French History (Part 24)

Historical Events

Events 2301 - 2,322 of 2,322

  • 2018-06-12 French photographer Jean-Claude Arnault, at center of Nobel Prize Committee scandal, charged with rape in Sweden
  • 2018-06-16 World Cup: Video Assistant Referee (VAR) technology is used for the first time, awarding France a penalty in 2-1 win over Australia in Kazan
  • 2018-06-27 French government introduces plan to bring back national service for 16 year-olds

Sport awardFIFA World Cup

2018-06-30 FIFA World Cup: Kylian Mbappé (19) becomes only 2nd teenager (Pelé 1st 1958) to score twice in a world cup match as France eliminate Argentina 4-3 in Kazan

Footballer Kylian Mbappé
Kylian Mbappé
  • 2018-07-01 French gangster Redoine Faid escapes the Sud-Francilien prison in Réau, France by helicopter

Event of interestEvent of Interest

2018-07-03 French President Emmanuel Macron visits the New Afrika Shrine nightclub in Lagos during his two-day tour of Nigeria

President of France Emmanuel Macron
President of France
Emmanuel Macron

Sport awardFIFA World Cup

2018-07-15 FIFA World Cup Final, Luzhniki Stadium, Moscow, Russia: Former captain Didier Deschamps becomes only the 3rd man to win the event as a player and coach as France beats Croatia, 4-2

Football Player and Coach Didier Deschamps
Football Player and Coach
Didier Deschamps

PlaneWhale of a Plane!

2018-07-19 Airbus Beluga XL, painted to look like the whale, makes its first flight, landing in Toulouse-Blagnac, France

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The Airbus Beluga XL, built to transport large aircraft pieces
The Airbus Beluga XL, built to transport large aircraft pieces
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  • 2018-08-26 Moroccan pop singer Saad Lamjarred arrested in Saint-Tropez, France on a rape allegation

Sport awardFootball Awards

2018-09-24 Real Madrid midfielder & Croatian World Cup captain Luka Modrić is named world's best male player at the FIFA Awards in London; Brazil & Orlando Pride forward Marta best female player; France's Didier Deschamps best men's coach

Footballer Luka Modrić
Luka Modrić
Football Player and Coach Didier Deschamps
Football Player and Coach
Didier Deschamps
  • 2018-09-30 Chinese-French painter Zao Wou-Ki's work "Juin-Octobre 1985" sells for $65 million in Hong Kong, in one of the most expensive art auctions ever in Asia
  • 2018-10-01 French photographer Jean-Claude Arnault, at the center of a Nobel prize sexual assault scandal, sentenced to two years in prison for rape
  • 2018-10-14 Flash floods in Aude region, France kill at least 10 people
  • 2018-11-07 For second straight year France wins Six Nations Rugby Championship on points difference from Ireland, with a final round 46-19 win over Scotland at Stade de France, Saint Denis; Ireland again takes Triple Crown

Victory in BattleEnd of World War I

2018-11-11 On centenary of WWI Armistice Day French President Macron urges world to reject Nationalism in speech to under Arc de Triomphe in Paris

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This painting depicts the signing of the armistice which ended World War I in Compiegne, France
This painting depicts the signing of the armistice which ended World War I in Compiegne, France
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Event of interestEvent of Interest

2018-11-14 Jewellery that belonged to French Queen Marie Antoinette is auctioned off in Geneva, after not being seen for 200 years

Queen of France Marie Antoinette
Queen of France
Marie Antoinette
  • 2018-11-15 Africa's fastest train between Casablanca and Tangier in Morocco at 320km (198 miles) inaugurated by King Mohammed VI and French President Emmanuel Macron
  • 2018-11-17 Protests across France against rising fuel prices leave 400 injured
  • 2018-11-28 French director Luc Besson accused of sexual harassment by five more women, adding to four already made public
  • 2018-12-01 Violent demonstrations in Paris, France, by yellow-vest movement with 36,000 protesting nationwide
  • 2018-12-04 French President Emmanuel Macron drops controversial rise in fuel tax after three weeks of mass protests
  • 2018-12-04 French couture house Chanel ends its use of fur and exotic skins following bans by other companies

Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 2301 - 2,400 of 2,975

  • 1933-01-29 Sacha Distel, French singer ("Raindrops Keep Falling on My Head" cover), born in Paris, France (d. 2004)
  • 1933-02-13 Emanuel Ungaro, French fashion designer (Neiman-Marcus Award-1969)
  • 1933-02-26 James Goldsmith, corporate raider (Referendum Party), born in Paris, France

Person of interestPhilippe de Broca

1933-03-15 Philippe de Broca, French film director, born in Paris, France

Film Director Philippe de Broca
Film Director
Philippe de Broca
  • 1933-04-04 Bill France, Jr., NASCAR pioneer, born in Washington, D.C. (d. 2007)

Person of interestJean-Paul Belmondo

1933-04-09 Jean-Paul Belmondo, French actor (Casino Royale, Magnifique), born in Paris, France

  • 1933-05-18 Bernadette Chirac, French politician
  • 1933-05-21 Maurice André, French classical trumpeter and baroque revivalist, born in Alès, France (d. 2012)
  • 1933-06-17 Christian Ferras, French violinist and conductor, born in Le Touquet, France (d. 1982)
  • 1933-06-20 Jean Boiteux, French 400m freestyle swimmer (Olympic gold 1952)
  • 1933-06-22 Jacques Martin, French TV host (d. 2007)

Person of interestRoman Polanski

1933-08-18 Roman Polanski, Polish-French film director (Rosemary's Baby, Chinatown, Pirates), born in Paris, France

Film Director Roman Polanski
Film Director
Roman Polanski
  • 1933-08-18 Just Fontaine, French footballer, born in Marrakesh, Morocco
  • 1933-08-29 Ramses Shaffy, Dutch singer and cabaret actor (Zaak MP, Liefdesbekentenissen), born in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France (d. 2009)
  • 1933-09-02 Mathieu Kérékou, Dictator and President of Benin (1973-91, 1996-2006), born in Kouarfa, French Dahomey (d. 2015)
  • 1933-12-01 Violetta Verdy, French ballerina and teacher, born in Pont-l'Abbé, Brittany (d. 2016)
  • 1933-12-12 Manu Dibango, Cameroonian musician (Soul Makossa), born in Douala, French Cameroon (d. 2020)
  • 1934-01-27 Edithe Cresson, premier of France (1991-92)
  • 1934-02-27 Vincent Fourcade, French interior designer, born in Paris, France (d. 1992)
  • 1934-04-01 Vladimir Posner, Russian-French-American journalist who represented and explained the views of the Soviet Union during the Cold War, born in Paris
  • 1934-04-02 Christopher France, British permanent secretary (Department of Health) (d. 2014)
  • 1934-06-07 Philippe Entremont, French pianist and conductor (Vienna Chamber Orchestra), born in Reims, France
  • 1934-06-11 Henrik [Henri Marie Jean André de Laborde de Monpezat], Prince Consort of Denmark, born in Talence, Gironde, France (d. 2018)
  • 1934-07-01 Claude Berri, French actor, director and screenwriter, born in Paris (d. 2009)
  • 1934-07-25 Claude Zidi, French film director and screenwriter (My New Partner), born in Paris
  • 1934-08-15 Nino Ferrer, French-Italian singer and composer (Mirza, Cornichons), born in Genoa, Italy (d. 1998)
  • 1934-08-16 Pierre Richard, French actor and director (The Tall Blond Man with One Black Shoe), born in Valenciennes, Nord, France
  • 1934-08-25 Lise Bacon, French-Canadian politician, born in Salaberry-de-Valleyfield, Canada
  • 1934-08-29 Jean-Pierre Guézec, French composer (Colorful Architectures), born in Dijon (d. 1971)
  • 1934-09-03 Xavier Darasse, French organist and composer, born in Toulouse, France (d. 1992)
  • 1934-09-14 Sarah Kofman, French philosopher, born in Paris (d. 1994)
  • 1934-09-25 Jean Sorel, French actor (The Day of the Jackal), born in Marseille, France

Person of interestBrigitte Bardot

1934-09-28 Brigitte Bardot, French actress, model, animal activist and sex kitten (And God Created Women), born in Paris, France

Actress and Model Brigitte Bardot
Actress and Model
Brigitte Bardot
  • 1934-12-04 Victor French, American actor (Highway to Heaven), born in Santa Barbara, California (d. 1989)
  • 1935-04-04 François-Bernard Mâche, French composer, born in Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • 1935-06-06 Jean Gattegno, French translator and scholar, born in Paris (d. 1994)
  • 1935-06-13 Jeanne-Claude, French artist (Running Fence), born in Casablanca, French Morocco
  • 1935-06-21 Françoise Sagan [Quoirez], French novelist (Bonjour Trieste), born in Cajarc, France (d. 2004)
  • 1935-06-27 Laurent Terzieff, French actor (Head Over Heels, Milky Way), born in Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, France (d. 2010)
  • 1935-07-31 Yvon Deschamps, French-Canadian author and humorist, born in Montreal, Quebec
  • 1935-08-29 William Friedkin, American director, producer, writer (The Exorcist, The French Connection), born in Chicago, Illinois
  • 1935-09-07 Abdou Diouf, 2nd President of Senegal (1981-2000), born in Louga, French West Africa
  • 1935-11-08 Alain Delon, French actor (Honor Among Thieves, Return of Zorro), born in Sceaux, France
  • 1935-11-16 France-Albert René, 2nd President of Seychelles (1977-2004), born in Victoria, Crown Colony of Seychelles (d. 2019)
  • 1935-12-07 Jean-Claude Casadesus, French conductor, born in Paris, France
  • 1935-12-18 Jacques Pépin, French chef
  • 1936-03-01 Monique Bégin, French-Canadian politician
  • 1936-03-07 Georges Perec, French writer (Seire Noire, Retour a la bien-aimee)
  • 1936-04-07 Jean-Pierre Changeux, French neuroscientist
  • 1936-04-15 Raymond Poulidor, French professional cyclist, born in Masbaraud-Mérignat, France
  • 1936-05-16 Philippe de Montebello, art exhibitionist (Treasures of Tut), born in Paris, France
  • 1936-05-28 Claude Forget, French-Canadian politician
  • 1936-06-15 Claude Brasseur, actor (Josepha, Pardon Mon Affair), born in Paris, France
  • 1936-07-30 Infanta Pilar of Spain, Duchess of Badajoz, daughter of Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona and Princess María Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, born in Cannes, French Third Republic
  • 1936-08-01 Yves Saint Laurent, French fashion designer, born in Oran, French Algeria (d. 2008)
  • 1936-09-03 Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali, 2nd President of Tunisia (1987-2011), born in Hammam Sousse, French Tunisia (d. 2019)
  • 1936-09-29 Mylene Demongeot, Nice France, actress (3 Murderesses)
  • 1936-12-28 Jacques Mesrine, French criminal (d. 1979)
  • 1937-01-12 Marie Dubois, French actress (Wise Guys, Jules & Jim), born in Paris, France (d. 2014)
  • 1937-03-06 Paul Mefano, French composer, born in Basra, Iraq
  • 1937-07-12 Lionel Jospin, Prime Minister of France (1997-2002), born in Meudon, Hauts-de-Seine, France
  • 1937-07-28 Francis Veber, French film director and screenwriter, born in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
  • 1937-09-17 Albertine Sarrazin, French author (L'astragale, La Cavale), born in Algiers, Algeria (d. 1967)
  • 1938-01-07 Roland Topor, French illustrator (d. 1997)
  • 1938-01-13 Jean Cabut [Cabu], French caricaturist (Charlie Hebdo), born in Châlons-en-Champagne, France (d. 2015)
  • 1938-02-22 Pierre Vallières, French-Canadian politician, born in Montreal, Quebec (d. 1995)
  • 1938-02-27 Pascale Petit, French actress (Code Name: Jaguar, End of Desire), born in Paris, France
  • 1938-03-10 Marina Vlady, Clichy France, actress (Conjugal Bed, The Hunt)
  • 1938-03-13 Jean-Claude Risset, French composer, born in Le Puy-en-Velay, France (d. 2016)
  • 1938-04-20 Bernard Malivoire, French cox pair (Olympic gold 1952), born in Bergerac, Dordogne (d. 1982)
  • 1938-05-08 Jean Giraud, French comic artist (Alien, Tron), born in Val-de-Marne, French (d. 2012)
  • 1938-05-10 Jean Becker, French director, screenwriter and actor
  • 1938-05-15 Mireille Darc, French actress (Week End, Hurried Man), born in Toulon
  • 1938-06-06 Prince Luís of Orléans-Braganza, pretender to the Brazilian throne, born in Mandelieu-la-Napoule, France
  • 1938-07-10 Paul Andreu, French architect, born in Gironde, France
  • 1938-07-27 Isabelle Aubret [Thérèse Coquerelle], French singer (Un premier amour), born in Lille, France
  • 1938-07-30 Hervé de Charette, French politician, born in Paris
  • 1938-08-18 Joe Frank [Joseph Langermann], American radio personality (KCRW), born in Strasbourg, France (d. 2018)
  • 1938-08-20 Jean-Loup Chrétien, French cosmonaut (T-6, TM-7, STS 86), born in La Rochelle, France
  • 1938-08-20 Alain Vivien, French Socialist Party politician (MILS, French Mission Interministérielle pour la Lutte contre les Sectes Chairman 1998-2002), born in Melun, France
  • 1938-10-06 Serge Nubret, French bodybuilder
  • 1938-10-26 Bernadette Lafont, French actress (Perils of Gwendoline), born in Nimes, France (d. 2013)
  • 1938-11-03 Jean Rollin, French director and screenwriter
  • 1938-11-05 Joe Dassin, French-American singer (Les Champs-Élysées), born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 1980)
  • 1938-11-13 Gérald Godin, French-Canadian poet and politician, born in Trois-Rivières, Quebec (d. 1994)
  • 1938-11-30 Jean Eustache, French filmmaker
  • 1938-12-11 Enrico Macias, Algerian-French singer, born in Constantine, Algeria
  • 1939-01-01 Michèle Mercier, French actress (Angelique, Marquise des Anges.), born in Nice, France
  • 1939-02-01 Claude François, French pop singer-songwriter ("Comme d'habitude"), born in Ismaïlia, Egypt (d. 1978)
  • 1939-03-14 Bertrand Blier, novelist/director (Going Places), born in Paris, France
  • 1939-04-03 François de Roubaix, French film score composer, born in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France (d. 1975)
  • 1939-05-09 Pierre Desproges, French humorist (d. 1988)
  • 1939-05-23 Michel Colombier, French composer and songwriter (d. 2004)
  • 1939-07-31 France Nuyen, Vietnamese-French actress (St Elsewhere, Diamond Head), born in Marseilles, France
  • 1939-10-05 Marie Laforêt, French singer and actress, born in Soulac-sur-Mer, Gironde France
  • 1939-10-09 Pierre Mertens, French-Belgian writer (Lettres Clandestines), born in Brussels, Belgium
  • 1939-12-06 Tomés Svoboda, Czech composer (Etude), born in Paris, France
  • 1940-01-04 Gao Xingjian, Chinese-born French novelist and dramatist, Nobel laureate
  • 1940-03-06 Joanna Miles, Nice France, actress (Cross Creek, Delta County USA)
  • 1940-04-16 Benoît Bouchard, French-Canadian public official and former politician, born in Roberval, Quebec

Famous Weddings

Famous Divorces

Famous Deaths

Deaths 2301 - 2,400 of 2,516

  • 2002-05-21 Niki de Saint Phalle, French sculptor, dies at 71
  • 2002-06-29 François Périer [Pillu], French actor (Gervaise, Fantasia, Les Mains Sales), dies at 82
  • 2002-10-12 Audrey Mestre, French diver (b. 1974)
  • 2002-10-20 Bernard Fresson, French actor (b. 1931)
  • 2002-10-26 Jacques Massu, French general who led Battle of Algiers, dies at 94
  • 2002-10-31 Lionel Poilâne, French baker and entrepreneur, dies at 57
  • 2002-11-10 Michel Boisrond, French film director and screenwriter, dies at 81
  • 2002-11-29 Daniel Gélin, French actor (Obsession, The Man Who Knew Too Much), dies of kidney failure at 81
  • 2003-01-11 Maurice Pialat, French actor and director (The Naked Childhood), dies at 77
  • 2003-01-19 Françoise Giroud, French journalist and politician (French Minister of Culture), dies at 86
  • 2003-02-20 Maurice Blanchot, French author (b. 1907)
  • 2003-02-24 Bernard Loiseau, French chef (b. 1951)
  • 2003-03-04 Sébastien Japrisot, French author, screenwriter and film director (b. 1931)
  • 2003-03-14 Jean-Luc Lagardère, French publisher (b. 1928)
  • 2003-03-19 Émile Genest, French-Canadian actor (The Man from U.N.C.L.E., Les Plouffe), dies at 81
  • 2003-03-27 Daniel Ceccaldi, French actor (Stolen Kisses, Bed and Board), dies at 75
  • 2003-04-07 Cecile de Brunhoff, French storyteller (b. 1903)
  • 2003-04-23 Fernand Fonssagrives, French photographer, dies at 92
  • 2003-05-12 Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, French UN High Commissioner for Refugees (b. 1933)
  • 2003-05-23 Jean Yanne, French actor and director (b. 1933)
  • 2003-06-05 Manuel Rosenthal, French composer and conductor (b. 1904)
  • 2003-07-04 André Claveau, French singer (b. 1915)
  • 2003-08-01 Marie Trintignant, French actress (b. 1962)
  • 2003-08-09 Jacques Deray, French film director (b. 1929)
  • 2003-08-27 Pierre Poujade, French politician (b. 1920)
  • 2003-08-29 Michel Constantin, French film actor, dies at 79
  • 2003-11-16 Bettina Goislard, French relief worker (b. 1974)
  • 2003-11-20 Loris Azzaro, French fashion designer (b. 1933)
  • 2003-11-26 Stefan Wul, French sci-fi author (The Temple of the Past), dies at 81
  • 2003-12-18 Susan Travers, English-French Foreign Legion soldier, dies at 94
  • 2004-02-18 Jean Rouch, French filmmaker and ethnologist (b. 1917)
  • 2004-03-04 Claude Nougaro, French singer (b. 1929)
  • 2004-03-21 Ludmilla Tchérina, French prima ballerina, artist, actress, choreographer and author (Sins of Rome), dies at 79
  • 2004-05-31 Étienne Roda-Gil, French songwriter and screenwriter, dies at 62
  • 2004-07-08 Jean Lefebvre, French actor (Diabolical, Now Where Did the Seventh Company Get to?), dies at 84
  • 2004-07-18 Émile Peynaud, French oenologist, dies at 92
  • 2004-07-22 Sacha Distel, French singer (Raindrops Keep Falling on My Head cover), dies at 71
  • 2004-07-23 Serge Reggiani, French singer and actor (b. 1922)
  • 2004-08-09 Robert Lecourt, French politician and president of the European Court of Justice (b. 1908)
  • 2004-08-13 Julia Child, American chef, author and television personality (The French Chef), dies at 91
  • 2004-08-17 Gérard Souzay, French baritone, dies at 85
  • 2004-09-24 Françoise Sagan [Quoirez], French novelist (Bonjour Trieste), dies at 69
  • 2004-09-29 Richard Sainct, French motorcycle rally rider, dies in a crash at 44
  • 2004-10-08 Jacques Derrida, French philosopher (b. 1930)
  • 2004-11-11 Richard Dembo, French director and screenwriter (b. 1948)
  • 2004-11-14 Michel Colombier, French composer (b. 1939)

Person of interestPhilippe de Broca

2004-11-26 Philippe de Broca, French film director (Le Bossu) dies aged 71

Film Director Philippe de Broca
Film Director
Philippe de Broca
  • 2004-12-31 Gérard Debreu, French-American economist (Nobel 1983), dies at 83
  • 2005-01-07 Pierre Daninos, French novelist (b. 1913)
  • 2005-01-28 Karen Lancaume, French actress (suicide) (b. 1973)
  • 2005-01-28 Jacques Villeret, French actor (b. 1951)
  • 2005-02-13 Maurice Trintignant, French race car driver (b. 1917)
  • 2005-02-15 Pierre Bachelet, French singer and songwriter (b. 1944)
  • 2005-02-22 Simone Simon, French actress (All Money Can Buy, Ladies in Love), dies from natural causes at 94
  • 2005-04-11 André François, Hungarian-French cartoonist, dies at 89
  • 2005-04-11 Lucien Laurent, French footballer (scored the first ever FIFA World Cup goal), dies at 97
  • 2005-05-13 Eddie Barclay, French record producer (b. 1921)
  • 2005-05-20 Paul Ricoeur, French philosopher (b. 1913)
  • 2005-06-15 Suzanne Flon, French actress (One Deadly Summer, Moulin Rouge), dies of gastroenteritis at 87
  • 2005-07-06 Claude Simon, Malagasy-French writer, (Nobel Prize Literature 1985), dies at 91
  • 2005-07-19 Alain Bombard, French Biologist, Physician, and Politician who made a solitary journey across the Atlantic ocean without provisions, dies at 80
  • 2005-08-03 Françoise d'Eaubonne, French feminist (b. 1920)
  • 2005-08-22 Luc Ferrari, French composer, dies at 76
  • 2005-08-28 Jacques Dufilho, French actor (b. 1914)
  • 2005-09-14 Vladimir Volkoff, French writer (b. 1932)
  • 2005-10-22 Arman, French-born artist (b. 1928)
  • 2005-10-28 Raymond Hains, French artist (b. 1926)
  • 2005-11-29 David di Tommaso, French footballer (b. 1979)
  • 2005-12-04 Gloria Lasso, French-Spanish singer (b. 1922)
  • 2005-12-17 Marc Favreau, French-Canadian humourist, dies at 76
  • 2006-01-14 Henri Colpi, French film editor and director (b. 1921)
  • 2006-01-27 Jean-Christophe Lafaille, French mountaineer best known for his solo self-rescue on Annapurna with a broken arm, presumed dead at 40
  • 2006-02-14 Darry Cowl, French musician and actor, dies at 80
  • 2006-03-22 Pierre Clostermann, French World War II pilot (b. 1921)
  • 2006-06-15 Raymond Devos, Belgian-French humorist, dies at 83
  • 2006-07-20 Gérard Oury, French filmmaker (b. 1919)
  • 2006-08-20 Claude Blanchard, French-Canadian singer, comedian and actor, dies at 74
  • 2006-08-24 Léopold Simoneau, French-Canadian tenor, dies at 90
  • 2006-09-09 Gérard Brach, French screenwriter (b. 1927)
  • 2006-10-17 Daniel Emilfork, French actor (b. 1924)
  • 2006-11-03 Paul Mauriat, French easy listening orchestra leader, composer, and arranger ("Love Is Blue"), dies at 81
  • 2006-11-07 Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber, French journalist (b. 1924)
  • 2006-11-23 Philippe Noiret, French actor (Nuovo cinema Paradiso, Soleil, Les Milles, Il Postino), dies at 76
  • 2006-12-01 Claude Jade, French actress (Stolen Kisses), dies at 58
  • 2007-01-11 Solveig Dommartin, French-German actress (b. 1961)
  • 2007-01-22 Abbé Pierre, French priest (b. 1912)
  • 2007-02-17 Maurice Papon, French Nazi collaborator, dies at 92
  • 2007-03-02 Henri Troyat, Russian-French author and historian, dies at 95
  • 2007-03-06 Jean Baudrillard, French cultural theorist, philosopher, political commentator and photographer (b. 1929)
  • 2007-03-14 Lucie Aubrac, French history teacher and member of the French Resistance (b. 1912)
  • 2007-04-16 Jocelyne Couture-Nowak, American instructor of French (b. 1958)
  • 2007-04-19 Jean-Pierre Cassel, French actor (Trout), dies at 74
  • 2007-04-30 Grégory Lemarchal, French singer, dies of health complications while waiting for a lung transplant at 23
  • 2007-05-18 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, French physicist & Nobel Prize laureate (1991), dies at 74
  • 2007-05-30 Jean-Claude Brialy, Algerian actor and director (Églantine, Circle of Love, Cousins), dies of cancer at 74
  • 2007-06-04 Bill France, Jr., NASCAR pioneer, dies of lung cancer at 74
  • 2007-07-05 Régine Crespin, French operatic soprano (b. 1927)
  • 2007-07-29 Michel Serrault, French actor (Nelly & Monsieur Arnaud, La Cage aux Folles), dies at 79
  • 2007-08-05 Jean-Marie Lustiger, Cardinal of France