# Mathematicians in History

**Mathematics:**
Algebra -
Statisticians

## Historical Events

### Event of **Interest**

1654-11-23 French mathematician, scientist, and religious philosopher Blaise Pascal experiences an intense, mystical vision that marks him for life.

### Event of **Interest**

1736-04-20 French mathematician Pierre Louis Maupertuis begins his expedition to Lapland to measure latitude and the shape of the earth, joined by fellow scientists Anders Celsius, Charles Etienne Louis Camus, Alexis Clairaut, and Pierre-Charles Le Monnier

### Event of **Interest**

1796-03-30 Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, discovers the construction of the heptadecagon

**1796-04-08**Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, proves the quadratic reciprocity law (the ability to determine the solvability of any quadratic equation in modular arithmetic)**1993-06-21**English mathematician Andrew Wiles proves last theorem of Fermat

## Famous Birthdays

Birthdays **1 - 100** of **463**

**0973-09-15**Al-Biruni, mathematician (d. 1048)**1048-05-18**Omar Khayyám, Persian mathematician, poet and philosopher (d. 1131)**1423-05-30**Georg Purbach, German mathematician and astronomer (d. 1461)**1452-12-10**Johannes Stöffler, German mathematician and astronomer (d. 1531)**1468-02-14**Johann Werner, German mathematician (d. 1522)

### Person of **Interest**

1473-02-19 Nicolaus Copernicus, Toruń Royal Prussia, Polish mathematician and astronomer (d. 1543)

**1494-12-20**Oronce Finé, French mathematician (d. 1555)**1495-04-16**Petrus Apianus, German mathematician (d. 1557)

### Person of **Interest**

1501-09-24 Girolamo Cardano, Italian mathematician and astrologer (Ars Magna-1545), born in Pavia, Italy (d. 1576)

**1511-11-22**Erasmus Reinhold, Germany, mathematician (calculated planetary table)**1522-02-02**Lodovico Ferrari, Italian mathematician (d. 1565)**1527-07-13**John Dee, alchemist/astrologer/mathematician (d. 1609), born in London, England**1529-04-03**Michael Neander, German mathematician and astronomer (d. 1581)**1539-03-25**Christopher Clavius, German mathematician (d. 1612)**1540-01-28**Ludolph van Ceulen, German mathematician (d. 1610)**1550-09-30**Michael Maestlin, German mathematician (d. 1631)**1552-02-28**Jost/Jobst Bürgi, Swiss clockmaker and mathematician (d. 1632)**1552-04-15**Pietro Cataldi, Italian mathematician (d. 1626)**1553-06-05**Bernardino Baldi, Italian mathematician (d. 1617)**1561-01-06**Thomas Fincke, Danish mathematician (d. 1656)**1561-08-29**Bartholomeus Pitiscus, German mathematician (Trigonometry)**1561-09-29**Adriaan van Roomen, Flemish mathematician, born in Leuven (d. 1615)**1563-10-17**Jodocus Hondius, Flemish mathematician/cartographer**1567-01-04**Franciscus Aguilon, physicist/mathematician/jesuit/architect**1571-12-09**Adrian A Metius, Dutch mathematician/fort architect**1572-04-14**Adam Tanner, Austrian mathematician (d. 1632)**1574-03-05**William Oughtred, England, mathematician/inventor (slide rule)**1577-06-12**Paul Guldin, Swiss astronomer and mathematician (d. 1643)**1580-08-19**Pierre Vernier, Ornans, French mathematician and inventor of the vernier caliper used for taking accurate measurements**1581-10-09**Claude G Bachet de Meziriac, French mathematician/theologist**1585-11-01**Jan Brożek, Polish mathematician, physician, and astronomer (d. 1652)**1588-09-08**Marin Mersenne, France, mathematician/musician/philosopher (Cartesian)**1589-02-07**Jacob de Witt, Dutch mayor (Dordrecht)/mathematician**1591-06-16**Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, Italian physician, mathematician, and music theorist (d. 1655)**1597-03-01**Jean-Charles de la Faille, Belgian mathematician (d. 1652)**1602-03-18**Jacques de Billy, French mathematician (d. 1679)**1602-08-10**Gilles de Roberval, French mathematician (d. 1675)**1607-08-17**Pierre de Fermat, mathematician who needed wider margins (Fermat's Last Theorem) [or 1608]**1608-01-28**Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, Naples, mathematician/astronomer**1608-02-05**Gaspar Schott, German mathematician (d. 1666)**1610-03-01**John Pell, English mathematician (d. 1685)**1612-06-23**André Tacquet, Belgian mathematician (d. 1660)**1616-10-20**Thomas Bartholin, Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian (d. 1680)

### Person of **Interest**

1616-11-23 John Wallis, English mathematician and cryptographer who introduced ∞ as a symbol for infinity, born in Ashford, England (d. 1703)

**1618-04-02**Francesco M Grimaldi, mathematician/physicist (light defraction)**1619-12-17**Prince Rupert of the Rhine, soldier/chemist/engraver/mathematician, commander in the English Civil War and first Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, (d. 1682)**1622-04-05**Vincenzo Viviani, Italian mathematician (d. 1703)

### Person of **Interest**

1623-06-19 Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, physicist and Christian philosopher (Pascal's Law, Pascal's Wager), born in Clermont-Ferrand, France (d. 1662)

**1625-08-13**Rasmus Bartholin, Danish physician, mathematician, and physicist (d. 1698)**1628-04-23**Johann van Waveren Hudde, Dutch mathematician (d. 1704)**1640-03-18**Philippe de la Hire, French mathematician and astronomer (d. 1719)**1640-04-01**Georg Mohr, Danish mathematician (d. 1697)**1640-06-15**Bernard Lamy, French mathematician (d. 1715)

### Person of **Interest**

1642-12-25 Isaac Newton, Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, England, physicist, mathematician; astronomer (Gravity, Laws of Motion), (d. 1727)

**1646-06-05**Elena Cornaro Piscopia, Italian mathematician (d. 1684)**1646-07-01**G W Leibniz, German mathematician/philosopher; postulated monads**1651-04-10**Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, German mathematician (d. 1708)**1652-04-21**Michel Rolle, French mathematician (d. 1719)**1653-03-25**Joseph Sauveur, French physicist/mathematician**1654-12-27**Jean/Jacobus Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician**1655-01-06**Jakob Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (d. 1705)**1655-09-19**Jan Luyts, Netherlands, scholar/physicist/mathematician/astronomer**1666-09-16**Antoine Parent, French mathematician (d. 1716)**1667-05-26**Abraham De Moivre, French mathematician (De Moivre's theorem)**1667-07-27**Jean Bernoulli, mathematician**1667-09-05**Giovanni Gerolamo Saccheri, Italian mathematician (d. 1733)**1667-12-09**William Whiston, English mathematician (d. 1752)**1671-07-14**Jacques D'Allonville, French astronomer and mathematician (d. 1732)**1671-10-01**Guido Grandi, Italian mathematician (d. 1742)**1671-12-01**John Keill, Scottish mathematician, born in Edinburgh, Scotland, (d. 1721)**1675-05-29**Humphry Ditton, English mathematician (d. 1715)**1676-05-28**Jacopo Riccati, Italian mathematician (d. 1754)**1682-04-16**John Hadley, mathematician/inventor (1st reflecting telescope)**1682-07-10**Roger Cotes, English mathematician (d. 1716)**1685-08-18**Brook Taylor, England, mathematician, discoverer of Taylor's Theorem**1687-10-14**Robert Simson, Scotland, mathematician**1687-10-21**Nicolaus I Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (d. 1759)**1688-11-15**Louis Bertrand Castel, French mathematician (d. 1757)**1690-03-18**Christian Goldbach, German mathematician (Goldbach position)**1692-05-01**-31? James Stirling, Scottish mathematician (d. 1770) born during this month**1695-02-06**Nicolaus II Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (d. 1726)**1698-02-16**Pierre Bouguer, French mathematician (heliometer)**1698-09-28**Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, France, mathematician/astronomer**1700-01-29**Daniel Bernoulli, Basel Switz, mathematician (10 time French award)**1701-01-28**Charles Marie de La Condamine, French mathematician and geographer (d. 1774)**1701-05-14**William Emerson, English mathematician (d. 1782)**1703-10-28**Antoine Deparcieux, French mathematician (d. 1768)**1704-07-31**Gabriel Cramer, Swiss mathematician (paradox of Cramer)**1704-10-09**Ján Andrej Segner, Slovak and German mathematician, physicist, and physician (d. 1777)

### Person of **Interest**

1707-04-15 Leonhard Euler, Swiss mathematician (Euler's Constant), born in Basel, Switzerland (d. 1783)

**1710-06-10**James Short, Scottish mathematician (d. 1768)**1710-08-20**Thomas Simpson, English mathematician (rules of Simpson)**1712-08-24**Cornelis Douwes, Dutch mathematician/astronomer**1713-05-03**Alexis Clairault, French mathematician (d. 1765)**1713-09-14**Johann Kies, German mathematician (d. 1781)**1714-11-25**Yoriyuki Arima, Japanese mathematician (d. 1783)

### Person of **Interest**

1717-11-16 Jean-Baptiste Le Rond d'Alembert, French Enlightenment philosopher and mathematician (Encyclopédie), born in Paris (d. 1783)

**1718-05-16**Maria Gaetana Agnesi, Italian mathematician (d. 1799)**1719-01-23**John Landen, English mathematician (d. 1790)**1719-09-27**Abraham Gotthelf Kästner, German mathematician (d. 1800)

## Famous Weddings

### Wedding of **Interest**

1835-07-08 Mathematician Ada Lovelace [Ada Byron] (19) weds Earl of Lovelace, William King (30)

### Wedding of **Interest**

1940-12-03 Nobel Prize winning author Albert Camus (27) weds pianist and mathematician Francine Faure (25) in Lyon, France

## Famous Deaths

Deaths **1 - 100** of **394**

**0485-04-17**Proclus, Greek mathematician, dies in Athens [or Apr 14]**0901-02-18**Thabit ibn Qurra, Arab astronomer and mathematician (b. 826)**1123-12-04**Omar Khayyám, Persian poet, astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher (b. 1048)**1429-06-22**Ghiyath al-Kashi, Persian astronomer and mathematician (b. 1380)**1461-04-08**Georg Purbach, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1423)**1464-08-17**Nikolaus von Cusa, German theologist/mathematician/philosopher, dies**1505-10-21**Paul Scriptoris, German mathematician**1531-02-16**Johannes Stöffler, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1452)**1553-02-19**Erasmus Reinhold, German mathematician, dies at 41**1555-08-08**Oronce Finé, French mathematician (b. 1494)**1557-04-21**Petrus Apianus, German mathematician (b. 1495)**1557-12-13**Niccolo Tartaglia, Italian mathematician, dies**1559-03-30**Adam Ries, German mathematician (b. 1492)**1564-10-18**Johannes Acronius Frisius, German physician and mathematician (b. 1520)**1565-10-05**Lodovico Ferrari, Italian mathematician (b. 1522)**1567-04-19**Michael Stifel, German theologist/mathematician, dies at about 79

### Person of **Interest**

1576-09-21 Girolamo Cardano, Italian mathematician, dies at 74

**1576-12-04**Rheticus, mathematician, dies**1578-08-11**Pedro Nunes, [Nonius], Port mathematician/astronomer (nonius), dies**1581-10-23**Michael Neander, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1529)**1603-12-13**François Viète, French mathematician dies in Paris (b. 1540)**1610-12-31**Ludolph van Ceulen, German mathematician (b. 1540)**1612-02-17**Jodocus Hondius, Flemish cartoonist/mathematician, dies at 48**1615-05-04**Adriaan van Roomen, Flemish mathematician (b. 1561)**1617-03-20**Franciscus Aguilon, physicist/theologist/mathematician, dies at 50

### Person of **Interest**

1617-04-04 John Napier, Scottish mathematician/inventor (logarithms), dies from effects of gout

**1626-02-11**Pietro Cataldi, Italian mathematician (b. 1552)**1626-04-11**Marin Getaldić, Croatian mathematician (b. 1568)**1626-10-30**Willebrord Snellius (also Snell and Snel van Royen), Dutch astronomer/mathematician, dies at about 46**1626-12-10**Edmund Gunter, English mathematician (b. 1581)**1630-01-26**Henry Briggs, English mathematician (b. 1556)**1631-10-20**Michael Maestlin, German astronomer and mathematician (b. 1550)**1632-01-31**Joost Bürgi, Swiss clockmaker and mathematician (b. 1552)**1632-05-25**Adam Tanner, Austrian mathematician and philosopher (b. 1572)**1635-09-06**Adrian A Metius, mathematician/fort architect, dies at 63**1637-09-14**Pierre Vernier, French mathematician and inventor of the vernier caliper used for taking accurate measurements, dies at 57**1638-02-28**Claude G Bachet de Meziriac, French mathematician/poet, dies at 56**1643-11-03**Paul Guldin, Swiss astronomer and mathematician (b. 1577)**1648-09-01**Marin Mersenne, French mathematician (Number of Mersenne), dies at 59**1652-10-08**John Greaves, English mathematician (b. 1602)**1652-11-04**Jean-Charles de la Faille, Flemish mathematician (b. 1597)**1652-11-21**Jan Brożek, Polish mathematician, physician, and astronomer (b. 1585)**1655-10-16**Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, Italian physician, mathematician, and music theorist (b. 1591)**1656-04-24**Thomas Fincke, Danish mathematician and physicist (b. 1561)**1660-05-29**Frans van Schooten, Dutch mathematician (b. 1615)**1660-06-30**William Oughtred, English mathematician (b. 1575)**1660-12-22**André Tacquet, Flemish mathematician (b. 1612)

### Person of **Interest**

1662-08-19 Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher (b. 1623)

**1663-12-28**Francesco Maria Grimaldi, Italian mathematician and physicist (b. 1618)**1665-01-12**Pierre de Fermat, French mathematician (Fermat therorem), dies at 63**1667-09-28**Jacobus Golius, mathematician/founder (Leidse observ), dies at 71**1675-10-27**Gilles de Roberval, French mathematician (b. 1602)**1677-05-04**Isaac Barrow, English mathematician (b. 1630)**1679-01-14**Jacques de Billy, French mathematician (b. 1602)**1679-11-30**Pieter van Schooten, Dutch mathematician/fort architect, dies at 45**1680-12-04**Thomas Bartholin, Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian (b. 1616)**1682-11-29**Rupert, prince of Palts/adm/chemist/engraver/mathematician, dies at 62**1684-07-26**Elena Cornaro Piscopia, Italian mathematician (b. 1646)**1685-12-12**John Pell, English mathematician (b. 1610)**1689-01-06**Seth Ward, English mathematician and astronomer (b. 1617)**1694-09-28**Mouton, mathematician, dies**1697-01-26**Georg Mohr, Danish mathematician (b. 1640)**1698-11-04**Rasmus Bartholin, Danish physician and mathematician (b. 1625)**1703-09-22**Vincenzo Viviani, Italian mathematician and scientist (b. 1622)

### Person of **Interest**

1703-10-28 John Wallis, English mathematician and cryptographer who introduced ∞ as a symbol for infinity, dies at 86

**1704-02-02**Guillaume F A de l'Hospital, French mathematician, dies at about 62**1705-08-16**Jean/Jacobus Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician, dies at 50**1708-10-11**Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, German mathematician (b. 1651)**1708-10-24**Kowa Seki, Japanese mathematician**1715-10-15**Humphry Ditton, English mathematician (b. 1675)**1716-06-05**Roger Cotes, English mathematician (b. 1682)**1716-09-26**Antoine Parent, French mathematician (b. 1666)**1717-04-03**Jacques Ozanam, French mathematician (b. 1640)**1719-04-21**Philippe de la Hire, French mathematician and historian (b. 1640)**1719-11-08**Michel Rolle, French mathematician (b. 1652)**1722-12-23**Pierre Varignon, French mathematician (b. 1654)**1726-07-31**Nicolaus II Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (b. 1695)**1731-12-29**J Brook Taylor, English mathematician, dies at 46**1735-02-27**John Arbuthnot, physician/mathematician, dies**1737-02-03**Tommaso Ceva, Italian Mathematician (b. 1648)**1737-12-29**Joseph Saurin, French mathematician (b. 1659)**1739-04-19**Nicholas Saunderson, mathematician, dies**1742-07-04**Guido Grandi, Italian mathematician (b. 1671)**1748-01-01**Johann Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (b. 1667)**1749-07-03**William Jones, Welsh mathematician (b. 1675)**1749-09-10**Émilie du Châtelet, French mathematician and physicist (b. 1706)**1750-12-01**Doppelmayr, mathematician**1752-01-04**Gabriel Cramer, Swiss mathematician (paradox of Cramer), dies at 47**1752-08-22**William Whiston, English mathematician (b. 1667)**1754-04-15**Jacopo Riccati, Italian mathematician (b. 1676)**1754-11-27**Abraham de Moivre, French mathematician (b. 1667)**1757-01-09**Louis Bertrand Castel, French mathematician (b. 1688)**1758-08-15**Pierre Bouguer, French mathematician (fotometrie), dies at 60**1759-11-29**Nicolaus I Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (b. 1687)**1761-04-17**Thomas Bayes, English mathematician**1761-05-14**Thomas Simpson, English mathematician (rule of Simpson), dies at 50**1764-11-20**Christian Goldbach, German mathematician, dies**1765-05-17**Alexis Claude Clairault, French mathematician (b. 1713)**1768-02-02**Robert Smith, English mathematician (b. 1689)**1768-06-15**James Short, Scottish mathematician and optician (b. 1710)