# Mathematicians in History

**Mathematics:**
Algebra -
Statisticians

## Historical Events

### Event of **Interest**

1654-11-23 French mathematician, scientist, and religious philosopher Blaise Pascal experiences an intense, mystical vision that marks him for life.

**1675-10-04**Dutch mathematician Christiaan Huygens patents the pocket watch

### Event of **Interest**

1736-04-20 French mathematician Pierre Louis Maupertuis begins Lapland expedition to measure latitude and shape of the earth, joined by fellow scientists Anders Celsius, Charles Etienne Louis Camus, Alexis Clairaut, and Pierre-Charles Le Monnier

### Event of **Interest**

1796-03-30 Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, discovers the construction of the heptadecagon

**1796-04-08**Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, proves the quadratic reciprocity law (the ability to determine the solvability of any quadratic equation in modular arithmetic)**1993-06-21**English mathematician Andrew Wiles proves last theorem of Fermat**2014-08-13**Iranian Mathematician Maryam Mirzakhani is the first woman to win the Fields Medal in mathematics

## Famous Birthdays

Birthdays **1 - 100** of **466**

**0973-09-15**Al-Biruni, mathematician (d. 1048)**1048-05-18**Omar Khayyám, Persian mathematician, poet and philosopher (d. 1131)**1423-05-30**Georg Purbach, German mathematician and astronomer (d. 1461)**1452-12-10**Johannes Stöffler, German mathematician and astronomer (d. 1531)**1468-02-14**Johann Werner, German mathematician (d. 1522)

### Person of **Interest**

1473-02-19 Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish mathematician and astronomer who theorized that planets revolve around the sun (Heliocentric theory), born in Toruń, Royal Prussia, Kingdom of Poland (d. 1543)

**1494-12-20**Oronce Finé, French mathematician (d. 1555)**1495-04-16**Petrus Apianus [Peter Apian], German mathematician, astronomer and cartographer, born in Leisnig, Saxony (d. 1557)

### Person of **Interest**

1501-09-24 Girolamo Cardano, Italian mathematician and astrologer (Ars Magna-1545), born in Pavia, Italy (d. 1576)

**1511-11-22**Erasmus Reinhold, Germany, mathematician (calculated planetary table)**1522-02-02**Lodovico Ferrari, Italian mathematician (d. 1565)**1527-07-13**John Dee, alchemist/astrologer/mathematician (d. 1609), born in London, England**1529-04-03**Michael Neander, German mathematician and astronomer (d. 1581)**1539-03-25**Christopher Clavius, German mathematician (d. 1612)**1540-01-28**Ludolph van Ceulen, German mathematician (d. 1610)**1550-09-30**Michael Maestlin, German mathematician (d. 1631)**1552-02-28**Jost/Jobst Bürgi, Swiss clockmaker and mathematician (d. 1632)**1552-04-15**Pietro Cataldi, Italian mathematician (d. 1626)**1553-06-05**Bernardino Baldi, Italian mathematician (d. 1617)**1561-01-06**Thomas Fincke, Danish mathematician (d. 1656)**1561-08-29**Bartholomeus Pitiscus, German mathematician (Trigonometry)**1561-09-29**Adriaan van Roomen, Flemish mathematician, born in Leuven (d. 1615)**1563-10-17**Jodocus Hondius, Flemish mathematician/cartographer**1567-01-04**Franciscus Aguilon, physicist/mathematician/jesuit/architect**1571-12-09**Adrian A Metius, Dutch mathematician/fort architect**1572-04-14**Adam Tanner, Austrian mathematician (d. 1632)**1574-03-05**William Oughtred, England, mathematician/inventor (slide rule)**1577-06-12**Paul Guldin, Swiss astronomer and mathematician (d. 1643)**1580-08-19**Pierre Vernier, Ornans, French mathematician and inventor of the vernier caliper used for taking accurate measurements**1581-10-09**Claude G Bachet de Meziriac, French mathematician/theologist**1585-11-01**Jan Brożek, Polish mathematician, physician, and astronomer (d. 1652)**1588-09-08**Marin Mersenne, France, mathematician/musician/philosopher (Cartesian)**1589-02-07**Jacob de Witt, Dutch mayor (Dordrecht)/mathematician**1591-06-16**Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, Italian physician, mathematician, and music theorist (d. 1655)**1597-03-01**Jean-Charles de la Faille, Belgian mathematician (d. 1652)**1602-03-18**Jacques de Billy, French mathematician (d. 1679)**1602-08-10**Gilles de Roberval, French mathematician (d. 1675)**1607-08-17**Pierre de Fermat, mathematician who needed wider margins (Fermat's Last Theorem) [or 1608]**1608-01-28**Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, mathematician/astronomer, born in Naples, Italy**1608-02-05**Gaspar Schott, German mathematician (d. 1666)**1610-03-01**John Pell, English mathematician (d. 1685)**1612-06-23**André Tacquet, Belgian mathematician (d. 1660)**1616-10-20**Thomas Bartholin, Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian (d. 1680)

### Person of **Interest**

1616-11-23 John Wallis, English mathematician and cryptographer who introduced ∞ as a symbol for infinity, born in Ashford, England (d. 1703)

**1618-04-02**Francesco M Grimaldi, mathematician/physicist (light defraction)**1619-12-17**Prince Rupert of the Rhine, soldier/chemist/engraver/mathematician, commander in the English Civil War and first Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, (d. 1682)**1622-04-05**Vincenzo Viviani, Italian mathematician (d. 1703)

### Person of **Interest**

1623-06-19 Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, physicist and Christian philosopher (Pascal's Law, Pascal's Wager), born in Clermont-Ferrand, France (d. 1662)

**1625-08-13**Rasmus Bartholin, Danish physician, mathematician, and physicist (d. 1698)**1628-04-23**Johann van Waveren Hudde, Dutch mathematician (d. 1704)**1640-03-18**Philippe de la Hire, French mathematician and astronomer (d. 1719)**1640-04-01**Georg Mohr, Danish mathematician (d. 1697)**1640-06-15**Bernard Lamy, French mathematician (d. 1715)

### Person of **Interest**

1642-12-25 Isaac Newton, English physicist, mathematician and astronomer (Gravity, Laws of Motion), born in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, England (d. 1727)

### Person of **Interest**

1646-06-05 Elena Cornaro Piscopia, Italian mathematician and the 1st woman to receive an academic degree from a university, born in Venice, Italy (d. 1684)

### Person of **Interest**

1646-07-01 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, German mathematician and philosopher (differential and integral calculus), born in Leipzig, Holy Roman Empire (d. 1716)

**1651-04-10**Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, German mathematician (d. 1708)**1652-04-21**Michel Rolle, French mathematician (d. 1719)**1653-03-25**Joseph Sauveur, French physicist/mathematician**1654-12-27**Jean/Jacobus Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician**1655-01-06**Jakob Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (d. 1705)**1655-09-19**Jan Luyts, Netherlands, scholar/physicist/mathematician/astronomer

### Person of **Interest**

1656-11-08 Edmond Halley, English mathematician and astronomer (Halley's comet), born in Haggerston, Middlesex (d. 1742) [OS 29 Oct]

**1666-09-16**Antoine Parent, French mathematician (d. 1716)**1667-05-26**Abraham De Moivre, French mathematician (De Moivre's theorem)**1667-07-27**Jean Bernoulli, mathematician**1667-09-05**Giovanni Gerolamo Saccheri, Italian mathematician (d. 1733)**1667-12-09**William Whiston, English mathematician (d. 1752)**1671-07-14**Jacques D'Allonville, French astronomer and mathematician (d. 1732)**1671-10-01**Guido Grandi, Italian mathematician (d. 1742)**1671-12-01**John Keill, Scottish mathematician, born in Edinburgh, Scotland, (d. 1721)**1675-05-29**Humphry Ditton, English mathematician (d. 1715)**1676-05-28**Jacopo Riccati, Italian mathematician (d. 1754)**1682-04-16**John Hadley, mathematician/inventor (1st reflecting telescope)**1682-07-10**Roger Cotes, English mathematician (d. 1716)**1685-08-18**Brook Taylor, England, mathematician, discoverer of Taylor's Theorem**1687-10-14**Robert Simson, Scotland, mathematician**1687-10-21**Nicolaus I Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (d. 1759)**1688-11-15**Louis Bertrand Castel, French mathematician (d. 1757)**1690-03-18**Christian Goldbach, German mathematician (Goldbach position)**1692-05-01**-31? James Stirling, Scottish mathematician (d. 1770) born during this month**1695-02-06**Nicolaus II Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (d. 1726)**1698-02-16**Pierre Bouguer, French mathematician (heliometer)**1698-09-28**Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, France, mathematician/astronomer**1700-01-29**Daniel Bernoulli, Basel Switz, mathematician (10 time French award)**1701-01-28**Charles Marie de La Condamine, French mathematician and geographer (d. 1774)**1701-05-14**William Emerson, English mathematician (d. 1782)**1703-10-28**Antoine Deparcieux, French mathematician (d. 1768)**1704-07-31**Gabriel Cramer, Swiss mathematician (paradox of Cramer)**1704-10-09**Ján Andrej Segner, Slovak and German mathematician, physicist, and physician (d. 1777)

### Person of **Interest**

1707-04-15 Leonhard Euler, Swiss mathematician (Euler's Constant), born in Basel, Switzerland (d. 1783)

**1710-06-10**James Short, Scottish mathematician (d. 1768)**1710-08-20**Thomas Simpson, English mathematician (rules of Simpson)**1712-08-24**Cornelis Douwes, Dutch mathematician/astronomer**1713-05-03**Alexis Clairault, French mathematician (d. 1765)**1713-09-14**Johann Kies, German mathematician (d. 1781)**1714-11-25**Yoriyuki Arima, Japanese mathematician (d. 1783)

### Person of **Interest**

1717-11-16 Jean-Baptiste Le Rond d'Alembert, French Enlightenment philosopher and mathematician (Encyclopédie), born in Paris (d. 1783)

**1718-05-16**Maria Gaetana Agnesi, Italian mathematician (d. 1799)**1719-01-23**John Landen, English mathematician (d. 1790)

## Famous Weddings

### Wedding of **Interest**

1835-07-08 Mathematician Ada Lovelace [Ada Byron] (19) weds Earl of Lovelace, William King (30)

### Wedding of **Interest**

1940-12-03 Nobel Prize winning author Albert Camus (27) weds pianist and mathematician Francine Faure (25) in Lyon, France

## Famous Deaths

Deaths **1 - 100** of **402**

**0485-04-17**Proclus, Greek mathematician, dies in Athens [or Apr 14]**0901-02-18**Thabit ibn Qurra, Arab astronomer and mathematician (b. 826)**1123-12-04**Omar Khayyám, Persian poet, astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher (b. 1048)**1429-06-22**Ghiyath al-Kashi, Persian astronomer and mathematician (b. 1380)**1461-04-08**Georg Purbach, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1423)**1464-08-17**Nikolaus von Cusa, German theologist/mathematician/philosopher, dies**1505-10-21**Paul Scriptoris, German mathematician**1531-02-16**Johannes Stöffler, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1452)**1552-04-21**Petrus Apianus [Peter Apian], German mathematician, astronomer and cartographer, dies at 50**1553-02-19**Erasmus Reinhold, German mathematician, dies at 41**1555-08-08**Oronce Finé, French mathematician (b. 1494)**1557-12-13**Niccolo Tartaglia, Italian mathematician, dies**1559-03-30**Adam Ries, German mathematician (b. 1492)**1564-10-18**Johannes Acronius Frisius, German physician and mathematician (b. 1520)**1565-10-05**Lodovico Ferrari, Italian mathematician (b. 1522)**1567-04-19**Michael Stifel, German theologist/mathematician, dies at about 79

### Person of **Interest**

1576-09-21 Girolamo Cardano, Italian mathematician, dies at 74

**1576-12-04**Rheticus, mathematician, dies**1578-08-11**Pedro Nunes, [Nonius], Port mathematician/astronomer (nonius), dies**1581-10-23**Michael Neander, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1529)**1603-12-13**François Viète, French mathematician dies in Paris (b. 1540)**1610-12-31**Ludolph van Ceulen, German mathematician (b. 1540)**1612-02-17**Jodocus Hondius, Flemish cartoonist/mathematician, dies at 48**1615-05-04**Adriaan van Roomen, Flemish mathematician (b. 1561)**1617-03-20**Franciscus Aguilon, physicist/theologist/mathematician, dies at 50

### Person of **Interest**

1617-04-04 John Napier, Scottish mathematician/inventor (logarithms), dies from effects of gout

**1626-02-11**Pietro Cataldi, Italian mathematician (b. 1552)**1626-04-11**Marin Getaldić, Croatian mathematician (b. 1568)**1626-10-30**Willebrord Snellius (also Snell and Snel van Royen), Dutch astronomer/mathematician, dies at about 46**1626-12-10**Edmund Gunter, English mathematician (b. 1581)**1630-01-26**Henry Briggs, English mathematician (b. 1556)**1631-10-20**Michael Maestlin, German astronomer and mathematician (b. 1550)**1632-01-31**Joost Bürgi, Swiss clockmaker and mathematician (b. 1552)**1632-05-25**Adam Tanner, Austrian mathematician and philosopher (b. 1572)**1635-09-06**Adrian A Metius, mathematician/fort architect, dies at 63**1637-09-14**Pierre Vernier, French mathematician and inventor of the vernier caliper used for taking accurate measurements, dies at 57**1638-02-28**Claude G Bachet de Meziriac, French mathematician/poet, dies at 56**1643-11-03**Paul Guldin, Swiss astronomer and mathematician (b. 1577)**1648-09-01**Marin Mersenne, French mathematician (Number of Mersenne), dies at 59**1652-10-08**John Greaves, English mathematician (b. 1602)**1652-11-04**Jean-Charles de la Faille, Flemish mathematician (b. 1597)**1652-11-21**Jan Brożek, Polish mathematician, physician, and astronomer (b. 1585)**1655-10-16**Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, Italian physician, mathematician, and music theorist (b. 1591)**1656-04-24**Thomas Fincke, Danish mathematician and physicist (b. 1561)**1660-05-29**Frans van Schooten, Dutch mathematician (b. 1615)**1660-06-30**William Oughtred, English mathematician (b. 1575)**1660-12-22**André Tacquet, Flemish mathematician (b. 1612)

### Person of **Interest**

1662-08-19 laise Pascal, French mathematician, physicist and Christian philosopher (Pascal's Law, Pascal's Wager), dies of a stomach tumor at 39

**1663-12-28**Francesco Maria Grimaldi, Italian mathematician and physicist (b. 1618)**1665-01-12**Pierre de Fermat, French mathematician (Fermat therorem), dies at 63**1667-09-28**Jacobus Golius, mathematician/founder (Leidse observ), dies at 71**1675-10-27**Gilles de Roberval, French mathematician (b. 1602)**1677-05-04**Isaac Barrow, English mathematician (b. 1630)**1679-01-14**Jacques de Billy, French mathematician (b. 1602)**1679-11-30**Pieter van Schooten, Dutch mathematician/fort architect, dies at 45**1680-12-04**Thomas Bartholin, Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian (b. 1616)**1682-11-29**Rupert, prince of Palts/adm/chemist/engraver/mathematician, dies at 62**1684-04-05**William Brouncker, English mathematician (Brouncker's formula) and the 1st President of the Royal Society, dies at around 64

### Person of **Interest**

1684-07-26 Elena Cornaro Piscopia, Italian mathematician and the 1st woman to receive an academic degree from a university, dies of tuberculosis at 38

**1685-12-12**John Pell, English mathematician (b. 1610)**1689-01-06**Seth Ward, English mathematician and astronomer (b. 1617)**1694-09-28**Mouton, mathematician, dies**1697-01-26**Georg Mohr, Danish mathematician (b. 1640)**1698-11-04**Rasmus Bartholin, Danish physician and mathematician (b. 1625)**1703-09-22**Vincenzo Viviani, Italian mathematician and scientist (b. 1622)

### Person of **Interest**

1703-10-28 John Wallis, English mathematician and cryptographer who introduced ∞ as a symbol for infinity, dies at 86

**1704-02-02**Guillaume F A de l'Hospital, French mathematician, dies at about 62**1705-08-16**Jean/Jacobus Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician, dies at 50**1708-10-11**Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, German mathematician (b. 1651)**1708-10-24**Kowa Seki, Japanese mathematician**1715-10-15**Humphry Ditton, English mathematician (b. 1675)**1716-06-05**Roger Cotes, English mathematician (b. 1682)**1716-09-26**Antoine Parent, French mathematician (b. 1666)

### Person of **Interest**

1716-11-14 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, German philosopher and mathematician (differential and integral calculus), dies at 70

**1717-04-03**Jacques Ozanam, French mathematician (b. 1640)**1719-04-21**Philippe de la Hire, French mathematician and historian (b. 1640)**1719-11-08**Michel Rolle, French mathematician (b. 1652)**1722-12-23**Pierre Varignon, French mathematician (b. 1654)**1726-07-31**Nicolaus II Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (b. 1695)**1731-12-29**J Brook Taylor, English mathematician, dies at 46**1735-02-27**John Arbuthnot, physician/mathematician, dies**1737-02-03**Tommaso Ceva, Italian Mathematician (b. 1648)**1737-12-29**Joseph Saurin, French mathematician (b. 1659)**1739-04-19**Nicholas Saunderson, mathematician, dies

### Person of **Interest**

1742-01-14 Edmond Halley, English mathematician and astronomer (Halley's comet), dies at 85 [NS=Jan 25]

**1742-07-04**Guido Grandi, Italian mathematician (b. 1671)**1748-01-01**Johann Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (b. 1667)**1749-07-03**William Jones, Welsh mathematician (b. 1675)**1749-09-10**Émilie du Châtelet, French mathematician and physicist (b. 1706)**1750-12-01**Doppelmayr, mathematician**1752-01-04**Gabriel Cramer, Swiss mathematician (paradox of Cramer), dies at 47**1752-08-22**William Whiston, English mathematician (b. 1667)**1754-04-15**Jacopo Riccati, Italian mathematician (b. 1676)**1754-11-27**Abraham de Moivre, French mathematician (b. 1667)**1757-01-09**Louis Bertrand Castel, French mathematician (b. 1688)**1758-08-15**Pierre Bouguer, French mathematician (fotometrie), dies at 60**1759-11-29**Nicolaus I Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (b. 1687)**1761-04-17**Thomas Bayes, English mathematician**1761-05-14**Thomas Simpson, English mathematician (rule of Simpson), dies at 50**1764-11-20**Christian Goldbach, German mathematician, dies