Full Name: Leonhard Euler
Why Famous: One of the most important mathematicians of the 18th century, and one of the greatest in history. Euler is widely considered to be the most prolific mathematician of all time, his collected works filling 60 to 80 quarto volumes, more than anybody in the field.
He made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics like infinitesimal calculus and graph theory and pioneering contributions to topology and analytic number theory.
He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function.
Euler is also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, and music theory.
He spent most of his adult life in St. Petersburg, Russia, and in Berlin, then the capital of Prussia.
A statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Euler's influence on mathematics: "Read Euler, read Euler, he is the master of us all."