Famous Birthdays on July 10

Birthdays 1 - 200 of 244

  • 1419 Emperor Go-Hanazono, 102nd Emperor of Japan (d. 1471)
  • 1452 King James III of Scotland (1460-88), born in Stirling or St Andrews Castles (d. 1488)

Person of interestJohn Calvin

1509 John Calvin [Jehan Cauvin], Protestant religious reformer and theologian (Calvinism), born in Picardy, France (d. 1564)

Protestant Reformer and Theologian John Calvin
Protestant Reformer and Theologian
John Calvin
  • 1517 Odet de Coligny, Cardinal of Châtillon and count of Beauvais, born in Châtillon-Coligny, France (d. 1571)
  • 1592 Pierre d'Hozier, French genealogist, born in Marseille, France (d. 1660)
  • 1614 Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, English royalist statesman, born in Dublin, Ireland (d. 1686)
  • 1625 Jean Herauld Gourville, French adventurer, born in La Rochefoucauld, France (d. 1703)
  • 1638 David Teniers III, Flemish painter, born in Antwerp, Belgium (d. 1685)
  • 1666 John Ernest Grabe, German-born Anglican theologian, born in Königsberg (d. 1711)
  • 1682 Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg, German Lutheran missionary to India, born in Pulsnitz, Saxony (d. 1719)
  • 1682 Roger Cotes, English mathematician (Newton–Cotes formulas), born in Burbage, Leicestershire, England (d. 1716)
  • 1697 Francois Hanot, French composer and violinist, born in Dunkirk (d. 1770)
  • 1711 Princess Amelia Sophia of Great Britain, second daughter of King George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach, born in Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover (d. 1783)

Person of interestWilliam Blackstone

1723 William Blackstone, English jurist (Blackstone's Commentaries), born in London, England (d. 1780)

  • 1736 Maria, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, born in St James's, Westminster, Middlesex (d. 1807)
  • 1759 Eleanore Sophia Maria Westenholz, German composer (d. 1838)

  • 1778 Sigismund Ritter von Neukomm, Austrian composer and royal chaplain master, born in Salzburg, Austria (d. 1858)
  • 1779 Alois Basil Nikolaus Tomasini, Italian violinist and composer, born in Pesaro, Italy (d. 1858)
  • 1792 George Mifflin Dallas, American politician (11th Vice President of the United States) and United States Minister to Russia, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1864)
  • 1797 Piet [Petrus Lafras] Uys, South African pioneer (Great Pull), born in Potberg, Swellendam, South Africa (d. 1838)
  • 1804 Emma Smith, Inaugural President of the Women's Relief Society of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, born in Harmony Township, Pennsylvania (d. 1879)
  • 1808 Solomon Northup, American abolitionist and author (12 Years a Slave), born Minerva, New York (or 10 Jul 1807) (d. 1863)
  • 1809 Friedrich August Quenstedt, German geologist and paleontologist, born in Eisleben, Saxony (d. 1889)
  • 1818 John Stuart Williams, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Mount Sterling, Kentucky (d. 1898)
  • 1820 Andrew Porter, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania (d. 1872)
  • 1821 Christopher Columbus Augur, American Major General (Union Army), born in Kendall, New York (d. 1898)
  • 1824 Rudolf von Bennigsen, German lawyer and politician, born in Lüneburg, Hanover (d. 1902)
  • 1826 Theodore Lajarte, French writer on music and composer, born in Bordeaux, France (d. 1890)

Person of interestCamille Pissarro

1830 Camille Pissarro, Danish Antillean and French painter (Impressionism), born in Charlotte Amalie, Saint Thomas, Danish West Indies (now US Virgin Islands) (d. 1903)

  • 1832 Alvan Graham Clark, American telescope maker and astronomer (Sirius B), born in Fall River, Massachusetts (d. 1897)
  • 1833 Lucius E. Polk, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Salisbury, North Carolina (d. 1892)
  • 1834 James Abbott McNeill Whistler, American-British painter (Whistler's Mother), born in Lowell, Massachusetts (d. 1903)
  • 1835 Henryk Wieniawski, Polish violinist and composer (Souv de Moscou), born in Lubin, Poland (d. 1880)
  • 1839 Adolphus Busch, German-born American brewer (Anheuser-Busch), born in Mainz, Hesse, Germany (d. 1913)
  • 1852 Alfred von Kiderlen-Wächter, German foreign minister, born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, Germany (d. 1912)
  • 1854 James T. Kelley, Irish actor (The Rink, The Immigrant), born in Castlebar, Ireland (d. 1933)

Person of interestNikola Tesla

1856 Nikola Tesla, Serbian-American physicist, electrical engineer and inventor, developed alternating current and the Tesla Coil, born in Smiljan, Austrian Empire (now Croatia) (d. 1943)

Electrical and Mechanical Engineer Nikola Tesla
Electrical and Mechanical Engineer
Nikola Tesla
  • 1858 Karl Flodin, Finnish composer and critic, born in Vassa (d. 1925)
  • 1865 Johannes "Pa" van der Steur, Dutch missionary and philanthropist (Steurtjes), born in Haarlem, Netherlands (d. 1945)
  • 1867 Finley Peter Dunne, American journalist and humorist (Mr Dooley), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1936)
  • 1867 Maximilian, Prince of Baden, German chancellor (Oct-Nov 1918), born in Baden-Baden, Germany (d. 1929)

  • 1870 Maurice Lugeon, Swiss geologist (nappism), born in Poissy, France (d. 1953)
  • 1871 Marcel Proust, French intellectual and novelist (Remembrance of Things Past), born in Paris, France (d. 1922)
  • 1874 Austin Diamond, Australian cricketer (NSW batsman 1899-1919, Aust), born in Huddersfield, Yorkshire, England (d. 1966)
  • 1874 Sergey Konenkov, Russian sculptor, born in Verkhniye Karakovichi, Russia (d. 1971)
  • 1875 Mary McLeod Bethune, American educator (Bethune-Cookman College) and civil rights leader, born in Maysville, South Carolina (d. 1955)
  • 1879 Harry Nicholls Holmes, American chemist (crystallized vitamin A), born in Fayetteville, Pennsylvania (d. 1958)
  • 1882 Ima Hogg, American society leader, Texas art patron and founder of Houston Symphony, born in Mineola, Texas (d. 1975)
  • 1882 Riccardo Pick-Mangiagalli, Italian composer, born in Strakonice, Czech Republic (d. 1949)
  • 1883 Johann Blaskowitz, German general (surrendered at Wageningen), born in Peterswalde, Germany (d. 1948)
  • 1883 Sam Wood, American communist fighter and director (For Whom the Bell Tolls), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1949)
  • 1886 John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort, British soldier, Field Marshal during WW II, born in London, England (d. 1946)
  • 1887 Alfred Ernest Whitehead, English-Canadian composer, born in Peterborough, Cambridgeshire, England (d. 1974)
  • 1888 Giorgio De Chirico, Italian painter (founded the scuola metafisica art movement), born in Volos, Greece (d. 1978)
  • 1888 Graham McNamee, American early sportscaster (1st Rose Bowl), born in Washington D. C. (d. 1942)
  • 1888 Toyohiko Kagawa, Japanese Christian-social reformer (Grain of Wheat), born in Kōbe, Japan (d. 1960)
  • 1889 Robert [Harriot] Barrat, American actor (Bad Lands, Go West, Distant Drums), born in NYC, New York (d. 1970)
  • 1890 André Souris, Belgian composer, born in Marchienne-au-Pont, Belgium (d. 1970)
  • 1892 George "Slim" Summerville, American actor (All Quiet on the Western Front, Keystone Cops), born in Albuquerque, New Mexico (d. 1946)
  • 1894 Jimmy McHugh, American composer, born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1969)
  • 1895 Carl Orff, German composer (Antigonae; Mozart prize 1969), born in Munich, Germany (d. 1982)
  • 1895 Maarten Pleun Vrij, Dutch lawyer and criminologist, born in Amsterdam, Netherlands (d. 1955)
  • 1895 Nahum Goldmann, Israeli-Zionist leader (Zionist World Organization), born in Wisznewo, Lithuania (d. 1982)
  • 1896 Thérèse Casgrain, French Canadian politician and senator, born in Montreal, Quebec (d. 1981)
  • 1897 Lloyd Goodrich, American Arts Museum director, born in Nutley, New Jersey (d. 1987)
  • 1897 Karl Plagge, German officer and Nazi Party member who during World War II used his position as a staff officer in the German Army to employ and protect some 1,240 Jews, born in Darmstadt, Germany (d. 1957)
  • 1897 Jack "Legs" Diamond, American gangster and bootlegger, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1931)
  • 1899 John Gilbert, American actor, screenwriter and director (The Hater of Men, Man, Woman and Sin), born in Logan, Utah (d. 1936)
  • 1899 Heiri Suter, Swiss cyclist, born in Gränichen, Switzerland (d. 1978)
  • 1900 Bob Catterall, South African cricketer (dashing South African batsman of 20's), born in Port Elizabeth, South Africa (d. 1961)
  • 1900 [Elsie] Evelyn Laye, English singer and actress (Bitter Sweet, Merry Widow), born in London, England (d. 1996)
  • 1900 Sampson Sievers, Russian Orthodox Christian monk, priest and wonder-worker, born in Saint Petersburg, Russia (d. 1979)
  • 1900 Mitchell Parish, American lyricist, born in Lithuania, Russian Empire (d. 1993)
  • 1902 Günther Weisenborn, German writer and German Resistance fighter, born in Velbert (d. 1969)
  • 1902 Kurt Alder, German chemist (Nobel 1950), born in Königshütte, Upper Silesia (d.1958)
  • 1903 John Wyndham, American sci-fi author (Day of the Triffids), born in Dorridge, Warwickshire, England (d. 1969)
  • 1904 Iša Krejčí, Czech composer, born in Prague (d. 1968)
  • 1905 Thomas Gomez, American actor (Force of Evil, Key Largo, Kim, Sellout), born in NYC, New York (d. 1971)
  • 1905 Wolfram Sievers, Nazi physician, born in Hildesheim, Germany (d. 1948)
  • 1908 Cootie Williams, American jazz trumpeter, born in Mobile, Alabama (d. 1985)
  • 1909 Donald William Sinclair, co–proprietor of the Gleneagles Hotel and the inspiration for the character Basil Fawlty in Fawlty Towers (d. 1981)
  • 1910 Ronald Fletcher, British broadcaster (Barbara with Braden, Bomber Harris), born in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England (d. 1996)
  • 1911 Djuanda Kartawidjaja, 11th and final Prime Minister of Indonesia, born in Tasikmalaya, West Java, Dutch East Indies (d. 1963)
  • 1911 Terry-Thomas [Thomas Terry Stevens], British actor (It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World), born in Finchley, London, England (d. 1990)
  • 1912 Francis Showering, English brewer, born in Shepton Mallet, Somerset, England (d. 1995)
  • 1913 Ljuba Welitsch, Bulgarian Austrian opera soprano (Nedda-Pagliacci), born in Borisovo, Bulgaria (d. 1996)
  • 1913 Salvador Espriu, Spanish poet, born in Santa Coloma de Farners, Spain (d. 1985)
  • 1914 Joe Shuster, Canadian-American cartoonist (co-creator of Superman), born in Toronto, Ontario (d. 1992)
  • 1916 Dick Cary, American jazz musician, born in Hartford, Connecticut (d. 1994)
  • 1917 Don Herbert, American scientist and TV host (Watch Mr Wizard), born in Waconia, Minnesota (d. 2007)
  • 1917 Reg Smythe, English cartoonist (Andy Capp), born in Hartlepool, County Durham, England (d. 1998)
  • 1917 Hugh Alexander, American baseball player, born in Buffalo, Missouri (d. 2000)
  • 1919 Ralph "Rusty" Gill,, American singer (Polka Time), born in St Louis, Missouri (d. 2008)
  • 1920 David Brinkley, American NBC news anchor (Huntley-Brinkley), born in Wilmington, North Carolina (d. 2003)
  • 1920 Owen Chamberlain, American physicist (antiproton, Nobel-1959), born in San Francisco, California (d. 2006)
  • 1921 Eunice Shriver, sister of President John F. Kennedy and founder (Special Olympics), born in Brookline, Massachusetts (d. 2009)
  • 1921 Jean "Jeff" Donnell, American actress (Gidget Goes to Rome, Hoedown, 9 Girls), born in Windham, Maine (d. 1988)
  • 1921 Revaz Il'yich Lagidze, Georgian composer (Tbiliso), born in Baghdati (d. 1981)
  • 1921 Harvey Ball, American inventor and designer of a popular smiley graphic picture, born in Worcester, Massachusetts (d. 2001)

Person of interestJake LaMotta

1922 Jake LaMotta, American middleweight boxing champion (1949-51) (portrayed in Raging Bull), born in The Bronx, New York (d. 2017)

World Middleweight Boxing Champion Jake LaMotta
World Middleweight Boxing Champion
Jake LaMotta
  • 1922 Herb McKenley, Jamaican 4 X 400m relay runner (Olympic gold 1952), born in Pleasant Valley, Clarendon, Jamaica (d. 2007)
  • 1923 Earl Hamner Jr., American creator and narrator of TV show "The Waltons", born in Schuyler, Virginia (d. 2016)
  • 1923 Jean Kerr, Irish-American novelist (Please Don't Eat the Daisies), born in Scranton, Pennsylvania (d. 2003)
  • 1923 G. A. Kulkarni, Indian (Marathi) writer (RamalKhuna), born in Examba, Karnataka (d. 1987)
  • 1923 John Bradley, United States Navy corpsman, one of six who raised flag on top of Mt. Suribachi (see Iwo Jima), born in Antigo, Wisconsin (d. 1994)
  • 1923 Amalia Mendoza, Mexican singer (Échame a mi la culpa), born in Huetamo de Núñez, Michoacán, Mexico (d. 2001)
  • 1923 Suzanne Cloutier, Canadian film actress (Othello), born in Ottawa, Ontario (d. 2003)
  • 1924 Bobo Brazil [Houston Harris], American professional wrestler, born in Little Rock, Arkansas (d. 1998)
  • 1924 Johnny Bach, American basketball player and coach, born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 2016)
  • 1925 Dorothea Hochleitner, Austrian giant slalom (Olympic bronze 1956), born in Bad Gastein, Austria (d. 2012)
  • 1926 Carleton Carpenter, American actor, magician, songwriter, and novelist (Up Periscope, Summer Stock), born in Bennington, Vermont

  • 1926 Fred Gwynne, American actor (Car 54 Where Are You, Munsters), born in NYC, New York (d. 1993)
  • 1927 David Dinkins, American politician (1st African American Mayor-D- 1990-93), born in NYC, New York
  • 1927 Don Revie, English footballer and soccer manager (Leeds and England), born in Middlesbrough, North Riding of Yorkshire, England (d. 1989)
  • 1927 William Smithers, American actor (Witness, Peyton Place, Attack!), born in Richmond, Virginia
  • 1927 Grigory Barenblatt, Russian mathematician, born in Moscow, Russia (d. 2018)
  • 1928 Jack Nel, South African cricketer (South African opening bat in 6 Tests 1949-57), born in Cape Town, South Africa (d. 2018)
  • 1928 Moshe Greenberg, American-Israeli Bible scholar, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 2010)
  • 1928 Alejandro de Tomaso, Argentine-Italian racing driver and car manufacturer, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina (d. 2003)
  • 1928 Bernard Buffet, French painter (Expressionism), born in Paris (d. 1999)
  • 1929 Moe Norman, Canadian Tour golfer (1966 Quebec Open), born in Kitchener, Ontario
  • 1929 Winnie Ewing, Scottish lawyer and politician (President of the Scottish National Party), born in Glasgow, Scotland
  • 1930 Jacques Klein, Brazilian pianist and composer, born in Aracati, Ceará, Brazil (d. 1982)
  • 1931 Alice Munro, Canadian author (Dance of the Happy Shades) and Nobel laureate 2013, born in Wingham, Ontario, Canada
  • 1931 Del Insko, harness racer (toothpick in mouth, 1969 money leader), born in Amboy, Minnesota
  • 1931 Julian May, American sci-fi author (Golden Torc, Magnificat), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 2017)
  • 1931 Nick Adams [Nicholas Aloysius Adamshock], American actor (Johnny Yuma-Rebel), born in Nanticoke, Pennsylvania (d. 1968)
  • 1932 Jürgen Becker, German writer, born in Cologne, Germany
  • 1932 Carlo Mario Abate, Italian racing driver, born in Turin, Italy
  • 1933 Chuan-Kwang Yang, Taiwanese decathlete (Olympic silver 1960), born in Taitung, Taiwan (d. 2007)
  • 1933 Jerry Herman, American composer (Hello Dolly), born in NYC, New York
  • 1934 Munir Malik, Pakistani cricket pace bowler (3 Tests 1959-62), born in Leiah, British India (d. 2012)
  • 1934 Jerry Nelson, American puppeteer, born in Tulsa, Oklahoma (d. 2012)
  • 1935 Tura Satana, Japanese-American actress (Faster, Pussycat! Kill! Kill!), born in Hokkaidō, Japan (d. 2012)
  • 1935 Wilson Whineray, New Zealand All Black rugby player (1957-65), born in Auckland, New Zealand (d. 2012)
  • 1936 Barbara B. Kennelly, American politician (U.S. House of Representatives from Connecticut), born in Hartford, Connecticut
  • 1936 Jan Wincenty Hawel, Polish composer, born in Pszów, Poland
  • 1937 Sandy Stewart, American singer (Sing Along With Mitch, Mr President), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • 1938 Paul Andreu, French architect, born in Gironde, France
  • 1938 Lee Morgan, American hard-bop trumpeter, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1972)
  • 1939 Lawrence Pressman, American actor (Man From Atlantis, Hellstrom Chronicle), born in Cynthiana, Kentucky
  • 1939 Ahmet Taner Kışlalı, Turkish politician, journalist, and educator, born in Zile, Tokat, Turkey (d. 1999)
  • 1939 Mavis Staples, American gospel singer (The Staple Sisters), born in Chicago, Illinois
  • 1940 Dawie [David Jacobus] de Villiers, South African minister of energy, born in Burgersdorp, Cape Province
  • 1940 Keith Stackpole, Australian cricketer (aggressive Australian opener 1966-74), born in Collingwood, Australia
  • 1940 Mills Watson, American actor (Harper Valley PTA, BJ & Bear), born in Oakland, California
  • 1940 Helen Donath, American soprano, born in Corpus Christi, Texas
  • 1940 Tom Farmer, Scottish entrepreneur, born in Leith, Edinburgh, Scotland
  • 1941 Ian Whitcomb, English rocker (You Turn Me On), born in Woking, Surrey
  • 1941 Pyotr Ilyich Klimuk, Polish cosmonaut (Soyuz 13, 18B, 30), born in Komarovka, Belarus
  • 1941 Robert Pine, American actor (Joe Getraer-CHiPs), born in Scarsdale, New York

  • 1941 David G. Hartwell, American editor and anthologist, born in Salem, Massachusetts (d. 2016)
  • 1941 Jake Eberts, film producer (Chariots of Fire, Dances with Wolves), born in Montreal, Quebec (d. 2012)
  • 1942 Ronnie James Dio [Ronald James Padavona], American singer, songwriter and musician (Elf, Rainbow, Black Sabbath, Dio, and Heaven & Hell), born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire (d. 2010)

Person of interestArthur Ashe

1943 Arthur Ashe, American tennis player (3 Grand Slam singles titles), born in Richmond, Virginia (d. 1993)

Tennis Player Arthur Ashe
Tennis Player
Arthur Ashe
  • 1943 Jerry Miller, American songwriter and rock guitarist (Moby Grape), born in Tacoma, Washington
  • 1944 Beaky, rocker (Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick & Tich)
  • 1945 Ron Glass, American actor (Barney Miller, Frank's Place), born in Evansville, Indiana (d. 2016)

Person of interestVirginia Wade

1945 Virginia Wade, English tennis star (Wimbledon 1977), born in Bournemouth, England

Tennis Player and Three-Time Major Champion Virginia Wade
Tennis Player and Three-Time Major Champion
Virginia Wade
  • 1945 John Motson, British sports (football) commentator, born in Salford, Lancashire, England
  • 1945 Jean-Marie Poiré, French film director, born in Paris
  • 1945 Peter Michalica, Slovak violinist, born in Kremnica, Slovakia
  • 1946 Sue Lyon, American actress (Lolita, Night of the Iguana), born in Davenport, Iowa
  • 1947 Arlo Guthrie, American singer (Alice's Restaurant, City of New Orleans), born in Brooklyn, New York
  • 1947 John Trevor Key, British photographer (d. 1995)
  • 1949 Dave Smalley, American rocker (Raspberries)
  • 1949 Mark Shera, American actor (SWAT, Barnaby Jones), born in Bayonne, New Jersey
  • 1949 Sunil Gavaskar, Indian cricket player (opener, 10122 Test runs), born in Bombay, India
  • 1949 Greg Kihn, American pop musician and radio personality, born in Baltimore, Maryland
  • 1949 John C. Whitehead, American singer (McFadden & Whitehead), born in Evanston, Illinois (d. 2004)
  • 1950 Willie Ford, American R&B singer (Dramatics-Me & Mrs Jones), born in LaGrange, Georgia
  • 1950 Prokopis Pavlopoulos, 7th President of Greece, born in Kalamata, Greece
  • 1951 Phyllis Smith, American actress (Phyllis Vance-The Office), born in The Hill, St. Louis, Missouri
  • 1951 Cheryl Wheeler, American singer and songwriter, born in Timonium, Maryland
  • 1952 Ludmilla Tourischeva, Russian gymnast (nine-time Olympic medalist for the Soviet Union), born in Grozny, Russia
  • 1952 Kim Mitchell, Canadian guitarist and singer, born in Sarnia, Ontario
  • 1952 Peter van Heemst, Dutch politician (Labour Party), born in Rotterdam, Netherlands
  • 1953 Rik "The Rocket" Emmett, rock vocalist (Triumph), born in Toronto, Ontario

Person of interestAndre Dawson

1954 Andre Dawson, American MLB outfielder (Expos, Cubs, 1987 NL MVP), born in Miami, Florida

MLB Star Andre Dawson
MLB Star
Andre Dawson
  • 1954 Gene Holder, American musician (the dBs)
  • 1954 Neil Tennant, English singer and songwriter (Pet Shop Boy-West End Girl), born in North Shields, Northumberland, England
  • 1956 Tom McClintock, American politician (U.S. House of Representatives from California), born in White Plains, New York
  • 1957 Cindy Sheehan, American anti-war and political activist, born in Inglewood, California
  • 1958 Béla Fleck, American banjo player, born in NYC, New York
  • 1958 Fiona Shaw, Irish actress and theatre and opera director, born in County Cork, Munster, Ireland
  • 1960 Roger Craig, Americna football NFL reciever (SF 49ers), born in Davenport, Iowa
  • 1961 Jacky Cheung, Hong Kong singer and actor (Bullet in the Head), born in Hong Kong
  • 1962 Mike Saxon, American NFL punter (Minnesota Vikings), born in Whittier, California
  • 1964 Felipe Martinez, jockey
  • 1964 Urban Meyer, American football coach
  • 1964 Wilfried Peeters, Belgian cyclist
  • 1965 Buddy Groom, pitcher (Oakland A's), born in Dallas, Texas
  • 1965 Scott Michael McCarron, PGA golfer (1995 Las Vegas-3rd), born in Sacramento, California
  • 1965 Alec Mapa, Filipino-American actor and comedian
  • 1965 Ken Mellons, American singer
  • 1965 Princess Alexia of Greece and Denmark
  • 1966 Alvoid Mays, NFL cornerback (Pittsburgh Steelers)
  • 1966 Johnny Grunge, wrestler (d. 2006)
  • 1967 Alfred Jackson, NFL cornerback (Minnesota Vikings)
  • 1967 Virgil Breedveld, soccer player (Dordrecht '90)