Famous Birthdays on April 3

Birthdays 1 - 200 of 258

  • 1151 Igor Svyatoslavich, Ukrainian prince (d. 1202)
  • 1245 Philips III, King of France (1270-85), born in Poissy, France (d. 1285)
  • 1367 Henry IV of England, King of England and Lord of Ireland (1399-1413), born in Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, England (d. 1413)
  • 1438 John III van Egmont, Viceroy of Holland, born in Hattem, Netherlands (d. 1516)
  • 1485 Lieven van der Maude [Ammonius], South Netherland poet
  • 1529 Michael Neander, German mathematician and astronomer, born in Joachimsthal, Bohemia (d. 1581)
  • 1569 Giovanni Battista Massarengo, Italian composer, born in Parma, Italy
  • 1593 George Herbert, English metaphysical poet (5 Mystical Songs), born in Montgomery, Wales (d. 1633)
  • 1603 William Smith, English composer, born in Durham (d. 1645)
  • 1617 Antimo Liberati, Italian composer, born in Foligno, Italy (d. 1692)
  • 1649 Joseph François Salomon, French composer, born in Toulon, France (d. 1732)
  • 1682 Johann Valentin Rathgeber, German benedictine and composer, born in Oberelsbach, Germany (d. 1750)
  • 1683 Mark Catesby, English naturalist (Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands) (d. 1749)
  • 1693 George Edwards, English naturalist and ornithologist (father of British ornithology), born in Stratford, Essex, England (d. 1773)
  • 1715 John Hanson, Continental Congressman, 1st US President under Articles of Confederation, born in Maryland (d.1783)
  • 1715 William Watson, English physician and scientist, born in London (d. 1787)

  • 1720 Elia van Vilnius [Elijahu ben Salomo Zalman], Latvian rabbi, born in Sialiec, Polish-Lithuanian (d. 1797)
  • 1727 Philippe-Lambert-Joseph Spruyt, Flemish painter and engraver, born in Ghent, Belgium (d. 1801)
  • 1751 Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne, French composer, born in Eymet, France (d. 1796)
  • 1757 Ferenc Verseghy, Hungarian poet and composer, born in Szolnok, Hungary (d. 1822)
  • 1764 John Abernethy, English surgeon, born in London, England (d. 1831)
  • 1769 Christian Günther von Bernstorff, Danish-Prussian statesman and diplomat, born in Copenhagen, Denmark (d. 1835)
  • 1770 Theodoros Kolokotronis, Greek general and leader of the Greek War of Independence (1821-29), born in Ramοvouni, Messenia, Ottoman Empire (d. 1843)

Person of interestWashington Irving

1783 Washington Irving, American writer (Legend of Sleepy Hollow), born in NYC, New York (d. 1859)

Person of interestCharles Wilkes

1798 Charles Wilkes, American Antarctic explorer and naval officer (Union Navy), born in NYC, New York (d. 1877)

Naval Officer and Explorer Charles Wilkes
Naval Officer and Explorer
Charles Wilkes
  • 1806 Ivan Kireyevsky, Russian literary critic and philosopher, born in Moscow (d. 1856)
  • 1812 Louisa Maria, Queen of Belgium (1832-50), Wife of Leopold I), born in Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France (d. 1850)
  • 1814 Lorenzo Snow, 5th president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS or Mormon Church), born in Mantua, Ohio (d. 1901)
  • 1821 T. Pelham Dale, Anglican clergyman prosecuted for Ritualist practices in the 1870s, born in Greenwich (d. 1892)
  • 1822 Edward Everett Hale, American clergyman and author (Man without a Country), born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1909)

Person of interestBoss Tweed

1823 William Magear Tweed "Boss Tweed", American politician and corrupt New York fraudster, born in NYC, New York (d. 1878)

Politician Boss Tweed
Politician
Boss Tweed
  • 1825 Adolf Rzepko, Polish composer, born in Prague (d. 1892)
  • 1837 John Burroughs, American writer and nature enthusiast (Burroughs Medal namesake), born in Delaware County, New York (d. 1921)
  • 1838 Leon Michel Gambetta, French attorney and 37th Prime Minister of France (1881-82), born in Cahors, Kingdom of France (d. 1882)
  • 1842 Ulric Dahlgren, American Colonel (Union Army), born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania (d. 1864)
  • 1858 Matthew Ricketts, 1st African American man elected to Neb State Legislature, born in Henry County, Kentucky (d. 1917)
  • 1859 Reginald De Koven, American composer, born in Middletown, Connecticut (d. 1920)
  • 1860 Frederik Willem van Eeden, Dutch utopian writer (Walden), born in Haarlem, Netherlands (d. 1932)
  • 1863 Henry Van de Velde, Flemish painter and architect (Art Nouveau), born in Antwerp, Belgium (d. 1957)

Person of interestJ. B. M. Hertzog

1866 J. B. M. Hertzog [Barry Hertzog], South African General and Prime Minister (1924-39), born in Wellington, South Africa (d. 1942)

South African Premier J. B. M. Hertzog
South African Premier
J. B. M. Hertzog
  • 1871 Jose Juan Tablada, Mexican poet (El Florilegio), born in Mexico City (d. 1941)

  • 1871 Mistinguett [Jeanne Florentine Bourgeois], French actress and singer (Moulin Rouge star), born in Enghien-les-Bains, Val-d'Oise, France (d. 1956)
  • 1874 Eduardo Sanchez de Fuentes, Cuban composer, born in Havana, Cuba (d. 1944)
  • 1881 Alcide de Gasperi, 30th Prime Minister of Italy (1945-53), born in Pieve Tesino, Tyrol, Austria-Hungary (d. 1954)
  • 1881 Margaret "Daisy" Ashford, British child author who wrote "The Young Visiters" (Mister Salteena's Plan) aged 9, born in Petersham, Surrey (d. 1972)
  • 1882 Simon Elzinga, Dutch educator
  • 1884 Jackie Matthews, cricketer (Aust leg-spinner, two hat-tricks 1912)
  • 1885 St John Philby, British explorer and Arabist, born in Badulla, British Ceylon (d. 1960)
  • 1885 Bud Fisher, American cartoonist (Mutt and Jeff), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1954)
  • 1886 Dooley Wilson [Arthur Wilson], American musician and actor (Beulah, Casablanca), born in Tyler, Texas (d. 1953)
  • 1888 Neville Cardus, English writer and cricketer, born in Rusholme, Manchester, England (d. 1975)
  • 1889 Grigoras Dinicu, Romanian violin virtuoso and composer, born in Bucharest (d. 1949)
  • 1893 Leslie Howard [Stainer], British actor (Gone With the Wind, Of Human Bondage), born in London, England (d. 1943)
  • 1893 Princess Maud of Fife, Countess of Southesk, born in East Sheen Lodge, Richmond-upon-Thames (d. 1945)
  • 1895 Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Italian composer, born in Florence (d. 1968)
  • 1896 Douwe Kalma, Dutch literary writer and leader (Young Frisian Movement), born in Boksum, Netherlands (d. 1953)
  • 1898 George Jessel, American toastmaster general and entertainer (Diary of Young Comic), born in NYC, New York (d. 1981)
  • 1898 Henry Luce, American magazine publisher (Time, Fortune, Life), born in Tengchow, China (d. 1967)
  • 1899 David Jack, English footballer (scored 267 goals from 521 appearances), born in Bolton, Lancashire, England (d. 1958)
  • 1900 Camille Chamoun, President of Lebanon (1952-58), born in Deir el Qamar, Ottoman Empire (d. 1987)
  • 1902 Henri Garat, French actor (Valse royale, Congress Dances), born in Paris, France (d. 1959)
  • 1902 Siguringi Eirikur Hjorleifsson, composer
  • 1903 Peter Huchel, German poet, born near Berlin (d. 1981)
  • 1904 Sally Rand, American burlesque dancer, vedette and actress known for her ostrich feather fan and balloon bubble dances, born in Elkton, Missouri (d. 1979)
  • 1904 Peter Van Steeden, composer and orchestra leader (Break the Bank), born in Amsterdam (d. 1990)
  • 1904 Russel Wright, American industrial designer, born in Lebanon, Ohio (d. 1976)
  • 1905 Robert Frederick Sink, United States Army Officer (WWII, Korean War & Vietnam War), born in Lexington, North Carolina (d. 1965)
  • 1906 Kathleen Tillotson, Emeritus Professor of English (Bedford College), born in Berwick-upon-Tweed (d. 2001)
  • 1907 Iron Eyes Cody [Espera Oscar de Corti], Italian-American actor (Keep America Beautiful, Black Gold, Ernest Goes to Camp), born in Tulsa, Oklahoma (d. 1999)
  • 1907 Isaac Deutscher, Polish-English historian (Stalin/Trotsky biography), born in Chrzanów, Poland (d. 1967)
  • 1911 Watkins Shaw, British musicologist, born in Bradford, Yorkshire (d. 1996)
  • 1911 Michael Woodruff, English surgeon and scientist (organ transplantation), born in Mill Hill, London (d. 2001)
  • 1911 W. R. Lee, English language teacher and internationalist, born in Hillingdon, Middlesex (d. 1996)
  • 1911 Stanislawa Walasiewicz [Stella Walsh], Polish-born American sprinter (Olympic gold 1932), born in Wierzchownia (d. 1980)
  • 1912 Addeke H Boerma, Dutch economist and general manager (FAO) (d. 1992)
  • 1912 Bert Bakker, Dutch publisher (Free Netherlands), born in Huizum, Netherlands (d. 1969)
  • 1913 F H Tate, vice-CEO (Tate & Lyle)
  • 1913 George Barati, American cellist and composer, born in Győr, Hungary (d. 1996)
  • 1913 Per Borten, 18th Prime Minister of Norway (1965-71), born in Flå, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway (d. 2005)
  • 1914 Katherine Stammers Menzies, English doubles tennis player (Wimb 1935), born in St Albans, England (d. 2005)
  • 1915 Paul Touvier, French-Nazi WW II criminal, born in Saint-Vincent-sur-Jabron, France (d. 1996)
  • 1916 Herb Caen, American columnist (SF Chronicle), born in Sacramento, California (d. 1997)
  • 1916 Robert Jesse Charleston, museum Curator
  • 1917 Bill Finegan, American composer (Sauter-Finegan Band, Sat Night Revue), born in Newark, New Jersey (d. 2008)
  • 1917 Tibor Andrasovan, Slovak composer, born in Slovenská Lupca, Zólyom, Austria-Hungary (d. 2001)
  • 1918 Enrique Iturriaga, Peruvian composer, born in Lima, Peru
  • 1918 Louis Applebaum, Canadian conductor and composer, born in Toronto, Canada (d. 2000)
  • 1918 Sixten Ehrling, Swedish conductor (Royal Opera of Stockholm), born in Malmö, Sweden (d. 2005)
  • 1919 Duke of Grafton, 11th Duke of Grafton, born in Cape Town (d. 2011)
  • 1920 Stan Freeman, American composer (Melody Tour), born in Waterbury, Connecticut (d. 2001)
  • 1920 John Demjanjuk, Ukrainian-born American auto worker, alleged Nazi and convicted war criminal (under appeal at death), born in Berdychiv uyezd, Kiev Governorate, Ukrainian People's Republic (d. 2012)
  • 1921 Robert Karvelas, American actor (Get Smart), born in NYC, New York (d. 1991)

Person of interestDoris Day

1922 Doris Day [Kappelhoff], American singer, animal welfare activist and actress known as the "girl next door" actress (Pillow Talk, The Man Who Knew Too Much), born in Cincinnati, Ohio

Singer and Actress Doris Day
Singer and Actress
Doris Day
  • 1923 Jan Sterling [Jane Adriance], American actress (Ace in the Hole, The High and the Mighty), born in NYC, New York (d. 2004)
  • 1923 John Smith, English large landowner and financier, born in London (d. 1994)
  • 1924 Canon A D Caesar, Sub Dean (HM Chapels Royal)

Person of interestMarlon Brando

1924 Marlon Brando, American actor (The Godfather, A Street Cart Named Desire and On the Waterfront), born in Omaha, Nebraska (d. 2004)

  • 1924 Murray Dickie, Scottish opera singer and director, born in Bishopton, Glasgow (d. 1995)
  • 1925 Tony Benn, British politcian, Minister of Technology and President of the Stop the War Coalition, born in Marylebone, London (d. 2014)
  • 1926 Andrew Keir, Scottish character actor (Rob Roy, Absolution, Blood Hunt, Catholics), born in Shotts, Lanarkshire, Scotland (d. 1997)
  • 1926 Virgil Grissom, U.S. Air Force test pilot and NASA astronaut (Mercury-Redstone 4, Gemini 3, Apollo 1), born in Mitchell, Indiana (d. 1967)
  • 1926 Alex Grammas, American baseball player, born in Birmingham, Alabama
  • 1927 Wesley Brown, 1st African American US Naval Academy graduate, born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 2012)
  • 1928 Don Gibson, American country musician (Sweet Dreams), born in Shelby, North Carolina (d. 2003)
  • 1928 Kevin Hagen, American actor (Little House on the Prairie), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 2005)
  • 1928 Jennifer Paterson, English chef and TV personality (Two Fat Ladies), born in Kensington, London (d. 1999)

Person of interestEarl Lloyd

1928 Earl Lloyd, 1st African American basketball player in the NBA, born in Alexandria, Virginia (d. 2015)

Basketball Player Earl Lloyd
Basketball Player
Earl Lloyd
  • 1929 Dennis Farr, Museum director (Courtauld Institute Galleries) and art historian, born in Luton, Bedfordshire (d. 2006)
  • 1929 Lee Leonard, American television personality (ESPN, CNN), born in NYC, New York

Person of interestHelmut Kohl

1930 Helmut Kohl, German chancellor (West Germany, 1982-90, unified Germany, 1990-98), born in Ludwigshafen, Weimar Republic (d. 2017)

German Chancellor Helmut Kohl
German Chancellor
Helmut Kohl
  • 1930 Lawton Chiles, U.S. Senator from Florida (1971-89) and Governor of Florida (1991-98), born in Lakeland, Florida (d. 1998)

  • 1930 Max Frankel, American journalist (Tables of Id of Organic Compounds), born in Gera, Germany
  • 1930 Wally Moon, American baseball player, born in Bay, Arkansas (d. 2018)
  • 1931 Johnny Nicholls, English football player, born in Wolverhampton, Staffordshire (d. 1995)
  • 1932 Janet Bately, Prof of English Language (King's College London)
  • 1932 Martin Nourse, Lord Justice of Appeal of England and Wales (d. 2017)
  • 1933 Bob Dornan, American politician, U.S. House of Representatives from California, born in NYC, New York
  • 1934 David Jones, British reverend/headmaster (Bryanston School)
  • 1934 Jane Goodall, British ethologist (studied African chimps), born in London, England
  • 1934 Jim Parker, American football player, NFL guard and tackle (Baltimore Colts), born in Macon, Georgia (d. 2005)
  • 1934 John Lelliott, English contractor and multi-millionaire
  • 1935 Jeffery Bowman, CEO (Price Waterhouse Europe)
  • 1936 James "Jim" Clark, Scottish F1 Indianapolis 500 winner and World Champion (1963 & 1965), born in Kilmany, Fife, Scotland (d. 1968)
  • 1936 Scott LaFaro, American jazz musician, born in Irvington, New Jersey (d. 1961)
  • 1936 Jimmy McGriff, American jazz organist, born in Germantown, Philadelphia (d. 2008)
  • 1936 Reginald Hill, British crime author (Andrew Dalziel and Peter Pascoe novels), born in West Hartlepool, County Durham (d. 2012)
  • 1937 Sandra Spuzich, American golfer (US Open 1966), born in Indianapolis, Indiana (d. 2015)
  • 1937 William Gaunt, English actor (Champions), born in Pudsey, Yorkshire
  • 1937 Louis Satterfield [also known as Lui-Lui, Ealee, and Sat], American trombone player (The Pharaohs, Earth, Wind & Fire, Phenix Horns), born in Shaw, Mississippi (d. 2004)
  • 1937 Petunia Pig, Warner Bros. cartoon character created by Frank Tashlin (Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series), first debuts in "Porky's Romance"
  • 1938 Jeff Barry, American rock writer (Tell Laura I Love Her), born in Brooklyn, New York
  • 1938 Phil Rodgers, American golfer (5 PGA Tour wins), born in San Diego, California (d. 2018)
  • 1939 Vitaliy Davidov, Soviet ice hockey player (Olympic gold 1964, 68, 72), born in Moscow
  • 1939 Catalino "Lino" Brocka, Filipino film director (Macho Dancer, Jaguar), born in Pilar, Sorsogon, Philippines (d. 1991)
  • 1939 François de Roubaix, French film score composer, born in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France (d. 1975)
  • 1940 R S Burman, CEO (Association of British Chambers of Commerce)
  • 1941 Eric Braeden, German-American actor (Victor Newman-Young & Restless, Colossus), born in Bredenbek, Germany
  • 1941 Jan Berry, American rock and roll vocalist (Jan and Dean-Dead Man's Curve), born in Los Angeles, California
  • 1941 Carl Boenish, American father of BASE jumping, born in New Castle, Pennsylvania (d. 1984)
  • 1941 Philippé Wynne, American soul singer (I'll Be Around), born in Detroit, Michigan (d. 1984)
  • 1942 Billy Joe Royal, country and pop singer (Down in the Boondocks), born in Valdosta, Georgia (d. 2015)
  • 1942 Marsha Mason, American actress (Blume in Love, Cinderella Liberty), born in St Louis, Missouri
  • 1942 Michael Elliott, American skier (Olympics 1968), born in Durango, Colorado
  • 1942 Rick Sylvester, Hollywood stuntman, parachute ski jumper (world record 3,300')
  • 1942 Wayne Newton, American singer and entertainer (Daddy, Don't You Walk So Fast), born in Norfolk, Virginia
  • 1942 Marek Perepeczko, Polish actor (Janosik), born in Warsaw, Poland (d. 2005)
  • 1942 Herb “Herbie” Greene, American photographer best known for his portraits for rock and roll luminaries (The Grateful Dead), born in Indio, California
  • 1943 Jonathan Lynn, English writer and actor (Greedy, Bar Mitzvah Boy), born in Bath, England (d. 1943)
  • 1943 Richard Manuel, Canadian rock pianist and vocalist (The Band), born in Stratford, Ontario (d. 1986)
  • 1943 Mario Lavista, Mexican composer and writer, born in Mexico City
  • 1943 Doreen Tracey, British-born American performer (Mickey Mouse Club-Mouseketeer), born in St Pancras, London (d. 2018)

  • 1944 Barry Pritchard, English rock guitarist (Fortunes), born in Birmingham (d. 1999)
  • 1944 Tony Orlando, American singer (& Dawn-Tie a Yellow Ribbon), born in NYC, New York
  • 1945 Catherine Spaak, French actress (Libertine, Hotel, Circle of Love), born in Boulogne-Billancourt, Hauts-de-Seine, France
  • 1945 Wim Deetman, Dutch politician, Minister of Education, born in The Hague, Netherlands
  • 1946 Carlos Salinas de Gortari, President of Mexico (1988-94), born in Mexico City
  • 1946 Dee Murray [David M Oates], British rocker (Elton John's Band), born in Gillingham, Kent (d. 1992)
  • 1948 Garrick Ohlsson, American pianist (Intl Busoni winner 1969), born in Bronxville, New York
  • 1948 H C Tomlinson, Headmaster (Hereford Cathedral School)
  • 1948 Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, Dutch politician (CDA), born in Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • 1948 Mary Gordon-Watson, British equestrian 3 day event (Olympic gold 1972), born in Blandford, Dorset
  • 1948 Arlette Cousture, French-Canadian writer (Les filles de Caleb), born in Saint-Lambert, Quebec, Canada
  • 1949 Jan Keizer, Dutch singer (BZN-Rhythm of My Heart), born in Volendam, Netherlands
  • 1949 Lyle Alzado, NFL defensive linesman (LA Raiders) and actor (Oceans of Fire, Hangfire), born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 1992)
  • 1949 Richard Thompson, English vocalist and guitarist (Shoot Out the Lights), born in Notting Hill Gate, London
  • 1949 Greg Calbi, American mastering engineer (associated with Eric Carmen, John Lennon, David Bowie, and Bruce Springsteen), born in Yonkers, New York
  • 1950 Curtis Stone, American singer (Highway 101-Cry Cry Cry), born in Hollywood, California
  • 1950 Sally Thomsett, English actress (Straw Dogs, Man About the House), born in Sussex
  • 1952 Mike Moore, American politician and Attorney General of Mississippi, born in Pascagoula, Mississippi
  • 1953 Huub van der Lubbe, Dutch rock singer (Stampei-The Dike), born in Amsterdam
  • 1953 Craig Taubman, Jewish-American singer (Friday Night Live), born in Millington, Tennessee
  • 1954 Elisabetta Brusa, Italian composer, born in Milan
  • 1955 Aleksandr Nikolayevich Yablontsev, Russian lt-colonel and cosmonaut, born in Warsaw, Poland (d. 2012)
  • 1956 Miguel Bose, Panamanian-born Spanish singer and actor (El Avaro, Queen Margot), born in Panama City
  • 1956 Boris Miljković, Serbian TV and theatre director, writer and lecturer, born in Zagreb, PR Croatia, FPR Yugoslavia
  • 1957 Charles Jones, American basketball player, NBA forward (Houston Rockets), born in McGehee, Arkansas

Person of interestAlec Baldwin

1958 Alec Baldwin, American actor (Joshua-Knots Landing, Beetlejuice), born in Amityville, New York

  • 1958 Jaya Prada, Indian actress (Sargam) and politician, born in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • 1959 David Hyde Pierce, American actor (Niles Crane-Fraiser), born in Saratoga Springs, New York
  • 1960 Arjen Anthony Lucassen, Dutch singer and songwriter, born in Hilversum, Netherlands
  • 1960 Marie Denise Pelletier, Canadian singer (Entre la tête et le cœur), born in Montréal, Québec, Canada

Person of interestEddie Murphy

1961 Eddie Murphy, American actor (SNL, 48 Hours, Beverly Hills Cop, Raw), born in Brooklyn, New York

  • 1962 John Thomas Griffith, American rocker (Red Rockers), born in Lubbock, Texas
  • 1962 Mike Ness, American rocker (Social Distortion), born in Lynn, Massachusetts
  • 1962 Nancy Filteau, Canadian athlete, 72k judoka (Olympics 1996), born in Swift Current, Saskatchewan
  • 1962 Jennifer Rubin, American actress (A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors), born in Phoenix, Arizona
  • 1963 Chris Bosio, American baseball pitcher (Seattle Mariners), born in Carmichael, California
  • 1963 Zakir Khan, Pakistani cricketer (two Tests for Pakistan 1986-89), born in Bannu, Pakistan
  • 1963 Criss Oliva, American musician (Savatage), born in Pompton Plains, New Jersey (d. 1993)
  • 1963 Tsuyoshi Sekito, Japanese video game composer, born in Osaka, Japan
  • 1964 Ajay Sharma, Indian cricketer (Indian spin all-rounder played one Test 1988), born in Delhi, India
  • 1964 Bjarne Riis, Danish cyclist, born in Herning, Denmark
  • 1964 Nigel Farage, British politician and leader of the UKIP who campaigned for Brexit, born in Downe, Kent
  • 1965 Nazia Hassan, Pakistani pop singer-songwriter, lawyer and social activist known as "Queen of Pop" in South Asia, born in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan (d. 2000)
  • 1966 Bo Orlando, American football player, NFL safety (San Diego Chargers, Cincinnati Bengals), born in Berwick, Pennsylvania
  • 1966 Shelley Michelle, American actress (Golden Eye), born in Hollywood, California
  • 1966 Miina Tominaga, Japanese seiyu (voice actress), born in Nishi-ku, Hiroshima, Japan
  • 1966 John de Vries, Australian racing driver (Indy Racing League and Australian Formula Holden), born in New South Wales, Australia
  • 1967 Brent Gilchrist, Canadian hockey player, NHL center (Dallas Stars), born in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • 1967 Pervis Ellison, American basketball player, NBA forward and center (Boston Celtics), born in Savannah, Georgia