World War One in History

World War One: Battle on the Somme

Historical Events

  • 1912-11-25 Socialist International rejects that world war is coming

MurderAssassination

1914-06-28 Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his wife Sophie are assassinated in Sarajevo by young Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip at 10.45, the casus belli of WWI

Archduke of Austria Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria
Franz Ferdinand
  • 1914-08-05 Montenegro declares war against Austria-Hungary in World War I
  • 1914-08-06 Denis Patrick Dowd Jr. enlists in the French Foreign Legion, becoming the first American to fight in World War I.
  • 1914-08-16 World War I: Battle of Cer begins.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1914-08-22 WW1: Von Ludendorff and Paul von Hindenburg move into East Prussia enroute to Russia

German President and WWI General Paul von Hindenburg
German President and WWI General
Paul von Hindenburg
  • 1914-08-23 Japan declares war on Germany in World War I
  • 1914-09-05 World War I: Battle of Marne begins, French and British forces prevent German advance on Paris (till the 12th Sept)
  • 1914-09-08 Private Thomas Highgate becomes the first British soldier to be executed for desertion during WW1
  • 1914-09-09 First fully mechanized unit in the British Army created - the Canadian Automobile Machine Gun Brigade (WWI)
  • 1914-10-05 World War I first aerial combat resulting in a kill
  • 1914-10-09 German troops take Antwerp in World War I
  • 1914-11-28 World War I: Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.
  • 1914-12-16 World War I: German battleships under Franz Von Hipper bombard the English ports of Hartlepool and Scarborough.
  • 1914-12-23 World War I: Australian and New Zealand troops arrive in Cairo, Egypt.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1915-02-12 Adolf Hitler receives the relatively common Iron Cross second class for bravery in World War I

Dictator of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler
Dictator of Nazi Germany
Adolf Hitler
  • 1915-03-05 World War I: The LZ 33, a zeppelin, is damaged by enemy fire and stranded south of Ostend.
  • 1915-04-18 French pilot Roland Garros is shot down and glides to a landing on the German side of the lines during World War I.
  • 1915-08-19 World War I: the Battle of Van begins
  • 1915-08-21 Italy declares war on Turkey in World War One
  • 1915-10-05 Bulgaria enters World War I as one of the Central Powers.
  • 1916-01-08 WWI: ANZAC forces withdraw from the Gallipoli Peninsula after Ottoman forces successfully defend access to Constantinople
  • 1916-02-21 World War I: Battle of Verdun begins, leads to an estimated 1 million casualties
  • 1916-05-31 Battle of Jutland: Largest naval battle of World War I between the British Grand Fleet and the German High Seas Fleet which killed 8,645 in an inconclusive battle but strategic British victory. The German fleet never put to sea again.
  • 1916-08-02 World War I: Austrian sabotage causes the sinking of the Italian battleship Leonardo da Vinci in Taranto.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1916-09-17 The Red Baron [Manfred von Richthofen], WWI flying ace of the German Luftstreitkräfte, wins his first aerial combat near Cambrai, France

World War I Fighter Ace The Red Baron
World War I Fighter Ace
The Red Baron
  • 1916-12-06 World War I: The Central Powers capture Bucharest.
  • 1916-12-23 World War I: Battle of Magdhaba - Allied forces defeat Turkish forces in Egypt's Sinai peninsula.
  • 1917-01-09 World War I: the Battle of Rafa occurs near the Egyptian border with Palestine.
  • 1917-01-16 "Zimmermann Telegram" is sent from Germany to Mexico, stating in the event of the US entering World War I on the allied side, Mexico would be given Texas, Arizona and New Mexico. Intercepted by British intelligence and partially deciphered by the next day. It's release in March shifts US public opinion in favor of war against Germany.
  • 1917-04-06 US declares war on Germany, enters World War I
  • 1917-05-18 US Congress passes Selective Service Act, authorizing the federal government to raise a national army for the American entry into World War I through compulsory enlistment
  • 1917-06-13 World War I: the deadliest German air raid on London during World War I is carried out by Gotha G bombers and results in 162 deaths, including 46 children, and 432 injuries.
  • 1917-06-26 1st US Expeditionary Force arrives in France during World War I
  • 1917-07-27 World War I: Allied troops reach the Yser Canal in the prelude to the Battle of Passchendaele
  • 1917-08-06 World War I: Battle of Mărăşeşti between the Romanian and German armies begins.

BattleExecution

1917-10-15 Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad for spying for Germany during WWI at Vincennes near Paris

Exotic dancer, courtesan and convicted German spy Mata Hari
Exotic dancer, courtesan and convicted German spy
Mata Hari
  • 1917-10-26 World War I:Brazil declared in state of war with Central Powers.
  • 1917-10-31 World War I: Battle of Beersheba in southern Palestine - "last successful cavalry charge in history" performed by the 4th Australian Light Horse
  • 1917-12-07 US becomes 13th country to declare war on Austria during World War I
  • 1917-12-15 World War I: An armistice is reached between the new Russian Bolshevik government and the Central Powers.
  • 1918-03-07 World War I: Finland forms an alliance with Germany.
  • 1918-03-23 German forces advance 14 miles to the Somme River (WW1)
  • 1918-04-21 World War I: German fighter ace Baron Manfred von Richthofen "The Red Baron", shot down and killed over Vaux sur Somme in France, Canadian pilot Arthur Roy Brown credited with the kill
  • 1918-07-15 World War I: Second Battle of Marne begins
  • 1918-07-18 World War I: US and French forces launch Aisne-Marne offensive
  • 1918-07-19 World War I: German armies retreat across Marne River in France
  • 1918-08-02 Japan announces that it is deploying troops to Siberia in the aftermath of World War I.
  • 1918-08-06 World War I: Second Battle of the Marne ends

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1918-10-01 World War I: Arab forces under T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia") capture Damascus

Soldier and Writer T. E. Lawrence
Soldier and Writer
T. E. Lawrence
  • 1919-01-18 The Paris peace conference (aka the Versailles peace conference) opens to draw up the treaties formally ending the Great War (WWI)
  • 1919-05-08 Edward George Honey first proposes the idea of a moment of silence to commemorate The Armistice of World War I, which later results in the creation of Remembrance Day.
  • 1919-07-19 Following Peace Day celebrations marking the end of World War I, ex-servicemen rioted and burnt down Luton Town Hall.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1929-08-31 Committee chaired by Owen D. Young finalizes the "Young Plan" to reduce German reparations from World War I to 112 billion Gold Marks ($US8 billion) paid over 59 years

Diplomat and Industrialist Owen D. Young
Diplomat and Industrialist
Owen D. Young
  • 1932-05-29 The Bonus Army of World War I veterans begins to assemble in Washington, D.C. in to request cash bonuses promised to them to be paid in 1945.
  • 1932-06-17 Bonus Army: around a thousand World War I veterans amass at the United States Capitol as the U.S. Senate considers a bill that would give them certain benefits
  • 1932-07-20 In Washington, D.C., police fire tear gas on World War I veterans part of the Bonus Expeditionary Force who attempt to march to the White House.
  • 1932-07-29 Great Depression: in Washington, D.C., U.S. troops disperse the last of the "Bonus Army" of World War I veterans.
  • 1940-07-11 Marshall Henri Petain, French hero of World War One, becomes head of the collaborative Vichy government of France.

Famous Birthdays


Person of interestPerson of Interest

1847-10-02 Paul von Hindenburg, German WW1 general and President of Germany (1925-34), born in Posen, Duchy of Posen, Prussia (d. 1934)

German President and WWI General Paul von Hindenburg
German President and WWI General
Paul von Hindenburg
  • 1849-03-19 Alfred von Tirpitz, German World War I Admiral (d. 1930)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1871-01-17 David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty and British Admiral of the Fleet during World War I (Battle of Jutland), born in Nantwich, England (d. 1936)

British Admiral of the Fleet David Beatty
British Admiral of the Fleet
David Beatty
  • 1878-06-17 Albert Thomas, French socialist politician (Minister of Armament WW1), born in Champigny-sur-Marne (d. 1932)
  • 1885-03-14 Raoul Lufbery, American World War I pilot (d. 1918)
  • 1887-12-13 Alvin York, American World War I soldier who led a famed attack on a German machine gun nest (Medal of Honor), born in Pall Mall, Tennessee (d. 1964)
  • 1891-05-19 Oswald Boelcke, German World War I pilot (d. 1916)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1892-05-02 Manfred von Richthofen [The Red Baron], German World War I fighter ace, born in Wrocław, Poland (d. 1918)

World War I Fighter Ace The Red Baron
World War I Fighter Ace
The Red Baron
  • 1892-12-27 Alfred Edwin McKay, Canadian World War One flying ace (d. 1917)
  • 1893-01-10 Albert Jacka, Australian soldier, first Australian World War I Victoria Cross winner (d. 1932)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1893-01-12 Hermann Goering, Nazi Party leader, Vice-Chancellor of Germany (1941-45) and World War I fighter pilot ace, born in Rosenheim, Kingdom of Bavaria, German Empire (d. 1946)

Nazi Politician Hermann Goering
Nazi Politician
Hermann Goering
  • 1896-05-03 Karl Allmenroder, German World War I Ace (d. 1917)
  • 1896-06-07 Douglas Campbell, American World War I flying ace (d. 1990)
  • 1897-02-18 Charles Kuentz, WW1 veteran, changed nationality 4 times (d.2005)
  • 1897-04-07 Erich Loewenhardt, German flying ace of World War I (d. 1918)
  • 1897-04-13 Werner Voss, German World War I pilot (d. 1917)
  • 1897-05-19 Frank Luke, American World War I pilot (d. 1918)
  • 1899-03-10 Robert Meier, German WW1 veteran, formerly Germany's oldest man. (d. 2007)
  • 1900-09-23 Bill Stone, British serviceman; one of the last surviving veterans of World War I
  • 1949-03-14 Michael Stedman, British World War I Historian and Author

Famous Deaths

  • 1915-05-19 John Simpson Kirkpatrick stretcher bearer with the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps at Gallipoli during World War I (b. 1892)
  • 1917-09-23 Werner Voss, German World War I pilot (b. 1897)
  • 1917-12-28 Alfred Edwin McKay, Canadian World War One flying ace (b. 1892)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1918-04-21 Manfred von Richthofen [The Red Baron], German World War I fighter ace, dies at 25 after his plane is shot down

World War I Fighter Ace The Red Baron
World War I Fighter Ace
The Red Baron
  • 1918-05-19 Raoul Lufbery, French-American World War I fighter pilot and flying ace (b. 1885)
  • 1918-08-10 Erich Lowenhardt, Germany flying ace of World War I (b. 1897)
  • 1926-03-16 Sergeant Stubby, decorated World War I dog
  • 1932-05-07 Albert Thomas, French socialist politician (Minister of Armament WW1), dies at 53

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1934-08-02 Paul von Hindenburg, German WW1 general and President of Germany (1925-34), dies of lung cancer at 86

German President and WWI General Paul von Hindenburg
German President and WWI General
Paul von Hindenburg

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1936-03-12 David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty and British Admiral of the Fleet during World War I (Battle of Jutland), dies of heart failure at 65

British Admiral of the Fleet David Beatty
British Admiral of the Fleet
David Beatty
  • 1947-05-30 Georg von Trapp, Austrian WWI submarine commander and inspiration for "The Sound of Music" character, dies at 67

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1956-09-11 Billy Bishop, Canadian First World War flying ace, dies at 62

Canadian First World War Flying Ace Billy Bishop
Canadian First World War Flying Ace
Billy Bishop
  • 1964-09-02 Alvin York, American World War I soldier who led a famed attack on a German machine gun nest (Medal of Honor), dies at 76
  • 2005-01-22 Carlo Orelli, Italian veteran of World War I (b. 1894)
  • 2005-11-21 Alfred Anderson, last Scottish World War I (and Christmas Truce) veteran (b. 1896)
  • 2008-03-12 Lazare Ponticelli, the last "poilu", French foot soldier of World War One, dies at 110 (b. 1897)
  • 2008-05-27 Franz Künstler, Last remaining Austro-Hungarian Empire World War I veteran (b. 1900)
  • 2008-08-22 Gladys Powers, Canadian World War I veteran (b. 1899)
  • 2009-01-10 William Frederick "Bill" Stone, British World War I veteran (b. 1900)
  • 2009-07-18 Henry Allingham, British supercentenarian and World War I veteran (b. 1896)
  • 2009-07-25 Harry Patch, the last surviving soldier to have served in the trenches in World War I, dies at 111 (b. 1898)
  • 2010-02-18 John Babcock, Last known Canadian veteran of World War I (b. 1900)
  • 2011-02-27 Frank Buckles, last surviving American World War I veteran (b. 1901)
  • 2011-05-05 Claude Choules, last surviving World War I veteran (b. 1901)
  • 2012-02-04 Florence Green, last surviving veteran of World War One, dies at 110