On This Day

Famous People Born in 1932 (Part 3)

Birthdays 401 - 600 of 677

  • Jul 25 Paul J. Weitz, American test pilot and NASA astronaut (Skylab 2, STS 6), born in Erie, Pennsylvania (d. 2017)
  • Jul 27 Beverly Byron, American politician (Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Maryland), born in Baltimore, Maryland
  • Jul 27 Curnick Muzuvukile Ndlovu, Jailed South Africian worker's union leader, born in Matatiele, South Africa (d. 2002)
  • Jul 27 Robert Cowan, CEO (Highlands & Islands Enterprises), born in Edinburgh (d.1993)
  • Jul 28 Natalie Babbitt, American children's writer (Tuck Everlasting), born in Dayton, Ohio (d. 2016)
  • Jul 29 Marguerite Empey, [Diane Webber], American model and Playboy playmate (May 1955, Feb 1956), born in Los Angeles, California (d. 2008)
  • Jul 29 Nancy Landon Kassebaum, (Sen-R-Kansas, 1979- )
  • Jul 30 Edd Byrnes, American actor (77 Sunset Strip, Jack the Ripper), born in Los Angeles, California (d. 2020)
  • Jul 31 Morey Carr, American singer (Playmates) (d. 1987)
  • Jul 31 Robert W Davis, (Rep-R-MI, 1979- )

Person of interestTed Cassidy

Jul 31 Ted Cassidy, American actor (Lurch-Addams Family), born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (d. 1979)

  • Jul 31 John Searle, American philosopher, born in Denver, Colorado
  • Jul 31 Sam Coppola, American actor (Saturday Night Fever), born in Jersey City, New Jersey (d. 2012)
  • Aug 1 Meir Kahane, American founder of the Jewish Defense League, born Brooklyn, New York (d. 1990)
  • Aug 1 Meena Kumari, Indian film actress (Parineeta), born in Dadar, Mumbai, India (d. 1972)
  • Aug 2 Lamar Hunt, American sports executive and NFL owner (KC Chiefs), born in El Dorado, Arkansas (d. 2006)

  • Aug 2 Marvin David Levy, American composer (Mourning Becomes Electra), born in Passaic, New Jersey (d. 2015)

Person of interestPeter O'Toole

Aug 2 Peter O'Toole, Irish actor (Lord Jim, Beckett, Lawrence of Arabia), born in Leeds (d. 2013)

  • Aug 5 Sister Vince Otto, American mental health activist (Vince)
  • Aug 5 Tera de Marez Oyens, Dutch composer, born in Velsen, Netherlands (d.1996)
  • Aug 6 Anneli Sauli [Savolainen], Finnish actress (Milkmaid), born in Pyhäjoki, Finland
  • Aug 6 Howard Hodgkin, British abstract painter, born in London (d. 2017)
  • Aug 7 Maurice Rabb Jr., American ophthalmologist, born in Shelbyville, Kentucky (d. 2005)
  • Aug 7 Edward Hardwicke, British actor (Sherlock Holmes), born in London, England (d. 2011)

Person of interestAbebe Bikila

Aug 7 Abebe Bikila, Ethiopian Olympic marathon champion (Olympic gold, marathon 1960, 64) and Africa's first world record breaking athlete in any sport, who won the 1960 Olympics marathon barefoot, born in Jato, Ethiopian Empire (d. 1973)

Marathon Runner Abebe Bikila
Marathon Runner
Abebe Bikila
  • Aug 8 Mel Tillis [Lonnie Melvin Tillis], American country singer (Who's Julie, M-M-Mel), born in Pahokee, Florida (d. 2017)
  • Aug 8 Luis García Meza Tejada, Bolivian dictator
  • Aug 9 John Gomery, Canadian jurist, born in Montreal, Quebec
  • Aug 10 Alexander Goehr, composer
  • Aug 11 Angela Rumbold, British politician (C), born in Bristol (d. 2010)
  • Aug 11 Fernando Arrabal, Spanish song/romance writer (Baal Babilonia)
  • Aug 11 Geoffrey Cass, CEO (Cambridge U Press)
  • Aug 11 Eric Varley, British politician and cabinet minister, born in Poolsbrook, Derbyshire (d. 2008)
  • Aug 11 Sam McCluskie, trade unionist
  • Aug 11 Wilson "Papa" Godett, Curacaos worker's union leader/boxer
  • Aug 11 Israel Asper, Canadian tax lawyer (d. 2003)

  • Aug 11 John Gorrie, English director
  • Aug 12 Queen Ferekit, of Thailand (Queens Day)
  • Aug 12 Sergey Mikhaylovich Slonimsky, composer
  • Aug 12 Charlie O'Donnell, American game show announcer (Wheel of Fortune), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 2010)
  • Aug 14 James V. Hansen, American politician (Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Utah), born in Salt Lake City, Utah (d. 2018)
  • Aug 14 Lee Hoffman, American author (The Valdez Horses), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 2007)
  • Aug 14 Barry Frank, American television sports impresario (CBS, ABC and IMG), born in Columbus, Ohio (d. 2019)
  • Aug 15 Robert L. Forward, American physicist and sci-fi writer (Dragon's Egg, Starquake), born in Geneva, NY (d. 2002)
  • Aug 16 Eydie Gorme [Edithe Gormezano], American singer (Bossa Nova), born in The Bronx, New York (d. 2013)
  • Aug 16 Jon Lindbergh, 2nd son of aviator Charles Lindbergh

Person of interestV. S. Naipaul

Aug 17 V.S. Naipaul, British novelist (Middle Passage), born in Chaguanas, Trinidad and Tobago (d. 2018)

Novelist V. S. Naipaul
Novelist
V. S. Naipaul
  • Aug 18 István Kausz, Hungarian fencer (Olympic gold team, épée 1964), born in Budapest. Hungary (d. 2020)
  • Aug 18 Luc Montagnier, French virologist (Nobel Prize 2008, discovered HIV), born in Chabris, France
  • Aug 19 John James Fenwick, English warehouse owner/multi-millionaire
  • Aug 19 Thomas P. Salmon, 75th Governor of Vermont
  • Aug 19 Banharn Silpa-archa, Prime Minister of Thailand (1995-96), born in Suphanburi, Thailand (d. 2016)
  • Aug 20 Anthony Ainley, British actor (Doctor Who), born in Stanmore, Middlesex (d. 2004)
  • Aug 20 Vasily Aksyonov, Soviet-Russian novelist (The Burn), born in Kazan, Soviet Union (d. 2009)
  • Aug 20 Atholl Mckinnon, South African cricket spin bowler (8 Tests, 26 wickets), born in Port Elizabeth, Cape Province, South Africa (d. 1983)
  • Aug 21 Melvin Van Peebles, American actor and director (Sophisticated Gent), born in Chicago, Illinois
  • Aug 22 Gerald P Carr, Col USMC/astronaut (Skylab 4), born in Denver, Colorado
  • Aug 22 Theoni Vachliotis Aldredge, Greek-American award winning costume designer, born in Thessaloniki, Greece (d. 2011)
  • Aug 23 Mark Russell, American political satirist and pianist (Real People), born in Buffalo, New York
  • Aug 24 Richard Graham Meale, Australian composer (Three Miró Pieces; Voss), born in Sydney, Australia (d. 2009)
  • Aug 24 Robert D. Hales, LDS Church apostle, born in NYC, New York
  • Aug 25 Anatoli Yakovlevich Kartashov, Russian cosmonaut, born in Sadovoye, Russia (d. 2005)
  • Aug 26 Joe H Engle, American Brigader General and astronaut (STS T-2, T-4, 2, 51I), born in Chapman, Kansas
  • Aug 27 Antonia Fraser, British author and biographer (Mary Queen of Scots), born in London, England
  • Aug 27 François Glorieux, Flemish pianist and composer, born in Courtrai, Belgium
  • Aug 27 Mikhail Nikolayevich Burdayev, Feodosina Krim, Russian cosmonaut
  • Aug 28 Andy Bathgate, professional ice hockey player (New York Rangers, 1958 NHL MVP), born in Winnipeg, Manitoba (d. 2016)
  • Aug 28 Carlene Polite, American dancer, activist and author (Sister X), born in Detroit, Michigan (d. 2009)
  • Aug 31 Benito Wogatzki, writer
  • Aug 31 Robert [Franklin] Adams, American sci-fi author (Castaways in Time)
  • Aug 31 Roy Castle, English dancer and television entertainer (Record Breakers), born in Scholes, Yorkshire (d. 1994)
  • Sep 2 Walter Davis Jr., American hard bop pianist (Davis Cup, Illumination), born in Richmond, Virginia (d. 1990)
  • Sep 3 Richard Tyler, American actor (Henry Aldrich-Aldrich Family), born in NYC, New York
  • Sep 3 Eileen Brennan, American actress (Laugh-In, Pvt Benjamin), born in Los Angeles, California (d. 2013)
  • Sep 4 Carlos Romero Barceló, Puerto Rican politician (5th Governor of Puerto Rico), born in San Juan, Puerto Rico
  • Sep 4 Dinsdale Landen, British actor (The Mask of Janus), born in Margate, Kent, England (d. 2003)
  • Sep 4 Bevo Francis, American basketball player (college basketball record scorer), born in Hammondsville, Ohio (d. 2015)
  • Sep 6 Gilles Tremblay, Canadian composer, born in Saguenay, Canada (d. 2017)
  • Sep 7 John Paul Getty Jr., American-born British oil magnate and billionaire (Getty Oil), born onboard ship in the waters near Genoa, Italy (d. 2003)

Person of interestPatsy Cline

Sep 8 Patsy Cline [Virginia Henlsey], American country singer ("Crazy"; "I Fall To Pieces"; "Walkin' After Midnight"), born in Winchester, Virginia (d. 1963)

Country Music Singer Patsy Cline
Country Music Singer
Patsy Cline
  • Sep 10 Bo Goldman, American screenwriter (One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest), born in New York City
  • Sep 11 Sonny [Herbert Leon] Callahan, American politician (Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Alabama), born in Mobile, Alabama
  • Sep 11 Bob Packwood, American attorney and politician (U.S. Senator from Oregon), born in Portland, Oregon
  • Sep 11 Peter Anderson, English footballer (Plymouth Argyle), born in Devonport, England
  • Sep 11 Ian Hamer British jazz trumpeter and session musician (Beatles - "Got To Get You Into My Life"; Top of the Pops studio band), born in Liverpool, England (d. 2006)
  • Sep 12 Waqar Hasan, Pakistani cricket batsman (21 Tests, top score 189; member Pakistan's inaugural Test squad), born in Amritsar, Punjab, India (d. 2020)
  • Sep 13 Bengt Hallberg, Swedish jazz pianist and composer, born in Gothenburg, Sweden (d. 2013)
  • Sep 14 Harry Sinden, Canadian NHL player and coach (Team Canada), born in Weston, Ontario, Canada
  • Sep 14 Joshua Culbreath, American 400m hurdler (Olympic bronze 1956), born in Norristown, Pennsylvania
  • Sep 14 John Tembo, Malawian politician (President of the Malawi Congress Party), born in Dedza District, Malawi
  • Sep 16 Mickey Stewart, English cricketer and team manager (England Cricket Team), born in Herne Hill, England

  • Sep 16 Joan Tabor, American actress (Teenage Millionaire), born in Sioux Falls, South Dakota (d. 1968)
  • Sep 17 Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani, Emir of Qatar (1972-95), born in Rayyan (d. 2016)
  • Sep 18 Jack Mullaney, American actor (My Living Doll, It's About Time), born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (d. 1982)
  • Sep 18 Nikolay Rukavishnikov, Soviet cosmonaut (Soyuz 10, 16, 33), born in Tomsk, Russia (d. 2002)
  • Sep 18 Valery Ryumin, Soviet cosmonaut (Soyuz 25, 32/34, 35/37), born in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Russia
  • Sep 19 Mike Royko, American journalist (Chicago Daily News) and author (Boss), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1997)
  • Sep 21 Don Preston, American rock musician (Mothers Of Invention), born in Flint, Michigan
  • Sep 22 Ingemar Johansson, Swedish world heavyweight boxing champ (1952)
  • Sep 24 Svetlana Beriosova, Lithuanian-British ballerina, born in Kaunas, Lithuania (d. 1998)
  • Sep 24 Dominique Michel, French-Canadian comedian, born in Sorel-Tracy, Quebec, Canada
  • Sep 25 Andrew Gardner, British newscaster (News at Ten), born in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire (d. 1999)
  • Sep 25 Glenn Gould, Canadian pianist (sued Steinway Piano), born in Toronto, Ontario (d. 1982)
  • Sep 25 Terry Medwin, Welsh footballer (Tottenham Hotspur), born in Swansea, Glamorgan, Wales

Person of interestManmohan Singh

Sep 26 Manmohan Singh, Indian politician, 13th Prime Minister of India (2004-14), born in Gah, British India

Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Indian Prime Minister
Manmohan Singh
  • Sep 26 Clifton Williams, American major and NASA astronaut, born in Mobile, Alabama (d. 1967)
  • Sep 26 Giacomo Manzoni, Italian composer, born in Milan, Italy
  • Sep 26 Richard Herd, American actor (V: The Final Battle), born in Boston, Massachusetts
  • Sep 26 Vladimir Voinovich, Russian writer and dissident (Moscow 2042), born in Stalinabad, Tajik SSR, Soviet Union (d. 2018)
  • Sep 27 Mario Bertoncini, Italian composer, born in Rome, Italy (d. 2019)
  • Sep 27 Peter Holmes, British businessman, Chairperson of Royal Dutch Shell, born in Athens (d. 2002)
  • Sep 27 Roger C. Carmel, American actor (Harry Mudd-Star Trek, In-Laws), born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 1986)
  • Sep 27 Oliver Williamson, American economist (Nobel Prize for Economics 2009), born in Superior, Wisconsin (d. 2020)
  • Sep 27 Yash Chopra, Indian director (Waqt), born in Lahore, British India (d. 2012)
  • Sep 27 Geoff Bent, English soccer fullback (Manchester United 12 games; died Munich air disaster), born in Salford, Lancashire (d. 1958)
  • Sep 28 Michael G[reatrex] Coney, Canadian sci-fi author (Cat Karina)
  • Sep 28 Víctor Jara, Chilean folk singer and activist (d. 1973)
  • Sep 29 Canon Paul Oestreicher, CEO (British section, Amnesty International
  • Sep 29 Jeremy Isaacs, general director (Royal Opera House, Covent Garden)
  • Sep 29 Mary Moon, Headmistress (Manchester High School for Girls)
  • Sep 29 Peter Stormonth Darling, CEO (Mercury Asset Management Group)

  • Sep 29 Robert Benton, American writer/director (Kramer vs Kramer), born in Waxahachie, Texas
  • Sep 29 Ronald B Kitaj, US/British painter and graphic artist (pop art)
  • Sep 29 Mehmood [Ali], Indian actor, singer, director and producer (Do Phoo!, Vardaan), born in Bombay, British India (d. 2004)
  • Sep 29 Rainer Weiss, American Physicist (Nobel Prize 2017, LIGO), born in Berlin, Germany
  • Sep 30 Shintaro Ishihara, Japanese author and politician (Governor of Tokyo)
  • Sep 30 Johnny Podres, American baseball player (d. 2008)
  • Oct 1 Albert Collins, Leona TX, blues guitarist (Frosty, Showdown)
  • Oct 2 Maury Wills, American baseball shortstop and manager (7-time MLB All Star; NL MVP 1962), born in Washington, D.C.
  • Oct 2 Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, Irish paramilitary and political leader of Sinn Féin, born in Longford, Ireland (d. 2013)
  • Oct 4 Felicia Farr [Olive Dines], American model and actress (Charley Varrick, Kotch), born in Westchester, New York
  • Oct 4 Milan Chvostek, Canadian television director
  • Oct 5 Madhav Apte, Indian cricketer (bro of Arvind 7 Tests for India, 1 century), born in Mumbai, India
  • Oct 5 Yvonne Brathwaite Burke, American politician (first African-American woman to represent the West Coast in Congress), born in Los Angeles, California
  • Oct 6 Gloria Lane, educator/author/founder (Women's International Center)
  • Oct 7 Joannes M Gijsen, Bishop of Roermond, born in Oeffelt, Netherlands (d. 2013)
  • Oct 8 Ray Reardon, Welsh snooker player, born in Tredegar, Monmouthshire, Wales
  • Oct 8 Pete Drake, American pedal steel guitarist and producer, born in Augusta, Georgia (d. 1988)
  • Oct 9 Judy Tyler [Judith Mae Hess], American actress (Jailhouse Rock, Bop Girl Goes Calypso) and Miss Stardust (1949), born in Los Angeles, California (d. 1957)
  • Oct 11 Dottie West, American country singer (Here Comes My Baby), born in Nashville, Tennessee (d. 1991)
  • Oct 12 Dick Gregory, American comedian, civil rights activist and dietician (Bahamian Diet), born in St. Louis, Missouri (d. 2017)
  • Oct 12 Dusan Makavejev, Serbian film director (Man is Not a Bird), born in Belgrade, Yugoslavia
  • Oct 12 Jake Edwin Garn, American politician (Sen-R-Utah, 1974-93) and astronaut (STS 51D), born in Richfield, Utah
  • Oct 12 Joel Mandelbaum, American composer, born in New York
  • Oct 12 Ned Jarrett, American race car driver and announcer (50 Grand National victories), born in Conover, North Carolina
  • Oct 12 Vitold Kreyer, Russian athlete (Olympic bronze, triple jump 1956, 60) and coach (Soviet athletics team 1967–80; head Russian team 2000 Olympics), born in Krasnodar, Russia (d. 2020)
  • Oct 13 Jack Colvin, American actor (Incredible Hulk), born in Lyndon, Kansas (d. 2005)
  • Oct 13 Liliane Montevecchi, French-Italian actress, dancer, and singer (Nine, Grand Hotel), born in Paris, France (d. 2018)
  • Oct 14 Anatoly Larkin, Russian-American physicist, born in Kolomna, Russia (d. 2005)
  • Oct 14 Enrico di Giuseppe, American tenor, born in Philadelphia (d. 2005)
  • Oct 15 Jaan Raats, Estonian composer, born in Tartu, Estonia

  • Oct 15 Riekus Waskowsky, Dutch poet, born in Rotterdam (d. 1977)
  • Oct 16 Henry Jay Lewis, conductor/bass (LA Philharmonic 1955-59), born in Los Angeles, California
  • Oct 16 John Grant, British politician (d. 2000)
  • Oct 17 Gundaris Pone, composer
  • Oct 17 Paul Anderson, American light super heavyweight lifter (Olympic gold 1956)
  • Oct 17 William J Hughes, (Rep-D-New Jersey, 1975- )
  • Oct 18 Vytautas Landsbergis, Lithuanian politician
  • Oct 19 Lloyd Haynes, American actor and TV writer (Pete Dixon-Room 222), born in South Bend, Indiana (d. 1987)
  • Oct 19 Robert Reed, American actor (Mike-Brady Bunch, Nurse), born in Highland Park, Illinois (d. 1992)
  • Oct 20 Roosevelt Brown, Virginia, NFL hall of fame tackle (NY Giants)
  • Oct 20 William Christopher, American comedian and actor (Father Mulcahy-M*A*S*H), born in Evanston, Illinois (d. 2016)
  • Oct 20 Rosey Brown, American football player (d. 2004)
  • Oct 23 Dimitra Arliss [Arlys], American actress (Rich Man Poor Man II, The Sting), born in Lorain, Ohio (d. 2012)
  • Oct 23 Vasily Belov, Northern Krai, USSR, author (Business as Usual, Everything's Ahead), (d. 2012)
  • Oct 24 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, French physicist and Nobel Prize laureate (1991), born in Paris, France (d. 2007)

Person of interestRobert Mundell

Oct 24 Robert Mundell, Canadian economist and Nobel laureate (1999) "father of the euro", born in Kingston, Ontario

Economist/Nobel Laureate Robert Mundell
Economist/Nobel Laureate
Robert Mundell
  • Oct 24 Johnny Lattner, American College Football Hall of Fame halfback (Heisman Trophy 1953, Notre Dame; Pro Bowl 1954, Pittsburgh Steelers), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 2016)
  • Oct 26 Anthony Beilenson, American politician (Rep-D-California, 1977-97), born in New York
  • Oct 26 Chinadorai Deshmutu, Indian field hockey player (1952 Olympics)
  • Oct 27 Jean-Pierre Cassel, French actor (Trout), born in Paris, France (d. 2007)
  • Oct 27 Kathy Cornelius, American golfer (US Open 1956), born in Boston, Massachusetts

Person of interestSylvia Plath

Oct 27 Sylvia Plath, American poet and novelist (Colossus, 3 Women, Bell Jar), born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1963)

Author and Poet Sylvia Plath
Author and Poet
Sylvia Plath
  • Oct 27 Harry Gregg, Irish soccer goalkeeper (25 caps Northern Ireland; Manchester United) and manager (Shrewsbury Town, Swansea, Crewe Alexandra), born in Magherafelt, Northern Ireland (d. 2020)
  • Oct 29 Dick Garmaker, American basketball guard (NBA All Star 1957-60; Minneapolis Lakers), born in Hibbing, Minnesota (d. 2020)
  • Oct 30 Louis Malle, French film director (Atlantic City, Black Moon, Viva Maria), born in Thumeries, Nord, France (d. 1995)
  • Oct 30 Barun De, Indian historian, born in Calcutta, India (d. 2013)
  • Nov 1 John Clark, British actor and director (The Two of Us, Saint Joan), born in London, England
  • Nov 1 Al Arbour, Canadian Hockey Hall of Fame defenceman, coach and executive (coach NY Islanders Stanley Cup 1980-83), born in Sudbury, Ontario (d. 2015)
  • Nov 2 Henri Namphy, President of Haiti (1986-88), born in Cap-Haïtien, Haiti
  • Nov 2 Romano Mazzoli, American politician (Rep-D-KY, 1971-95), born in Louisville, Kentucky

  • Nov 2 Melvin Schwartz, American Physicist and Nobel Laureate (neutrinos - subatomic particles with no electric charge and virtually no mass), born in NYC, New York
  • Nov 2 George Sholty, American harness driver (2,934 career wins; $20 million+ purse money), born in Logansport, Indiana (d. 2000)
  • Nov 3 Thomas J Manton, (Rep-D-NY, 1985- )
  • Nov 4 David Shipman, English film historian, born in Norwich, Norfolk, England (d. 1996)
  • Nov 4 Noam Pitlik, American actor and director (Sanford & Son, Bob Newhart), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1999)
  • Nov 4 Thomas Klestil, President of Austria (1992-2004), born in Vienna, Austria (d. 2004)
  • Nov 5 Arthur L. Liman, American trial lawyer (Oliver North), born in NYC, New York
  • Nov 5 Salvatore Bonanno, American mafioso and son of crime boss Joseph Bonanno, born in NYC, New York (d. 2008)
  • Nov 6 Stonewall Jackson, American country music musician, born in Tabor City, North Carolina
  • Nov 6 Ron Saunders, English soccer striker (Portsmouth) and manager (Manchester City, Aston Villa, Birmingham City), born in Birkenhead, England (d. 2019)
  • Nov 7 Yrrah [Harry Lammertink], Dutch cartoonist (Vrij Netherland), born in Apeldoorn, Netherlands (d. 1996)
  • Nov 8 Richard E. Lawyer, American astronaut, born in Los Angeles, California
  • Nov 8 Stephane Audran, French actress (Just Before Nightfall), born in Versailles, France (d. 2018)
  • Nov 8 Ben Bova, American sci-fi author (Exiled from Earth), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Nov 9 Marian Christy, American author (Invasions of Privacy), born in Ridgefield, Connecticut
  • Nov 10 Roy Scheider, American actor (Jaws, The French Connection, Marathon Man, Paper Lion), born in Orange, New Jersey (d. 2008)
  • Nov 11 Al Levitt, American jazz drummer, born in NYC, New York (d. 1994)
  • Nov 13 Olga Connolly-Fikotova, US discus thrower (Olympic gold 1956), born in Libiš, Czech Republic
  • Nov 13 Richard Mulligan, American actor (Soap, Empty's Nest, Big Bus), born in The Bronx, New York (d. 2000)