Prussia in History (Part 2)

Historical Events

  • 1812-03-11 Citizenship granted to Prussian Jews
  • 1813-08-23 Battle of Grossbeeren - Prussians under Von Bulow repulse French
  • 1813-08-30 Battle of Kulm: French forces defeated by Austrian-Prussian-Russian alliance.

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1813-10-16 Battle of Leipzig, largest battle in Europe prior to WWI, Napoleon's forces defeated by Prussia, Austria and Russia

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • 1814-01-29 War of the Sixth Coalition: Russia and Prussia are defeated by France in the Battle of Brienne
  • 1814-09-05 -15] Battle of Masurische Meren: Germans chase Russians out of East Prussia
  • 1815-01-03 France, the United Kingdom, and Austria form an alliance against Russia and Prussia
  • 1815-06-16 Battle at Ligny: French army under Napoleon beats Prussia

Battle of InterestBattle of Waterloo

1815-06-18 Battle of Waterloo; Napoleon and France defeated by British forces under Wellington and Prussian troops under Blucher

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'Wellington at Waterloo', by Robert Alexander Hillingford, depicting Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, during the final confrontation against Napoleon
'Wellington at Waterloo', by Robert Alexander Hillingford, depicting Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, during the final confrontation against Napoleon
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  • 1815-09-26 Russia, Prussia and Austria sign the Holy Alliance
  • 1815-11-20 Russia, Prussia, Austria and England sign an Alliance "for the maintenance of peace in Europe" on the same day as the Treaty of Paris
  • 1818-09-30 Congress of Aken: Russia, Austria, Prussia, France & England
  • 1830-12-20 Great Britain, France, Prussia, Austria and Russia recognize Belgium
  • 1834-05-08 Prussia, Austria and Russia sign classified accord about Belgium
  • 1839-03-09 Prussian government limits work week for children to 51 hours
  • 1840-07-15 Great Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia sign Quadruple Alliance

  • 1848-02-29 The Principality of Neuchâtel declares itself independent of Prussia
  • 1848-04-06 Jews of Prussia granted equality
  • 1848-05-07 Prussians stop insurrection in Varsovia
  • 1849-05-28 Princess Marianne of the Netherlands and Albrecht of Prussia separate
  • 1849-06-21 Battle at Waghausel: Prussian troops beat Baden rebels
  • 1850-11-29 The treaty, Punctation of Olmütz, signed in Olomouc means diplomatic capitulation of Prussia to Austrian Empire, taking over the leadership of German Confederation

Music releaseMusic Premiere

1858-01-25 Felix Mendelssohn's "Wedding March" first played, at wedding of Queen Victoria's daughter Princess Victoria, to crown prince of Prussia

Composer and Pianist Felix Mendelssohn
Composer and Pianist
Felix Mendelssohn
Queen of the United Kingdom Queen Victoria
Queen of the United Kingdom
Queen Victoria

The <b>German</b> EmpireThe German Empire

1862-09-23 Otto von Bismarck appointed Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Prussia by King Wilhelm I

German Statesman Otto von Bismarck
German Statesman
Otto von Bismarck
  • 1862-09-30 Prussia Minister President Otto von Bismarck's delivers his "Blood & Iron" speech
  • 1864-02-01 Second Schleswig War begins when Prussian and Austrian forces cross into Schleswig challenging Danish control
  • 1864-04-18 Battle of Dybbøl: Denmark is defeated by Prussian and Austrian forces storming Dybbol fort in the deciding battle of the Second Schleswig War
  • 1864-10-30 Treaty of Vienna signed to end the Second Schleswig War - Denmark loses control of Schleswig to Prussia, and of Holstein to Austria
  • 1866-04-08 Italy and Prussia ally against Austria-Hungary.
  • 1866-06-15 Prussia attacks Austria
  • 1866-08-23 Treaty of Prague ends Austro-Prussian war
  • 1870-07-13 King Wilhelm of Prussia sends "Emser Depeche" on Bismarck
  • 1870-07-19 France declares war on Prussia; Franco-Prussian war begins
  • 1870-08-06 Battle at Spicheren: Prussia beats France
  • 1870-08-18 Battle at Gravelotte Privat: Prussia beat France, 32,000 casualties

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1870-09-02 Napoleon III surrenders to Prussian armies at the Battle of Sedan

Emperor of France Napoleon III
Emperor of France
Napoleon III

  • 1870-09-04 The Third French Republic proclaimed as French overthrow Emperor Napoleon III (who ironically was the elected president of the Second French Republic) after his defeat by Prussia at Sedan
  • 1870-09-19 Siege of Paris by Prussian Forces begins (lasts until January 28 1871)
  • 1871-01-28 Paris surrenders to Prussians
  • 1871-05-10 Peace of Frankfurt-am-Main concluded between France & Germany ends Franco-Prussian war
  • 1882-04-13 Anti-Semitic League forms in Prussia
  • 1902-06-13 Prussian Upper house gives 350 million marks to Poland
  • 1906-12-01 German Shoemaker Wilhelm Voigt (Capt of Köpenick) sentenced to 4 years for forgery after posing as Prussian officer
  • 1910-05-27 Reform of Prussian three-class voting system fails
  • 1914-01-13 IWW-leader/songwriter Joe Hill arrested "Girl from Utah" East-Prussia
  • 1914-08-02 Russian troops invade Eastern Prussia
  • 1914-08-07 Russia invades East Prussia
  • 1914-08-12 Russian troops take East-Prussia & occupy Marggrabowa
  • 1914-08-20 Battle at Gumbinnen, East-Prussia: Russians beat Germans
  • 1914-08-22 General Martos' troops occupy Soldau/Neidenburg, East Prussia

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1914-08-22 WW1: Von Ludendorff and Paul von Hindenburg move into East Prussia enroute to Russia

German President and WWI General Paul von Hindenburg
German President and WWI General
Paul von Hindenburg
  • 1914-08-31 German troops reconquer Soldau/Neidenburg East-Prussia

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1918-11-28 Kaiser Wilhelm II of Prussia & Germany abdicates

German Emperor and King of Prussia Wilhelm II
German Emperor and King of Prussia
Wilhelm II
  • 1920-07-11 East and West Prussia vote in a plebiscite to become part of Germany, though a slice of West Prussia will be handed to Poland to provide a 'Polish Corridor'

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1928-09-28 Prussia forbids speech from Adolf Hitler

Dictator of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler
Dictator of Nazi Germany
Adolf Hitler

BattleCoup d'état

1932-07-20 Franz von Papen launches a coup against the Prussian government

Diplomat and Chancellor Franz von Papen
Diplomat and Chancellor
Franz von Papen

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1933-02-19 Prussian minister Goering bans all Catholic newspapers

Nazi Politician Hermann Goering
Nazi Politician
Hermann Goering

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1934-04-20 Heinrich Himmler becomes inspector Prussian secret state police

Leading Nazi and Reichsführer of the SS Heinrich Himmler
Leading Nazi and Reichsführer of the SS
Heinrich Himmler
  • 1944-08-17 Soviet troops arrive at Austria-Prussia border
  • 1945-04-09 World War II: The Battle of Königsberg, East Prussia, ends.
  • 1946-04-07 Part of East Prussia incorporated into Russian SFSR
  • 1947-02-20 State of Prussia ceases to exist.

Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 101 - 200 of 220

  • 1825-10-15 Marie of Prussia, Queen consort of Bavaria (1848-64), born in Berlin City Palace, Prussia (d. 1889)
  • 1827-04-12 Edward Mollenhauer, American composer, born in Erfurt, Prussia (d. 1914)
  • 1828-08-11 Edward Saloman, American politician, Governor of Wisconsin (1862-64), born in Ströbeck, Prussian Saxony (d. 1909)
  • 1828-09-28 Friedrich Albert Lange, German philosopher and socialist (Neo-Kantianism), born in Wald, Solingen, Germany (d. 1875)
  • 1830-04-29 Adolph Sutro, German American engineer and politician, mayor of San Francisco, built Cliff House, born in Aachen, Prussia (d. 1898)
  • 1831-02-24 Georg Leo earl von Caprivi, German chancellor/premier of Prussia
  • 1831-10-18 Frederik III NK of Hohenzollern, German Kaiser/king of Prussia
  • 1832-04-08 Alfred von Waldersee, Prussian field marshal and Chief of the German General Staff, born in Potsdam, Province of Brandenburg, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1904)
  • 1832-05-07 Carl Neumann, German mathematician and physicist (Neumann-functions), born in Königsberg, Prussia (d. 1925)
  • 1832-10-02 Julius von Sachs, German botanist and naturalist, born in Breslau, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1897)
  • 1832-10-22 Leopold Damrosch, German-American composer, and conductor (New York Oratorio Society; New York Symphony), born in Poznań, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1885)
  • 1832-11-26 Rudolph Koenig, German physicist, born in Königsberg, Prussia (d. 1901)
  • 1833-02-28 Alfred von Schlieffen, Count/Prussian general-fieldmarshal
  • 1833-05-05 Ferdinand von Richthofen, German geographer and explorer, born in Carlsruhe, Prussian Silesia (d. 1905)
  • 1834-02-06 Edwin Klebs, German physician & bacteriologist (bacterial theory of infection, diphtheria bacillus), born in Königsberg, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1913)
  • 1834-02-16 Ernst Haeckel, German biologist (Causes of Evolution) and philosopher (Social Darwinism), born in Potsdam, Prussia (d. 1919)
  • 1837-05-09 Adam Opel, German automobile manufacturer (Adam Opel AG), born in Rüsselsheim, Hesse, Prussia (d. 1895)
  • 1840-11-21 Victoria, Empress of Germany and Queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III, born in Buckingham Palace, London (d. 1901)
  • 1840-12-07 Hermann Goetz, German composer, born in Königsberg, East Prussia (d. 1876)
  • 1844-01-30 Moritz von Bissing, German gov-gen of Belgium (1914-17), born in Ober Bellmannsdorf, Prussia (d. 1917)

Person of interestFriedrich Nietzsche

1844-10-15 Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher and philologist (Beyond Good and Evil), born in Röcken, Saxony, Prussia (d. 1900)

Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche
Philosopher
Friedrich Nietzsche
  • 1846-05-08 Oscar Hammerstein, German opera and playwright (Kohinoor), born in Stettin, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1919)

Person of interestPaul von Hindenburg

1847-10-02 Paul von Hindenburg, German WW1 general and President of Germany (1925-34), born in Posen, Duchy of Posen, Prussia (d. 1934)

German President and WWI General Paul von Hindenburg
German President and WWI General
Paul von Hindenburg
  • 1848-04-09 Helene Lange, German feminist (honoured with the Grand Prussian State Medal), born in Oldenburg, Germany (d. 1930)
  • 1848-07-27 Friedrich Ernst Dorn, German physicist who discovered that radon is emitted from radium, born in Guttstadt, Province of Prussia (now Warmia in Poland) (d. 1916)
  • 1849-11-22 Christian Rohlfs, German painter and artist, born in Groß Niendorf, Kreis Segeberg, Prussia (d. 1938)
  • 1849-12-06 August von Mackensen, German field marshal, born in Haus Leipnitz, Kingdom of Prussia, German Confederation (d. 1945)
  • 1850-04-27 Hans Hartwig von Beseler, German Colonel General, born in Greifswald, Prussia (d. 1921)
  • 1850-11-09 Lewis Lewin, German toxicologist (father of psychopharmacologist), born in Tuchel, West Prussia (d. 1929)
  • 1852-12-19 A[lbert] A Michelson, Strelno Prussia, US physicist (Nobel 1907)
  • 1854-03-14 Paul Ehrlich, German bacteriologist and physician (Chemotherapy, Nobel Prize 1908), Strehlen, Lower Silesia, German Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1915)
  • 1854-08-23 Moritz Moszkowski, Polish-German composer, born in Breslau, Prussia (d. 1925)
  • 1855-01-22 Albert Neisser, German physician who discovered the bacteria that cause gonorrhea and leprosy, born in Schweidnitz, Prussian Empire (d. 1916)
  • 1856-11-29 Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, Chancellor of the German Empire (1909-17), born in Hohenfinow, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1921)
  • 1857-08-14 Max Wagenknecht, German composer, born in Woldisch Tychow, Pomerania, Free State of Prussia (d. 1922)
  • 1858-07-09 Franz Boas, German-American anthropologist and linguist (Mind of Primitive Man), born in Minden, Westphalia, Prussia (d. 1942)

Person of interestWilhelm II

1859-01-27 Wilhelm II, German Emperor and King of Prussia (1888-1918), born in Berlin (d. 1941)

German Emperor and King of Prussia Wilhelm II
German Emperor and King of Prussia
Wilhelm II
  • 1859-11-13 Georg Knorr, German engineer (brake system trains), born in Ruda bei Neumark, West Prussia (d. 1911)
  • 1860-02-14 Eugen Schiffer, German lawyer & liberal politician, born in Breslau, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1954)
  • 1860-07-25 Princess Louise Margaret, Duchess of Connaught, born in Potsdam, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1917)
  • 1862-01-23 David Hilbert, German mathematician (Hilbert spaces, invariant theory, axiomatization of geometry), born in Königsberg, East Prussia (d. 1943)
  • 1862-01-30 Walter Damrosch, German-American conductor (New York Symphony, 1885-1928; commissioned Gershwin's Piano Concerto), and composer (The Man Without A Country), born in Breslau, Silesia (d. 1950) [1]

Person of interestGerhart Hauptmann

1862-11-15 Gerhart Hauptmann, German author (Before Dawn - Nobel 1912), born in Obersalzbrunn, Silesia, Prussia (d. 1946)

Dramatist, Author and Nobel Laureate Gerhart Hauptmann
Dramatist, Author and Nobel Laureate
Gerhart Hauptmann
  • 1863-01-15 Wilhelm Marx, German lawyer & politician, born in Cologne, Germany (d. 1946)
  • 1863-04-26 Arno Holz, German writer (Phantasus), born in Rastenburg, East Prussia (d. 1929)
  • 1863-11-18 Richard Dehmel, German poet and writer, born in Hermsdorf, Brandenburg, Prussia (d. 1920)
  • 1864-04-21 Max Weber, German sociologist, economist and historian (Ancient Judaism), born in Erfurt, Province of Saxony, Prussia (d. 1920)
  • 1864-06-25 Walther Hermann Nernst, Prussian physicist and chemist (Nobel 1920), born in Briesen, West Prussia (d. 1941)
  • 1865-04-09 Charles Proteus Steinmetz, German-American electrical engineer (development of alternating current), born in Breslau, Province of Silesia, Prussia (d. 1923)

Person of interestErich Ludendorff

1865-04-09 Erich Ludendorff, German general during World War I, born in Kruszewnia, Prussia (d. 1937)

German WWI General Erich Ludendorff
German WWI General
Erich Ludendorff
  • 1865-06-28 Otto Julius Bierbaum, German writer (Irrgarten Der Liebe), born in Grünberg, Province of Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1910)
  • 1865-07-02 Lily Braun, German feminist and socialist writer (Im Schatten Titanen), born in Halberstadt, Saxony, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1916)
  • 1865-12-19 Hermann Hirt, Magdeburg Prussia, linguist (Indo-European Grammar)
  • 1867-08-07 Emil Nolde [Hansen], German painter and graphic artist, born in Nolde, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1956)

Person of interestMagnus Hirschfeld

1868-05-14 Magnus Hirschfeld, German physician and gay rights advocate, born in Kolberg, Prussia (d. 1935)

Physician and Gay Rights Advocate Magnus Hirschfeld
Physician and Gay Rights Advocate
Magnus Hirschfeld
  • 1868-07-30 Alfred Weber, German economist and sociologist, born in Erfurt, Prussian Saxony (d. 1958)
  • 1868-11-08 Felix Hausdorff, German mathematician (Hausdorff space), born in Breslau, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1942)
  • 1868-12-05 Arnold Sommerfeld, German physicist, born in Königsberg, Prussia (d. 1951)
  • 1868-12-09 Fritz Haber, German physicist and chemist (Nobel 1918), born in Breslau, Prussia (d. 1934)

Person of interestAlbert Kahn

1869-03-21 Albert Kahn, American architect known as the "architect of Detroit", born in Rhaunen, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1942

Architect of Detroit Albert Kahn
Architect of Detroit
Albert Kahn
  • 1869-10-03 Alfred Flatow, German gymnast (Olympic gold 1896), born in Danzig, Prussia (d. 1942)
  • 1870-03-20 Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, Prussian general and politician (East Africa)
  • 1870-06-14 Sophia of Prussia, Queen consort of Constantine I of Greece, born in New Palace, Potsdam, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1932)
  • 1870-06-21 Clara Immerwahr, German chemist, first woman to be awarded a doctorate in chemistry in Germany, born in Polkendorf, Silesia Province, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1915)
  • 1871-04-21 Leo Blech, German composer and conductor, born in Aachen, Rhenish Prussia (d. 1958)
  • 1871-09-19 Fritz Schaudinn, German zoologist (examined syphilis), born in Röseningken, East Prussia (d. 1906)
  • 1872-04-22 Princess Margaret of Prussia, Queen consort-elect of Finland, born in New Palace, Potsdam, Prussia, German Empire (d. 1954)
  • 1874-07-28 Ernst Cassirer, German philosopher and educator (Essay on Man), born in Silesia, Prussia (d. 1945)
  • 1874-12-11 Paul Wegener, German actor and director (The Golem, The Student of Prague), born in Arnoldsdorf, West Prussia, Germany (d. 1948)
  • 1875-12-03 Bernhard Lichtenberg, German clergyman and theologian, born in Ohlau, Prussian Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire (d. 1943)
  • 1877-02-07 Feliks Nowowiejski, Polish organist and composer, born in Wartenburg, East Prussia, German Empire (d. 1946)
  • 1878-11-21 Gustav Radbruch, German lawyer and jurist, born in Lübeck, Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia (d. 1949)
  • 1879-04-28 Franz Arnold, German writer, born in Znin, Prussia (d. 1960)
  • 1879-05-27 Hans Lammers, German SS officer and Nazi politician, born in Lublinitz, Silesia, Prussia, German Empire (d. 1962)
  • 1879-10-09 Max von Laue, German physicist who discovered the diffraction of X-rays by crystals, born in Pfaffendorf, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1960)
  • 1879-11-20 Franz Pfemfert, German journalist and writer, born in Lötzen, East Prussia (d. 1954)
  • 1880-09-14 Paul Fechter, German writer (Der Zauberer Gottes), born in Elbing, West Prussia (d. 1958)
  • 1881-02-19 Paul Zech, German writer, born in Briesen, Western Prussia (d. 1946)
  • 1881-05-27 Rudolf Pannwitz, German writer and philosopher (Urblik), born in Crossen/Oder, Province of Brandenburg, Prussia (now in Poland) (d. 1969)
  • 1882-05-06 Wilhelm, the last Crown Prince of the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, born in Marmorpalais, Potsdam, German Empire (d. 1951)
  • 1882-10-03 Gunther von Kluge, German field marshal, born in Posen, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire (d. 1944)
  • 1885-09-16 Karen Horney, German-American neo-freudian psychoanalyst, born in Blankenese, Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia, German Empire (d. 1952)
  • 1887-05-18 Ernst Wiechert, German writer (The Simple Life), born in Kleinort, East Prussia (d. 1950)
  • 1887-08-08 Ullrich Haupt, Prussian actor (Morocco, Du Barry-Woman of Passion), born in Falkenburg, Pomerania, Germany (d. 1931)
  • 1888-06-17 Heinz Guderian, German general during WWII, born in Kulm, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire (d. 1954)
  • 1890-08-18 Walther Funk, German economist and Nazi politician, born in Danzkehmen, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire (d. 1960)
  • 1892-03-02 Felix Bressart, German actor (Ninotchka, Escape, Crossroads), born in Eydtkuhnen, East Prussia, Germany (d. 1949)
  • 1892-04-15 Theo Osterkamp, World War I and World War II German fighter pilot, born in Düren, Rhine Province, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1975)
  • 1892-06-30 Oswald Pohl, German Nazi leader, born in Duisburg-Ruhrort, Prussia, German Empire (d. 1951)
  • 1893-10-10 Willi Apel, German-American musicologist (Harvard dictionary of music), born in Konitz, West Prussia (d. 1988)
  • 1894-10-03 Walter Warlimont, German General WWII, born in Osnabrück, Hanover, Prussia, Germany (d. 1976)
  • 1895-05-03 Ernst Kantorowicz, German-American historian (Laudes regiae), born in Posen, Prussia (d. 1963)
  • 1896-03-07 Erwin Bodky, German-American composer, born in Ragnit, East Prussia (d. 1958)
  • 1898-11-11 Hugo Enomiya-Lassalle, German Jesuit priest and Buddhism Zen teacher, born in Nieheim, Westphalia, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1990)
  • 1898-12-06 Alfred Eisenstaedt, German-American photojournalist (V-J Day in Times Square), born in Dirschau, West Prussia, German Empire (d. 1995)
  • 1899-07-23 Gustav Heinemann, President of West Germany (1969-74), born in Schwelm, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1976)
  • 1902-05-10 Joachim Prinz, German-American Zionist leader, author and Rabbi of Berlin (1926-37), born in Bierdzany, Prussia (d. 1988)
  • 1906-05-01 Horst Schumann, Nazi physician, born in Halle an der Saale, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1983)
  • 1906-06-06 Max August Zorn, German mathematician (lemma of Zorn), born in Krefeld, Rhenish Prussia, Germany (d. 1993)
  • 1907-07-19 Günter Bialas, German composer, born in Bielschowitz, Prussian Silesia (d. 1995)

Famous Weddings


Famous Divorces


Famous Deaths