Prussia in History (Part 2)

Historical Events

  • 1813-08-23 Battle of Grossbeeren - Prussians under Von Bulow repulse French
  • 1813-08-30 Battle of Kulm: French forces defeated by Austrian-Prussian-Russian alliance.

Victory in Battle

1813-10-16 Battle of Leipzig, largest battle in Europe prior to WWI, Napoleon's forces defeated by Prussia, Austria and Russia

  • 1814-01-29 War of the Sixth Coalition: Russia and Prussia are defeated by France in the Battle of Brienne
  • 1814-09-05 -15] Battle of Masurische Meren: Germans chase Russians out of East Prussia
  • 1815-01-03 France, the United Kingdom, and Austria form an alliance against Russia and Prussia
  • 1815-06-16 French army under Napoleon defeats Prussia in the Battle of Ligny, Napoleon's last military victory
  • 1815-09-26 Russia, Prussia and Austria sign the Holy Alliance
  • 1815-11-20 Russia, Prussia, Austria and England sign an Alliance "for the maintenance of peace in Europe" on the same day as the Treaty of Paris
  • 1818-09-30 Congress of Aken: Russia, Austria, Prussia, France & England
  • 1830-12-20 Great Britain, France, Prussia, Austria and Russia recognize Belgium
  • 1834-05-08 Prussia, Austria and Russia sign classified accord about Belgium
  • 1839-03-09 Prussian government limits work week for children to 51 hours
  • 1840-07-15 Great Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia sign Quadruple Alliance
  • 1848-02-29 The Principality of Neuchâtel declares itself independent of Prussia
  • 1848-04-06 Jews of Prussia granted equality
  • 1848-05-07 Prussians stop insurrection in Varsovia
  • 1849-05-28 Princess Marianne of the Netherlands and Albrecht of Prussia separate
  • 1849-06-21 Battle at Waghausel: Prussian troops beat Baden rebels
  • 1850-11-29 The treaty, Punctation of Olmütz, signed in Olomouc means diplomatic capitulation of Prussia to Austrian Empire, taking over the leadership of German Confederation

Music Premiere

1858-01-25 Felix Mendelssohn's "Wedding March" first played, at wedding of Queen Victoria's daughter Princess Victoria, to crown prince of Prussia

The German Empire

1862-09-23 Otto von Bismarck appointed Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Prussia by King Wilhelm I

  • 1862-09-30 Prussia Minister President Otto von Bismarck's delivers his "Blood & Iron" speech
  • 1864-02-01 Second Schleswig War begins when Prussian and Austrian forces cross into Schleswig challenging Danish control
  • 1864-04-18 Battle of Dybbøl: Denmark is defeated by Prussian and Austrian forces storming Dybbol fort in the deciding battle of the Second Schleswig War
  • 1864-10-30 Treaty of Vienna signed to end the Second Schleswig War - Denmark loses control of Schleswig to Prussia, and of Holstein to Austria
  • 1866-04-08 Italy and Prussia ally against Austria-Hungary.
  • 1866-06-15 Prussia attacks Austria
  • 1866-08-23 Treaty of Prague ends Austro-Prussian war
  • 1870-07-13 King Wilhelm of Prussia sends "Emser Depeche" on Bismarck
  • 1870-07-19 France declares war on Prussia; Franco-Prussian war begins
  • 1870-08-06 Battle at Spicheren: Prussia beats France
  • 1870-08-18 Battle at Gravelotte Privat: Prussia beat France, 32,000 casualties

Victory in Battle

1870-09-02 Napoleon III surrenders to Prussian armies at the Battle of Sedan

  • 1870-09-04 The Third French Republic proclaimed as French overthrow Emperor Napoleon III (who ironically was the elected president of the Second French Republic) after his defeat by Prussia at Sedan
  • 1870-09-19 Siege of Paris by Prussian Forces begins (lasts until January 28 1871)
  • 1871-01-28 Paris surrenders to Prussians
  • 1871-05-10 Peace of Frankfurt-am-Main concluded between France & Germany ends Franco-Prussian war
  • 1882-04-13 Anti-Semitic League forms in Prussia
  • 1902-06-13 Prussian Upper house gives 350 million marks to Poland
  • 1906-12-01 German Shoemaker Wilhelm Voigt (Capt of Köpenick) sentenced to 4 years for forgery after posing as Prussian officer
  • 1910-05-27 Reform of Prussian three-class voting system fails
  • 1914-01-13 IWW-leader/songwriter Joe Hill arrested "Girl from Utah" East-Prussia
  • 1914-08-02 Russian troops invade Eastern Prussia
  • 1914-08-07 Russia invades East Prussia
  • 1914-08-12 Russian troops take East-Prussia & occupy Marggrabowa
  • 1914-08-20 Battle at Gumbinnen, East-Prussia: Russians beat Germans
  • 1914-08-22 General Martos' troops occupy Soldau/Neidenburg, East Prussia

Historic Event

1914-08-22 WW1: Von Ludendorff and Paul von Hindenburg move into East Prussia enroute to Russia

  • 1914-08-31 German troops reconquer Soldau/Neidenburg East-Prussia

Historic Event

1918-11-28 Kaiser Wilhelm II of Prussia & Germany abdicates

  • 1920-07-11 East and West Prussia vote in a plebiscite to become part of Germany, though a slice of West Prussia will be handed to Poland to provide a 'Polish Corridor'

Historic Event

1928-09-28 Prussia forbids speech from Adolf Hitler

Coup d'état

1932-07-20 Franz von Papen launches a coup against the Prussian government

Historic Event

1933-02-19 Prussian minister Goering bans all Catholic newspapers

Historic Event

1934-04-20 Heinrich Himmler becomes inspector Prussian secret state police

  • 1944-08-17 Soviet troops arrive at Austria-Prussia border
  • 1945-04-09 World War II: The Battle of Königsberg, East Prussia, ends.
  • 1946-04-07 Part of East Prussia incorporated into Russian SFSR
  • 1947-02-20 State of Prussia ceases to exist.

Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 101 - 200 of 219

  • 1827-04-12 Edward Mollenhauer, American composer, born in Erfurt, Prussia (d. 1914)
  • 1828-08-11 Edward Saloman, American politician, Governor of Wisconsin (1862-64), born in Ströbeck, Prussian Saxony (d. 1909)
  • 1828-09-28 Friedrich Albert Lange, German philosopher and socialist (Neo-Kantianism), born in Wald, Solingen, Germany (d. 1875)
  • 1830-04-29 Adolph Sutro, German American engineer and politician, mayor of San Francisco, built Cliff House, born in Aachen, Prussia (d. 1898)
  • 1831-02-24 Georg Leo earl von Caprivi, German chancellor/premier of Prussia
  • 1831-10-18 Frederick III, German Emperor (1888), born in Potsdam, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1888)
  • 1832-04-08 Alfred von Waldersee, Prussian field marshal and Chief of the German General Staff, born in Potsdam, Province of Brandenburg, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1904)
  • 1832-05-07 Carl Neumann, German mathematician and physicist (Neumann-functions), born in Königsberg, Prussia (d. 1925)
  • 1832-10-02 Julius von Sachs, German botanist and naturalist, born in Breslau, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1897)
  • 1832-10-22 Leopold Damrosch, German-American composer, and conductor (New York Oratorio Society; New York Symphony), born in Poznań, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1885)
  • 1832-11-26 Rudolph Koenig, German physicist, born in Königsberg, Prussia (d. 1901)
  • 1833-02-28 Alfred von Schlieffen, Count/Prussian general-fieldmarshal
  • 1833-05-05 Ferdinand von Richthofen, German geographer and explorer, born in Carlsruhe, Prussian Silesia (d. 1905)
  • 1834-02-06 Edwin Klebs, German physician & bacteriologist (bacterial theory of infection, diphtheria bacillus), born in Königsberg, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1913)
  • 1834-02-16 Ernst Haeckel, German biologist (Causes of Evolution) and philosopher (Social Darwinism), born in Potsdam, Prussia (d. 1919)
  • 1837-05-09 Adam Opel, German automobile manufacturer (Adam Opel AG), born in Rüsselsheim, Hesse, Prussia (d. 1895)
  • 1840-11-21 Victoria, Empress of Germany and Queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III, born in Buckingham Palace, London (d. 1901)
  • 1840-12-07 Hermann Goetz, German composer, born in Königsberg, East Prussia (d. 1876)
  • 1844-01-30 Moritz von Bissing, German gov-gen of Belgium (1914-17), born in Ober Bellmannsdorf, Prussia (d. 1917)

Friedrich Nietzsche

1844-10-15 Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher and philologist (Beyond Good and Evil), born in Röcken, Saxony, Prussia (d. 1900)

  • 1846-05-08 Oscar Hammerstein, German opera and playwright (Kohinoor), born in Stettin, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1919)

Paul von Hindenburg

1847-10-02 Paul von Hindenburg, German WW1 general and President of Germany (1925-34), born in Posen, Duchy of Posen, Prussia (d. 1934)

  • 1848-04-09 Helene Lange, German feminist (honoured with the Grand Prussian State Medal), born in Oldenburg, Germany (d. 1930)
  • 1848-07-27 Friedrich Ernst Dorn, German physicist who discovered that radon is emitted from radium, born in Guttstadt, Province of Prussia (now Warmia in Poland) (d. 1916)
  • 1849-11-22 Christian Rohlfs, German painter and artist, born in Groß Niendorf, Kreis Segeberg, Prussia (d. 1938)
  • 1849-12-06 August von Mackensen, German field marshal, born in Haus Leipnitz, Kingdom of Prussia, German Confederation (d. 1945)
  • 1850-04-27 Hans Hartwig von Beseler, German Colonel General, born in Greifswald, Prussia (d. 1921)
  • 1850-11-09 Lewis Lewin, German toxicologist (father of psychopharmacologist), born in Tuchel, West Prussia (d. 1929)
  • 1852-12-19 A[lbert] A Michelson, Strelno Prussia, US physicist (Nobel 1907)
  • 1854-03-14 Paul Ehrlich, German bacteriologist and physician (Chemotherapy, Nobel Prize 1908), Strehlen, Lower Silesia, German Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1915)
  • 1854-08-23 Moritz Moszkowski, Polish-German composer, born in Breslau, Prussia (d. 1925)
  • 1855-01-22 Albert Neisser, German physician who discovered the bacteria that cause gonorrhea and leprosy, born in Schweidnitz, Prussian Empire (d. 1916)
  • 1856-11-29 Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, Chancellor of the German Empire (1909-17), born in Hohenfinow, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1921)
  • 1857-08-14 Max Wagenknecht, German composer, born in Woldisch Tychow, Pomerania, Free State of Prussia (d. 1922)
  • 1858-07-09 Franz Boas, German-American anthropologist and linguist (Mind of Primitive Man), born in Minden, Westphalia, Prussia (d. 1942)

Wilhelm II

1859-01-27 Wilhelm II, German Emperor and King of Prussia (1888-1918), born in Berlin (d. 1941)

  • 1859-11-13 Georg Knorr, German engineer (brake system trains), born in Ruda bei Neumark, West Prussia (d. 1911)
  • 1860-02-14 Eugen Schiffer, German lawyer & liberal politician, born in Breslau, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1954)
  • 1860-07-25 Princess Louise Margaret, Duchess of Connaught, born in Potsdam, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1917)
  • 1862-01-23 David Hilbert, German mathematician (Hilbert spaces, invariant theory, axiomatization of geometry), born in Königsberg, East Prussia (d. 1943)
  • 1862-01-30 Walter Damrosch, German-American conductor (New York Symphony, 1885-1928; commissioned Gershwin's Piano Concerto), and composer (The Man Without A Country), born in Breslau, Silesia (d. 1950) [1]

Gerhart Hauptmann

1862-11-15 Gerhart Hauptmann, German author (Before Dawn - Nobel 1912), born in Obersalzbrunn, Silesia, Prussia (d. 1946)

  • 1863-01-15 Wilhelm Marx, German lawyer & politician, born in Cologne, Germany (d. 1946)
  • 1863-04-26 Arno Holz, German writer (Phantasus), born in Rastenburg, East Prussia (d. 1929)
  • 1863-11-18 Richard Dehmel, German poet and writer, born in Hermsdorf, Brandenburg, Prussia (d. 1920)
  • 1864-04-21 Max Weber, German sociologist, economist and historian (Ancient Judaism), born in Erfurt, Province of Saxony, Prussia (d. 1920)
  • 1864-06-25 Walther Hermann Nernst, Prussian physicist and chemist (Nobel 1920), born in Briesen, West Prussia (d. 1941)
  • 1865-04-09 Charles Proteus Steinmetz, German-American electrical engineer (development of alternating current), born in Breslau, Province of Silesia, Prussia (d. 1923)

Erich Ludendorff

1865-04-09 Erich Ludendorff, German general during World War I, born in Kruszewnia, Prussia (d. 1937)

  • 1865-06-28 Otto Julius Bierbaum, German writer (Irrgarten Der Liebe), born in Grünberg, Province of Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1910)
  • 1865-07-02 Lily Braun, German feminist and socialist writer (Im Schatten Titanen), born in Halberstadt, Saxony, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1916)
  • 1865-12-19 Hermann Hirt, Magdeburg Prussia, linguist (Indo-European Grammar)
  • 1867-08-07 Emil Nolde [Hansen], German painter and graphic artist, born in Nolde, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1956)

Magnus Hirschfeld

1868-05-14 Magnus Hirschfeld, German physician and gay rights advocate, born in Kolberg, Prussia (d. 1935)

  • 1868-07-30 Alfred Weber, German economist and sociologist, born in Erfurt, Prussian Saxony (d. 1958)
  • 1868-11-08 Felix Hausdorff, German mathematician (Hausdorff space), born in Breslau, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1942)
  • 1868-12-05 Arnold Sommerfeld, German physicist, born in Königsberg, Prussia (d. 1951)
  • 1868-12-09 Fritz Haber, German physicist and chemist (Nobel 1918), born in Breslau, Prussia (d. 1934)

Albert Kahn

1869-03-21 Albert Kahn, American architect known as the "architect of Detroit", born in Rhaunen, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1942

  • 1869-10-03 Alfred Flatow, German gymnast (Olympic gold 1896), born in Danzig, Prussia (d. 1942)
  • 1870-03-20 Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, Prussian general and politician (East Africa)
  • 1870-06-14 Sophia of Prussia, Queen consort of Constantine I of Greece, born in New Palace, Potsdam, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1932)
  • 1870-06-21 Clara Immerwahr, German chemist, first woman to be awarded a doctorate in chemistry in Germany, born in Polkendorf, Silesia Province, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1915)
  • 1871-04-21 Leo Blech, German composer and conductor, born in Aachen, Rhenish Prussia (d. 1958)
  • 1871-09-19 Fritz Schaudinn, German zoologist (examined syphilis), born in Röseningken, East Prussia (d. 1906)
  • 1872-04-22 Princess Margaret of Prussia, Queen consort-elect of Finland, born in New Palace, Potsdam, Prussia, German Empire (d. 1954)
  • 1874-07-28 Ernst Cassirer, German philosopher and educator (Essay on Man), born in Silesia, Prussia (d. 1945)
  • 1874-12-11 Paul Wegener, German actor and director (The Golem, The Student of Prague), born in Arnoldsdorf, West Prussia, Germany (d. 1948)
  • 1875-12-03 Bernhard Lichtenberg, German clergyman and theologian, born in Ohlau, Prussian Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire (d. 1943)
  • 1877-02-07 Feliks Nowowiejski, Polish organist and composer, born in Wartenburg, East Prussia, German Empire (d. 1946)
  • 1878-11-21 Gustav Radbruch, German lawyer and jurist, born in Lübeck, Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia (d. 1949)
  • 1879-04-28 Franz Arnold, German writer, born in Znin, Prussia (d. 1960)
  • 1879-05-27 Hans Lammers, German SS officer and Nazi politician, born in Lublinitz, Silesia, Prussia, German Empire (d. 1962)
  • 1879-10-09 Max von Laue, German physicist who discovered the diffraction of X-rays by crystals, born in Pfaffendorf, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1960)
  • 1879-11-20 Franz Pfemfert, German journalist and writer, born in Lötzen, East Prussia (d. 1954)
  • 1880-09-14 Paul Fechter, German writer (Der Zauberer Gottes), born in Elbing, West Prussia (d. 1958)
  • 1881-02-19 Paul Zech, German writer, born in Briesen, Western Prussia (d. 1946)
  • 1881-05-27 Rudolf Pannwitz, German writer and philosopher (Urblik), born in Crossen/Oder, Province of Brandenburg, Prussia (now in Poland) (d. 1969)
  • 1882-05-06 Wilhelm, the last Crown Prince of the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, born in Marmorpalais, Potsdam, German Empire (d. 1951)
  • 1882-10-03 Gunther von Kluge, German field marshal, born in Posen, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire (d. 1944)
  • 1885-09-16 Karen Horney, German-American neo-freudian psychoanalyst, born in Blankenese, Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia, German Empire (d. 1952)
  • 1887-05-18 Ernst Wiechert, German writer (The Simple Life), born in Kleinort, East Prussia (d. 1950)
  • 1887-08-08 Ullrich Haupt, Prussian actor (Morocco, Du Barry-Woman of Passion), born in Falkenburg, Pomerania, Germany (d. 1931)
  • 1888-06-17 Heinz Guderian, German general during WWII, born in Kulm, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire (d. 1954)
  • 1890-08-18 Walther Funk, German economist and Nazi politician, born in Danzkehmen, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire (d. 1960)
  • 1892-03-02 Felix Bressart, German actor (Ninotchka, Escape, Crossroads), born in Eydtkuhnen, East Prussia, Germany (d. 1949)
  • 1892-04-15 Theo Osterkamp, World War I and World War II German fighter pilot, born in Düren, Rhine Province, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1975)
  • 1892-06-30 Oswald Pohl, German Nazi leader, born in Duisburg-Ruhrort, Prussia, German Empire (d. 1951)
  • 1893-10-10 Willi Apel, German-American musicologist (Harvard Dictionary of Music), born in Konitz, West Prussia (d. 1988)
  • 1894-10-03 Walter Warlimont, German General WWII, born in Osnabrück, Hanover, Prussia, Germany (d. 1976)
  • 1895-05-03 Ernst Kantorowicz, German-American historian (Laudes regiae), born in Posen, Prussia (d. 1963)
  • 1896-03-07 Erwin Bodky, German-American composer, born in Ragnit, East Prussia (d. 1958)
  • 1898-11-11 Hugo Enomiya-Lassalle, German Jesuit priest and Buddhism Zen teacher, born in Nieheim, Westphalia, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1990)
  • 1898-12-06 Alfred Eisenstaedt, German-American photojournalist (V-J Day in Times Square), born in Dirschau, West Prussia, German Empire (d. 1995)
  • 1899-07-23 Gustav Heinemann, President of West Germany (1969-74), born in Schwelm, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1976)
  • 1902-05-10 Joachim Prinz, German-American Zionist leader, author and Rabbi of Berlin (1926-37), born in Bierdzany, Prussia (d. 1988)
  • 1906-05-01 Horst Schumann, Nazi physician, born in Halle an der Saale, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1983)
  • 1906-06-06 Max August Zorn, German mathematician (lemma of Zorn), born in Krefeld, Rhenish Prussia, Germany (d. 1993)
  • 1907-07-19 Günter Bialas, German composer, born in Bielschowitz, Prussian Silesia (d. 1995)
  • 1907-10-15 Wolfgang Weyrauch, German writer, born in Königsberg, East Prussia (d. 1980)

Famous Weddings


Famous Divorces


Famous Deaths