Today in Philosophy History

Historical Events

  • 0585-05-28 BC Solar eclipse, as predicted by Greek philosopher Thales, while Lydians at war with the Medes leads to a truce. One of the cardinal dates from which other dates calculated.
  • 0399-02-15 BC Philosopher Socrates is sentenced to death by the city of Athens for corrupting the minds of the youth of the city and for impiety
  • 1600-02-17 Philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned alive at Campo de' Fiori in Rome, charged with heresy.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1619-11-10 René Descartes has the dreams that inspire his "Meditations on First Philosophy"

Philosopher René Descartes
Philosopher
René Descartes

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1654-11-23 French mathematician, scientist, and religious philosopher Blaise Pascal experiences an intense, mystical vision that marks him for life.

Mathematician, Physicist, and Philosopher Blaise Pascal
Mathematician, Physicist, and Philosopher
Blaise Pascal
  • 1678-06-25 Elena Cornaro Piscopia, a Venetian, is awarded a doctorate of philosophy - first woman to receive a university doctoral decree

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1964-10-22 French philosopher/author Jean-Paul Sartre refuses Nobel prize

  • 1977-08-23 Marxist philosopher Rudolf Bahro imprisoned in German DR

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1997-06-26 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone is published, the first instalment of the best selling series by J. K. Rowling

Novelist J. K. Rowling
Novelist
J. K. Rowling
  • 2001-11-14 "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone" the 1st film adaptation of the books by J. K. Rowling, is released starring Daniel Radcliffe

Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 388


Person of interestPerson of Interest

0551-09-28 BC Confucius, Chinese philosopher and founder of Confucianism, born in Zou, Lu state, China (d. ~479 BC)

Philosopher Confucius
Philosopher
Confucius

Person of interestPerson of Interest

0106-01-03 BC Cicero, Roman statesman and philosopher (d. 43 BC)

Roman Statesman & Philosopher Cicero
Roman Statesman & Philosopher
Cicero
  • 1048-05-18 Omar Khayyám, Persian mathematician, poet and philosopher (d. 1131)
  • 1135-03-30 Maimonedes, philosopher (d. 1204)
  • 1165-07-28 Ibn al-'Arabi, Muslim mystic/philosopher
  • 1213-06-10 Fakhruddin 'Iraqi, Persian philosopher

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1332-05-27 Ibn Khaldūn, North African Islamic scholar, philosopher and historian (Muqaddimah), born in Tunis (d. 1406)

Islamic Scholar, Philosopher and Historian Ibn Khaldūn
Islamic Scholar, Philosopher and Historian
Ibn Khaldūn
  • 1433-10-19 Marsilio Ficino, Italian philosopher (d. 1499)
  • 1463-10-29 Alessandro Achillini, Italian physician/philosopher
  • 1502-02-02 Damião de Góis, Portuguese philosopher (d. 1574)
  • 1519-06-06 Andrea Cesalpino, Italian philosopher and botanist (d. 1603)
  • 1533-02-28 Michel de Montaigne, France, essayist/philosopher
  • 1547-03-01 Rudolph Goclenius, German philosopher (d. 1628)
  • 1550-12-22 Cesare Cremonini, Italian philosopher (d. 1631)
  • 1552-08-14 Fra Paolo Sarpi, [Paulus Venetus], expert/philosopher
  • 1568-09-05 Tommaso Campanella, Italian theologian, philosopher, and poet (d. 1639)
  • 1583-03-03 Edward Herbert of Cherbury, English military/philosopher

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1588-04-05 Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (Leviathan), born in Westport, England (d. 1679)

Philosopher Thomas Hobbes
Philosopher
Thomas Hobbes
  • 1588-09-08 Marin Mersenne, France, mathematician/musician/philosopher (Cartesian)
  • 1588-12-10 Isaac Beeckman, Dutch scientist and philosopher (d. 1637)
  • 1592-01-22 Pierre Gassendi, Champtercier Provence, scientist/philosopher

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1596-03-31 René Descartes, French philosopher (he thought, therefore he was), born in Descartes, Indre-et-Loire, France (d. 1650)

Philosopher René Descartes
Philosopher
René Descartes
  • 1613-04-06 Stjepan Gradić, Croatian philosopher and scientist (d. 1683)
  • 1622-02-24 Johannes Clauberg, German theologian and philosopher (d. 1665)
  • 1623-05-27 William Petty, English scientist and philosopher (d. 1687)
  • 1624-01-30 Arnold Geulincx, South Netherland, philosopher (About Virtue)
  • 1631-12-14 Anne Conway, Viscountess Conway, English philosopher (d. 1679)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1632-08-29 John Locke, English empiricist philosopher; influential Enlightenment thinker and "Father of Liberalism" (Two Treatises of Government), born in Wrington, England (d. 1704)

Philosopher John Locke
Philosopher
John Locke
  • 1632-11-24 Baruch "Benedict" de Spinoza, Amsterdam, rationalist philosopher
  • 1638-08-06 Nicolas de Malebranche, French philosopher

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1644-10-14 William Penn, English Philosopher, Quaker and founder of Pennsylvania (d. 1718)

English Philosopher and Founder of Pennsylvania William Penn
English Philosopher and Founder of Pennsylvania
William Penn
  • 1646-07-01 G W Leibniz, German mathematician/philosopher; postulated monads
  • 1647-11-08 Pierre Bayle, French/Neth theologist/philosopher/writer
  • 1659-03-26 William Wollaston, Coton England, philosopher
  • 1661-05-25 Claude Buffier, French philosopher and historian (d. 1737)
  • 1662-12-13 Francesco Bianchini, Italian philosopher and scientist (d. 1729)
  • 1668-06-23 Giambattista Vico, Italian philosopher and historian (d. 1744)
  • 1670-11-30 John Toland, Irish philosopher (d. 1722)
  • 1671-02-26 Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, English politician and philosopher (d. 1713)
  • 1675-10-11 Samuel Clarke, English philosopher (d. 1729)
  • 1676-07-21 Anthony Collins, English philosopher (A discourse on free-thinking)
  • 1678-09-16 Henry St John, English statesman and philosopher (d. 1751)
  • 1679-01-24 Christian von Wolff, German philosopher
  • 1683-03-13 John Theophilus Desaguliers, French-British philosopher (d. 1744)
  • 1685-03-12 George Berkeley, Ireland, philosopher/bishop of Cloyne
  • 1686-08-12 John Balguy, English philosopher (d. 1748)
  • 1689-01-18 Charles de Montesquieu, France, philosopher/writer (Letters Persanes)
  • 1694-08-08 Francis Hutcheson, Irish philosopher (d. 1746)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1694-11-21 Voltaire [Francois-Marie Arouet], French writer, philosopher and playwright (Candide), born in Paris (d. 1778)

Enlightenment Philosopher Voltaire
Enlightenment Philosopher
Voltaire
  • 1694-12-22 Hermann Samuel Reimarus, German philosopher and writer (d. 1768)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1703-10-05 Jonathan Edwards, Christian preacher, philosopher, and theologian (Original Sin), born in East Windsor, Connecticut Colony (d. 1758)

Christian Preacher and Philosopher Jonathan Edwards
Christian Preacher and Philosopher
Jonathan Edwards
  • 1705-08-30 David Hartley, English philosopher (d. 1757)
  • 1706-11-08 Johann Ulrich von Cramer, German judge and philosopher (d. 1772)
  • 1709-07-20 James Harris, philosopher
  • 1710-04-26 Thomas Reid, Scottish philosopher (d. 1796)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1711-04-26 David Hume, Scottish philosopher and historian (A Treatise of Human Nature), born in Edinburgh, Scotland (d. 1776)

Philosopher David Hume
Philosopher
David Hume
  • 1711-08-05 Johan Lulofs, Dutch physicist/philosopher/astronomer
  • 1713-05-06 Charles Batteux, French philosopher (d. 1780)
  • 1713-09-18 Jean Allamand, French theologist/natural philosopher

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1713-10-05 Denis Diderot, French enlightenment philosopher (Encyclopédie), born in Langres, Champagne (d. 1784)

Enlightenment Philosopher Denis Diderot
Enlightenment Philosopher
Denis Diderot
  • 1715-01-10 Christian August Crusius, German philosopher and theologian (d. 1775)
  • 1715-01-26 Claude Helvetius, philosopher, born in Paris, France
  • 1715-09-30 Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, French philosopher (d. 1780)
  • 1721-12-27 Franciscus "French" Hemsterhuis, Frisian philosopher
  • 1723-02-23 Richard Price, Welsh philosopher (d. 1791)
  • 1724-04-22 Immanuel Kant, Konigsberg Germ, philosopher (Critique of Pure Reason)
  • 1728-12-02 Ferdinando Galiani, Italian economist/philosopher/diplomat
  • 1729-01-01 Edmund Burke, British author (Philosophy & Inquiry) [NS=Jan 12]
  • 1729-01-12 Edmund Burke, British author (Philosophy & Inquiry) [OS=Jan 1]
  • 1729-09-06 Moses Mendelssohn, German Jewish enlightenment philosopher (Haksalah), born in Dessau, Principality of Anhalt (d. 1786)
  • 1730-08-27 Johann Georg Hamann, German counter-enlightenment philosopher ("Reason is language"), born in Königsberg, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1788)
  • 1731-12-12 Erasmus Darwin, Newark-on-Trent, U.K., influential English physician, poet, philosopher, and botanist (and grandfather of Charles Darwin)
  • 1733-07-22 Mikhail Shcherbatov, Russian philosopher and writer (d. 1790)
  • 1735-10-25 James Beattie, Scotland, poet/philosopher (Essay on Truth)
  • 1736-09-16 Johann N Tetens, German/Danish philosopher/mathematician

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1740-06-02 Marquis de Sade, French philosopher and writer (Justine). The words sadism and sadist are derived from his name., born in Paris, France

Philosopher and Writer Marquis de Sade
Philosopher and Writer
Marquis de Sade
  • 1741-11-15 Johann C Lavater, Swiss vicar/philosopher

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1743-09-17 Marquis de Condorcet, French enlightenment philosopher (Condorcet Method), born in Ribemont, France (d. 1794)

Enlightenment Philosopher Marquis de Condorcet
Enlightenment Philosopher
Marquis de Condorcet
  • 1744-08-25 Johann G von Herder, German philosopher/theologist/poet
  • 1748-02-15 Jeremy Bentham, London England philosopher/originator (Utilitarian)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1749-08-28 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German social philosopher (Faust), born in Frankfurt (d. 1832)

Social Philosopher Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Social Philosopher
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  • 1753-12-19 John Taylor, Virginia, philosopher (Jeffersonian Democracy)
  • 1753-12-22 Dugald Stewart, Edinburgh Scot, philosopher (Scottish common sense)
  • 1754-07-20 Destutt de Tracy, French philosopher (d. 1836)
  • 1756-03-03 William Godwin, philosopher/political writer (Caleb Williams)
  • 1756-11-27 Paul van Hemert, Dutch theologist/philosopher (Kant)
  • 1757-10-26 Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Austrian philosopher (d. 1823)
  • 1762-05-19 Johann G Fichte German philosopher (Wissenschaftslehre)
  • 1763-06-21 Pierre P Royer-Collard, French attorney/philosopher
  • 1764-01-01 John Kinker, Dutch linguist/philosopher/poet (Minderjarige Zangster)
  • 1765-03-27 Franz Xaver von Baader, German philosopher/theologist
  • 1766-04-15 Friedrich Bouterwek, German philosopher/critic
  • 1767-06-22 Wilhelm von Humboldt, German philosopher and statesman (d. 1835)
  • 1768-11-21 Friedrich Schleiermacher, German theologist/philosopher
  • 1770-08-27 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German philosopher/inventor (dialectic)
  • 1773-04-06 James Mill, Scotland, philosopher/historian (Hist of British India)
  • 1773-05-02 Henrik Steffens, Norwegian philosopher (d. 1845)
  • 1773-08-23 Jakob F Fries, German philosopher

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1775-01-27 Friedrich von Schelling, Germany, philosopher (Views on Christianity)

  • 1775-04-22 Georg Hermes, German philosopher/theologist (Hermenianen)

Famous Weddings


HeartWedding of Interest

1727-07-28 Philosopher Jonathan Edwards (23) weds Sarah Pierpont

Christian Preacher and Philosopher Jonathan Edwards
Christian Preacher and Philosopher
Jonathan Edwards

HeartWedding of Interest

1763-05-17 Philosopher Marquis de Sade (22) weds Renee Pelagie de Montreuil in Paris

Philosopher and Writer Marquis de Sade
Philosopher and Writer
Marquis de Sade

HeartWedding of Interest

1843-06-19 Philosopher Karl Marx (25) weds Jenny von Westphalen in Germany

Communist Philosopher Karl Marx
Communist Philosopher
Karl Marx

HeartWedding of Interest

1880-04-14 Philosopher John Muir (41) weds Louisa Strentzel

Environmental Philosopher John Muir
Environmental Philosopher
John Muir

HeartWedding of Interest

1939-08-04 Philosopher of communication theory Marshall McLuhan (28) weds teacher and aspiring actress Corinne Lewis (27)

Philosopher of Communication Theory Marshall McLuhan
Philosopher of Communication Theory
Marshall McLuhan

Famous Deaths

Deaths 1 - 100 of 365

  • 0322-03-07 BC Aristotle, Greek philosopher (b. 384 BC)
  • 0065-04-12 Seneca the Younger, Roman philosopher, statesman and dramatist
  • 1109-04-21 Anselmus, philosopher/archbishop of Canterbury, dies
  • 1123-12-04 Omar Khayyám, Persian poet, astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher (b. 1048)
  • 1141-02-11 Hugo of St-Victor, philosopher/theologist/mystic, dies
  • 1164-01-27 Abraham ibn Ezra, poet/philosopher, dies
  • 1167-02-27 Robert of Melun, English philosopher/bishop of Hereford, dies
  • 1198-12-10 Averroes, Arab physician and philosopher (b. 1126)
  • 1204-12-13 Maimonides, Jewish philosopher/talmudic scholar, dies in Cairo at 69
  • 1279-09-10 Robert Kilwardby/Anglicus, English philosopher/Cardinal, dies
  • 1293-06-29 Hendrik van Gent, Flemish neo-Augustian philosopher/theologist, dies
  • 1308-11-08 Duns Scotus, Scottish philosopher (coined the word dunce), dies at 42
  • 1315-06-29 Ramon Llull, Spanish philosopher (b. 1235)
  • 1340-10-18 Henry Henricus of Friemar, Augustine philosopher, dies
  • 1382-07-11 Nicholas van Oresme, French philosopher/bishop of Lisieux, dies at 62

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1406-03-19 Ibn Khaldūn, North African Islamic scholar, philosopher and historian (Muqaddimah), dies at 73

Islamic Scholar, Philosopher and Historian Ibn Khaldūn
Islamic Scholar, Philosopher and Historian
Ibn Khaldūn
  • 1416-04-23 Blaise/Blasius of Parma, Italian astrologist/philosopher/algebra, dies
  • 1457-08-01 Laurentius Valla, Italian philosopher (Voluptate), dies at about 50
  • 1464-08-11 Nicholas van Cusa, philosopher/bishop of Brixen, dies
  • 1464-08-17 Nikolaus von Cusa, German theologist/mathematician/philosopher, dies
  • 1484-08-12 George of Trebizond, Greek philosopher (b. 1395)
  • 1494-11-17 Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Italian philosopher (b. 1463)
  • 1496-03-12 Johannes de Lapide, [Johan Heynlin], German philosopher, dies
  • 1499-10-01 Marsilio Ficino, Italian philosopher (b. 1433)
  • 1512-08-02 Alessandro Achillini, Italian physician/philosopher, dies at 48
  • 1535-07-06 Sir Thomas More, philosopher, author (Utopia) and statesman, executed (beheaded) for treason at 57
  • 1561-03-25 Conrad Lycosthenes, French-born German philosopher and encyclopedist (b. 1518)
  • 1572-08-26 Petrus Ramus, French philosopher (b. 1515)
  • 1574-01-30 Damião de Góis, Portuguese philosopher (b. 1502)
  • 1588-10-02 Bernardino Telesio, Italian philosopher (Rerum in Child), dies
  • 1590-10-29 Dirck Volkertsz Coornhert, theologist/philosopher, dies at about 68
  • 1594-12-05 Gerardus Mercator, Flemish philosopher/cartographer, dies at 82
  • 1603-02-23 Andrea Cesalpino, Italian philosopher, physician, and botanist (b. 1519)
  • 1603-11-16 Pierre Charron, French philosopher/theologian, dies
  • 1609-08-22 Maharal of Prague, Jewish mystic and philosopher (b. 1525)
  • 1619-02-09 Lucilio Vanini, Italian philosopher (b. 1585)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1626-04-09 Francis Bacon, English statesman and philosopher, dies from pneumonia at 65

Statesman/Philosopher Francis Bacon
Statesman/Philosopher
Francis Bacon
  • 1628-06-08 Rudolph Goclenius, German philosopher (b. 1547)
  • 1631-07-19 Cesare Cremonini, Italian philosopher (b. 1550)
  • 1632-05-25 Adam Tanner, Austrian mathematician and philosopher (b. 1572)
  • 1633-11-14 William Ames, English philosopher (b. 1576)
  • 1637-05-19 Isaac Beeckman, Dutch scientist and philosopher (b. 1588)
  • 1638-11-08 Johann H Alsted, German theologist/philosopher, dies at 50
  • 1639-05-21 Giovan D "Tommaso" Campanella, Italian philosopher/poet, dies at 70
  • 1645-08-28 Hugo Grotius, Dutch philosopher and writer (b. 1583)
  • 1648-08-20 Edward Herbert of Cherbury, English military/philosopher, dies at 65

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1650-02-11 René Descartes, French philosopher "I think therefore I am", stops thinking at 53

Philosopher René Descartes
Philosopher
René Descartes
  • 1655-10-24 Pierre Gassendi, French philosopher, dies at 63

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1662-08-19 Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher (b. 1623)

Mathematician, Physicist, and Philosopher Blaise Pascal
Mathematician, Physicist, and Philosopher
Blaise Pascal
  • 1665-01-31 Johannes Clauberg, German theologian and philosopher (b. 1622)
  • 1669-11-20 Arnold Geulincx, South Neth philosopher (Cholera), dies at 45
  • 1677-02-21 [Benedictus] Baruch Spinoza, philosopher, dies at 44
  • 1677-09-11 James Harrington, English political philosopher (b. 1611)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1679-12-04 Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (b. 1588)

Philosopher Thomas Hobbes
Philosopher
Thomas Hobbes
  • 1683-05-02 Stjepan Gradić, Croatian philosopher and scientist (b. 1613)
  • 1687-09-01 Henry More, English philosopher (b. 1614)
  • 1687-12-16 William Petty, English scientist and philosopher (b. 1623)
  • 1695-11-16 Pierre Nicole, French philosopher (b. 1625)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1704-10-28 John Locke, English empiricist philosopher; influential Enlightenment thinker and "Father of Liberalism" (Two Treatises of Government), dies at 72

Philosopher John Locke
Philosopher
John Locke
  • 1714-10-05 Kaibara Ekiken, Japanese philosopher (b. 1630)
  • 1715-10-13 Nicolas Malebranche, French philosopher (b. 1638)
  • 1716-11-14 Gottfried W Leibniz, German philosopher/theologist, dies at 70

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1718-07-30 William Penn, English Philosopher, Quaker and founder of Pennsylvania (No cross, no crown), dies at 73

English Philosopher and Founder of Pennsylvania William Penn
English Philosopher and Founder of Pennsylvania
William Penn
  • 1722-03-11 John Toland, Irish philosopher (b. 1670)
  • 1723-08-21 Dimitrie Cantemir, philosopher/monarch of Moldova 1710-11, dies at 49
  • 1729-03-02 Francesco Bianchini, Italian philosopher and scientist (b. 1662)
  • 1729-12-13 Anthony Collins, Engl philosopher (On Liberty & Necessity), dies at 53
  • 1744-01-23 Giambattista Vico, Italian philosopher and historian (b. 1668)
  • 1744-02-29 John Theophilus Desaguliers, French philosopher (b. 1683)
  • 1748-09-21 John Balguy, English philosopher (b. 1686)
  • 1751-12-12 Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, English statesman and philosopher (b. 1678)
  • 1752-06-16 Joseph Butler, English philosopher, dies at 60
  • 1753-03-12 George Berkeley, philosopher/bishop (Cloyne), dies on 68th birthday
  • 1754-04-09 Christian von Wolff, German philosopher, dies at 75
  • 1757-08-28 David Hartley, English philosopher (b. 1705)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1758-03-22 Jonathan Edwards, American Christian preacher, philosopher, and theologian (Original Sin), dies at 54

Christian Preacher and Philosopher Jonathan Edwards
Christian Preacher and Philosopher
Jonathan Edwards
  • 1762-05-26 Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, German philosopher (b. 1714)
  • 1768-03-01 Hermann Samuel Reimarus, German philosopher and writer (b. 1694)
  • 1768-11-04 Johan Lulofs, Dutch physicist/philosopher/astronomer, dies at 57
  • 1771-12-26 Claude Adrien Helvétius, French philosopher (b. 1715)
  • 1772-03-29 Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish philosopher and mathematician (b. 1688)
  • 1772-06-18 Johann Ulrich von Cramer, German judge and philosopher (b. 1706)
  • 1775-10-18 Christian August Crusius, German philosopher and theologian (b. 1715)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1776-08-25 David Hume, Scottish philosopher and historian (A Treatise of Human Nature), dies of abdominal cancer at 65

Philosopher David Hume
Philosopher
David Hume

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1778-05-30 Voltaire [Francois-Marie Arouet], French writer, philosopher and playwright (Candide), dies at 83

Enlightenment Philosopher Voltaire
Enlightenment Philosopher
Voltaire
  • 1780-07-14 Charles Batteux, French philosopher (b. 1713)
  • 1780-08-03 Etienne B de Condillac, French philosopher (sensualism), dies at 64
  • 1782-12-27 Henry Home, Lord Kames, Scottish philosopher (b. 1697)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1784-07-31 Denis Diderot, French writer/philosopher, dies at 70

Enlightenment Philosopher Denis Diderot
Enlightenment Philosopher
Denis Diderot
  • 1786-01-04 Mozes Mendelssohn, German Jewish enlightenment philosopher (Haksalah), dies at 56
  • 1787-02-12 Ruggiero Boscovich, Italian physicist/astronomer/philosopher, dies at 75
  • 1787-03-02 Jean SOME Allamand, French theologist/natural philosopher, dies at 73
  • 1787-10-30 Ferdinando Galiani, Italian economist/philosopher/diplomat, dies at 58
  • 1788-06-21 Johann Georg Hamann, German counter-enlightenment philosopher ("Reason is language"), dies at 57
  • 1790-07-07 Franciscus "Frans" Hemsterhuis, Frisian philosopher, dies at 68

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1790-07-17 Adam Smith, Scottish economist (Wealth of Nations) and moral philosopher, dies at 67

Economist and Philosopher Adam Smith
Economist and Philosopher
Adam Smith
  • 1790-12-12 Mikhail Shcherbatov, Russian philosopher and writer (b. 1733)
  • 1793-10-16 John Hunter, eminent doctor and philosopher (b. 1728

MurderMurder of Interest

1794-03-28 Marquis de Condorcet, French enlightenment philosopher, is murdered or commits suicide in prison at 50

Enlightenment Philosopher Marquis de Condorcet
Enlightenment Philosopher
Marquis de Condorcet
  • 1796-10-07 Thomas Reid, Scottish philosopher (b. 1710)