold Messner, Italian mountain climber (Mount Everest)

Weddings in History

  • 1918 Abbott and Costello's Bud Abbott (22) weds Betty Smith

HeartWedding of Interest

1937 Economist John Kenneth Galbraith (29) weds author Catherine Atwater (24) at the Reformed Church of North Hempstead in New York

Economist and Author John Kenneth Galbraith
Economist and Author
John Kenneth Galbraith
  • 2005 Fashion designer Cynthia Rowley (47) weds Bill Powers in Montauk, New York

Divorces in History

  • 1994 Princess Christina separates

Deaths in History

  • 1312 Ferdinand V, king of Castile/Leon, dies at 26
  • 1322 Robert III of Flanders (b. 1249)
  • 1422 Constantine II of Bulgaria
  • 1563 Henry Manners, 2nd Earl of Rutland, English soldier
  • 1574 Pedro Menendez de Aviles, soldier/navigator, dies
  • 1575 Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss religious reformer (b. 1504)
  • 1621 Roberto Bellarmino, Italian saint (Doctor of the Church), dies at 78
  • 1630 Thomas Lake, English statesman (b. 1567)
  • 1652 Bonaventura Elsevier, book publisher/merchant, dies at about 69
  • 1665 Philip IV, King of Spain (1621-55), dies
  • 1676 Sabbatai Zevi, Montenegrin rabbi, kabbalist, and founder of the Jewish Sabbatean movement (b. 1626)
  • 1679 Juan Jose of Austrian, Spanish general/govenor of Netherlands, dies at 50
  • 1727 Glückel of Hameln, German businesswoman (b. 1647)
  • 1771 Tobias George Smollett, novelist (Adv of Roderick Random), dies at 50
  • 1808 Benjamin Bourne, American politician (b. 1755)
  • 1823 Abraham L Breguet, French clock maker, dies at 76
  • 1836 Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, French botanist (b. 1748)
  • 1839 Ethel Mary Dell, [Mrs G T Savage], romantic novelist, dies

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1858 Dred Scott, US ex-slave who sought to sue for his freedom, dies of tuberculosis at 62 or 63

US Slave Dred Scott
US Slave
Dred Scott
  • 1862 Lawrence O'Bryan Branch, (Rep-D)/Confederate brigadier general, dies at 41
  • 1862 William Edwin Starke, Confederate brigadier general, dies in battle at about 48
  • 1863 Albartus Telting, Fries poet/2nd-Member of parliament, dies
  • 1863 Alfred Victor Comte de Vigny, poet, dies
  • 1864 Walter Savage Landor, author, dies
  • 1868 Roman Nose (Wiquini), Cheyenne indian leader, dies
  • 1869 Peter M Roget, England, lexographer (Roget's Thesaurus), dies
  • 1873 Alexander Berry, Scottish adventurer (b. 1781)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1877 William Henry Fox Talbot, photographic pioneer, dies at 77

Photography Pioneer William Henry Fox Talbot
Photography Pioneer
William Henry Fox Talbot
  • 1879 Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, French architect (b. 1814)
  • 1892 Ignaz V Zingerle Edler von Simmersberg, Austrian, dies
  • 1894 Deng Shichang, Chinese admiral (b. 1849)
  • 1895 Auguste Toulet, Belgian balloonist, dies
  • 1899 Charles Alfred Pillsbury, American industrialist (b. 1842)
  • 1908 Thomas E Selfridge, earlier US aviator, 1st to die in an air crash
  • 1926 August Sauer, Austria literature historian, dies at 70
  • 1933 Joseph De Piro, Maltese missionary (b. 1877)
  • 1936 Ettie Annie Rout, New Zealand activist (b. 1877)
  • 1938 Bruno Jasieński, Polish poet (b. 1901)
  • 1944 Friedrich Kussin, German Major-General and commander in Arnhem during Operation Market Garden, dies in battle at 49
  • 1948 Count Folke Bernadotte, UN mediator for Palestine, assassinated
  • 1948 Ruth Benedict, American anthropologist (Patterns of Culture), dies at 61
  • 1953 Emil Ermatinger, Switz, literature critic, dies at 80
  • 1957 John W "John" Eisenloeffel, goldsmith, dies at 81
  • 1958 Eugene Jungers, Belgian governor of Rwanda Urundi, dies at 70
  • 1958 Friedrich Adolf Paneth, Austrian/British chemist, dies at 71
  • 1959 Bert Leysen, Belgian TV director, dies at 39
  • 1961 Adnan Menderes, PM of Turkey (1950-60), dies at 62
  • 1980 Anastasio Somoza Debayle [Tachito], President of Nicaragua (1967-72 and 1974-79), assassinated in Paraguay at 54
  • 1980 Katherine A Porter, US author (Ship of Fools, Pulit-66), dies at 90
  • 1983 Humberto Madeiros, US cardinal to Boston, dies at 67
  • 1985 Laura Ashley, Welsh fashion designer, businesswoman and co-founder of Laura Ashley, dies by falling down the stairs of her daughter's home at 60
  • 1989 Jay Stewart, annoucer on Lets Make a Deal, commits suicide
  • 1992 William A Swanberg, biographer (Henry Luce, Pulitzer 1973), dies at 84
  • 1993 Christian Nyby, US director (Big Sleep, Thing), dies at 80
  • 1994 Henk Figee, author/publisher (Shoes of the Sea), dies at 46

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1994 Karl Popper, philosopher (Poverty of Historianism), dies at 92

Philosopher and Professor Karl Popper
Philosopher and Professor
Karl Popper
  • 1994 Paul Nicholas Young, architect, dies at 47
  • 1995 Yehuda Meir Getz, rabbi/soldier/religious leader, dies at 71
  • 1996 Spiro Theodore Agnew, US VP (1969-73), dies at 77
  • 1997 Jan Peder Syse, PM of Norway (1989-90), dies
  • 1997 John Seldon Whale, theologian, dies at 100
  • 1998 Ted Binion, Las Vegas casino heir (b. 1943)
  • 2001 Lou Dog, Sublime mascot.
  • 2006 Patricia Kennedy Lawford, American socialite (b. 1924)
  • 2009 Noordin Mohammad Top, Malaysian Islamist terrorist (b. 1968)
  • 2011 Colin Madigan, Australian architect (b. 1921)
  • 2012 Russell E. Train, American environmentalist, dies at 92