Events in History on March 31

  • 1084 Anti-pope Clemens crowns German King Hendrik IV as Holy Roman Emperor
  • 1146 Bernard of Clairvaux preaches his famous sermon in a field at Vézelay, urging the necessity of a Second Crusade. Louis VII is present, and joins the Crusade.
  • 1492 Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Aragon issue the Alhambra Decree which expels Jews from their Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon
  • 1504 France & Spain sign ceasefire

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1521 Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan takes possession of Homohon, Archipelago of St Lazarus, Philippines

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1547 Henry II succeeds Francois I as king of France

King of France Henry II
King of France
Henry II
  • 1644 Pope Urbanus VIII & duke of Parma signs Peace of Ferrara
  • 1651 Great earthquake at Cuzco Peru

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1657 English Parliament makes the Humble Petition to Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell offering him the crown: he declines

English Military and Political Leader Oliver Cromwell
English Military and Political Leader
Oliver Cromwell
  • 1667 France & England sign anti-Dutch military accord
  • 1683 Emperor Leopold I/Poland signs covenant against Turkey
  • 1717 A sermon on "The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ" by Benjamin Hoadly, the Bishop of Bangor, provoked the Bangorian Controversy.
  • 1745 Jews are expelled from Prague

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1796 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's "Egmont" premieres in Weimar

Social Philosopher Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Social Philosopher
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  • 1808 French created Kingdom of Westphalia orders Jews to adopt family names

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1814 Forces allied against Napoleon capture Paris

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • 1822 The massacre of the population of the Greek island of Chios by soldiers of the Ottoman Empire following a rebellion attempt, depicted by the French artist Eugène Delacroix.
  • 1831 Mainzer Rijnvaart Convention ends
  • 1831 Quebec & Montreal incorporated
  • 1849 Col John W Geary arrives as 1st postmaster of SF
  • 1850 US population hits 23,191,876 (Black population: 3,638,808 (15.7%))
  • 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa: Commodore Perry forces Japan to opens ports to US
  • 1861 Confederacy takes over mint at New Orleans (US Civil War)
  • 1862 Civil War action at Island #10 on Mississippi River
  • 1863 Battle of Grand Gulf MS & Dinwiddie Court House VA
  • 1865 Battle of Boydton, VA (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie C H)
  • 1865 Gen Pickette moves to 5 Forks, abandoning the defense of Peterburg
  • 1866 The Spanish Navy bombs the harbor of Valparaíso, Chile.
  • 1868 Chinese Embassy arrives aboard steamship China
  • 1870 1st black to vote in US (Thomas P Mundy of Perth Amboy NJ)
  • 1877 British high director/governor sir Bartle Frere arrives in Capetown
  • 1877 The family with samurai antecedents who responded to the Saigo army in Ōita Nakatsu rebels.
  • 1880 1st town completely illuminated by electric lighting (Wabash, IN)
  • 1883 1st performance of Caesar Franck's "Le Chasseur Maudit"
  • 1883 Utrecht begins water pipe system
  • 1885 Great Britain declares Bechuanaland a protectorate

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1889 Eiffel Tower officially opens in Paris. Built for the Exposition Universelle, at 300m high it retains the record for the tallest man made structure for 41 years.

Engineer and Achitect Gustave Eiffel
Engineer and Achitect
Gustave Eiffel
  • 1900 At " Surprise of Sanna’s Post" in the Second Boer War 150 troops under Brigadier General Robert Broadwood were killed.
  • 1903 Richard Pearse flies monoplane several hundred yards (NZ)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1905 Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany visits Tangier, Morocco and proclaims Germany's support of Moroccan independence and equal opportunity for all powers to trade there

German Emperor and King of Prussia Wilhelm II
German Emperor and King of Prussia
Wilhelm II
  • 1906 GB Shaw's German version of "Caesar & Cleopatra" premieres in Berlin
  • 1907 Romanian Army puts down Moldavian farmers' revolt
  • 1909 Gustav Mahler conducts NY Philharmonic for his 1st time
  • 1909 In a diplomatic note to Austria, Serbia recognizes the Bosnian annexation and promises to maintain friendly relations with Austria
  • 1916 Dutch government ends all military engagements
  • 1917 US purchases Danish West Indies for $25M & renames them Virgin Islands
  • 1918 1st daylight savings time in US goes into effect
  • 1919 Strike against Ruhrgebied government of Scheidemann
  • 1920 British parliament accepts Irish Home Rule law
  • 1921 British coal miners goes on strike
  • 1922 KFI-AM in Los Angeles CA begins radio transmissions
  • 1922 Prince Hendrik opens trade fair building in Amsterdam
  • 1923 French soldiers fire on workers at Krupp factory in Essen; 13 die
  • 1924 Croydon Airport, London: Imperial Airways established
  • 1924 London public transport strike ends
  • 1925 WOWO-AM, Ft Wayne Indiana begins radio transmission (500 watts)
  • 1926 German Special Court of Justice for state security disbands
  • 1932 150 wild swans die in Niagara waterfall
  • 1932 Ford publicly unveils its V-8 engine
  • 1933 1st newspaper published on pine pulp paper, "Soperton News" (Ga)
  • 1933 Congress authorizes Civilian Conservation Corps

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1933 German Republic gives power to Hitler

Dictator of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler
Dictator of Nazi Germany
Adolf Hitler
  • 1934 Netherlands Indies BC Ltd begins radio transmission (Indonesia)
  • 1939 Britain & France agree to support Poland if invaded by Germany
  • 1940 Karelo-Finnish SSR becomes 12th Soviet republic (until 1956)
  • 1941 Ground broken for Union Square Garage, SF
  • 1943 Rodgers & Hammerstein's "Oklahoma!" premieres in NYC
  • 1943 US errantly bombs Rotterdam, kills 326
  • 1944 Hungary orders all Jews to wear yellow stars
  • 1945 3rd Algerian division crosses the Rhine
  • 1945 Sicherheitsdienst murders 10 political prisoners in Zutphen

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1945 Tennessee Williams' "Glass Menagerie" premieres in NYC

Playwright Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
  • 1945 US artillery lands on Keise Shima/begins firing on Okinawa
  • 1946 Belgian government of Spaak resigns - shortest ever Belgian government
  • 1946 Belgian government of Acker forms
  • 1946 The first election is held in Greece after World War II.
  • 1948 Congress passes Marshall Aid Act to rehabilitate war-torn Europe
  • 1949 Newfoundland becomes Canada's 10th province
  • 1951 US tanks exceed 38° of latitude in Korea
  • 1953 US Department of Health, Education & Welfare established
  • 1953 UN Security Council nominates Dag Hammarskjöld for Secretary-General
  • 1954 USSR offers to join NATO
  • 1955 US Assay Office in Seattle, Washington closes Chase National (3rd largest bank) & Bank of the Manhattan Company (15th largest bank) merge to form Chase Manhattan
  • 1958 US Navy forms atomic sub division
  • 1958 USSR suspends nuclear weapons tests, & urges US & Britain to do same
  • 1960 Gore Vidal's "Best Man" premieres in NYC
  • 1961 Aklilou Habtewold becomes 1st premier of Ethiopia
  • 1963 LA ends streetcar service after 90 years
  • 1964 Pres Jango Goulart of Brazil chased out of office by military
  • 1965 US orders first combat troops to Vietnam
  • 1965 Iberia Airlines Convair 440 crashes into the sea on approach to Tangier killing 47 of 51 occupants.
  • 1966 25,000 anti war demonstrators march in NYC
  • 1966 Labour Party under Harold Wilson win British parliamentary election
  • 1966 USSR launches Luna 10, 1st lunar orbiter

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1968 LBJ announces he will not seek re-election

36th US President Lyndon B. Johnson
36th US President
Lyndon B. Johnson
  • 1968 Pirate Radio Station Pegaus (NZ) begins transmitting
  • 1968 Seattle's AL club is named Pilots
  • 1970 Federal bankruptcy court allows Seattle Pilots to be sold to Milwaukee
  • 1970 Explorer 1 re-enters the Earth's atmosphere after 12 years in orbit
  • 1970 Following an Orange Order parade, intense riots erupt on the Springfield Road in Belfast; violence lasts for three days, and the British Army used CS gas for the first time in large quantities
  • 1971 South Africa national debt hits 5.45 billion
  • 1971 William Calley sentenced to life for Mi Lai Massacre

CommunicationBlack Tot Day

1972 Final day of the rum ration in the Royal Canadian Navy

  • 1975 John Wooden's final game, UCLA, wins 10th NCAA championship in 12 yrs
  • 1976 NJ Court rules Karen Anne Quinlan may be disconnected from respirator
  • 1977 Michael Cristofer's "Shadow Box" premieres in NYC
  • 1978 USSR launches Kosmos 1000 navigational satellite
  • 1979 The last British soldier leaves the Maltese Islands. Malta declares its Freedom Day (Jum il-Helsien).

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1980 President Jimmy Carter deregulates banking industry

39th US President Jimmy Carter
39th US President
Jimmy Carter
  • 1980 The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific railroad operates its final train after being ordered to liquidate its assets due to bankruptcy and debt owed to creditors.
  • 1982 Arkas tanker at Montz La, spills 1.47 million gallons of oil
  • 1982 Rock group Doobie Brothers split up
  • 1983 Earthquake in Colombia kills some 5,000 people
  • 1983 Marsha Norman's "'night, Mother" premieres in NYC
  • 1984 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1985 15th Easter Seal Telethon raises $27,400,000
  • 1985 El Salvador's President José Napoleón Duarte' Christian Democratic Party wins election
  • 1985 Wrestlemania I at Madison Square Garden NY, Hogan & Mr T beat Piper & Orndorf
  • 1986 167 die when Mexicana Airlines Boeing 727 crashes
  • 1986 English Hampton Court palace destroyed by fire, 1 dead
  • 1986 Six metropolitan county councils are abolished in England.
  • 1988 Last East Limburg coal mine closes in Gent Belgium
  • 1988 Pulitzer prize awarded to Toni Morrison for "Beloved"
  • 1990 Dionisio Castro cycles world record 20km (57:18.4)
  • 1990 Riots began in London over the new poll tax laws
  • 1991 Albania offers 1st multi-party election in 50 years
  • 1991 Danny Bonaduce attacks a transvestite prostitute in Phoenix Az
  • 1991 Georgian SSR votes on whether to remain in the Soviet Union
  • 1991 Soviet Rep of Georgia endorsed independence; Warsaw Pact dissolves
  • 1991 The Establishment of Islamic Constitutional Movement - Hadas in Kuwait.
  • 1992 UN Security Council voted to ban flights & arms sales to Libya
  • 1994 James Farentino pleads no contest to stalking ex-girl Tina Sinatra
  • 1994 Walkway from Cleveland's Tower City to Jacobs Field officially opens
  • 1994 Human evolution: The journal Nature reports the finding in Ethiopia of the first complete Australopithecus afarensis skull.
  • 1995 1st game at Coors Stadium Colo (replacement Rockies beat Yanks 4-1)
  • 1996 1st Opening Day in history in March takes place in Seattle
  • 1996 Karnataka defeat Tamil Nadu on 1st innings to win Ranji Trophy
  • 1996 Radio Canada International's final shortwave broadcast
  • 1996 Space Shuttle STS 76 (Atlantis 16), lands
  • 1997 NASA's Pioneer 10 ends its mission
  • 2004 In Fallujah, Iraq, 4 American private military contractors working for Blackwater USA, are killed and their bodies mutilated after being ambushed.
  • 2007 In Sydney, Australia, 2.2 million people take part in the first Earth Hour.
  • 2008 Aloha Airlines, a bankrupt airline, permanently ends passenger service
  • 2012 Fiji Floods kill 2 people and force thousands to be evacuated
  • 2013 14 Boko Haram suspects are killed in a Nigerian Army raid
  • 2013 11 people are killed in flooding at Port Louis, Mauritius
  • 2013 2 people die from bird flu (type H7N9) in China