Baghdad in History

Iraq: Basra - Mosul

Historical Events


Historic InventionAbbasid-Era Baghdad

0762-07-30 City of Baghdad founded by Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur, just north of ancient Baghdad
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The minaret of the Al Khalufa mosque in Baghdad, showcasing the minaret from the Abbasid era of the city
The minaret of the Al Khalufa mosque in Baghdad, showcasing the minaret from the Abbasid era of the city
  • 1055-12-19 Seldjuken under Toghril Beg occupy Baghdad
  • 1258-02-13 Baghdad, then a city of 1 million, falls to the Mongols as the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed, tens of thousands slaughtered, ending the Islamic Golden Age

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1401-07-09 Turko-Mongol ruler Tamerlane (Timur) destroys Baghdad, killing 20,000

Turkic Conqueror Tamerlane
Turkic Conqueror
Tamerlane

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1534-12-04 Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent occupies Baghdad

Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
Ottoman Sultan
Suleiman the Magnificent
  • 1863-04-21 Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith, enters garden of Rivden near Baghdad. He makes his declaration as a Messenger of God during the 12 days spent there
  • 1899-12-23 Tentative Turkish & German treaty on construction of Baghdad railway
  • 1902-03-18 Turkey grants Germany syndicate the first concession to construct a railroad through Turkish territory to Baghdad, to be linked to Berlin
  • 1903-03-05 Definitive treaty for construction of Baghdad railway drawn up
  • 1907-08-03 Emperor Wilhelm (Germany) meets with Tsar Nicholas (Russia) to discuss Germany's plan to build a railroad to Baghdad; the discussion helps move Russia towards Britain and eventually the Triple Alliance
  • 1917-03-11 British forces occupy Baghdad, the capital of Mesopotamia, after Turkish forces evacuated

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1922-10-26 Gertrude Bell appointed Honorary Director of Antiquities in new Department of Antiquities in Baghdad, Iraq (origin of the Baghdad Archaeological Museum)

Archaeologist and Writer Gertrude Bell
Archaeologist and Writer
Gertrude Bell
  • 1925-07-16 The first parliament in Iraq opened by King Feisal in Baghdad
  • 1941-05-22 British troops attack Baghdad
  • 1941-05-30 British Army enters Baghdad, chasing pro-German coup government
  • 1941-06-01 British troops occupy Baghdad, Iraq

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1953-08-16 Shah of Persia Mohammad Reza Pahlavi & princess Soraya flee to Baghdad & Rome

Last Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Last Shah of Iran
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
  • 1955-02-18 Baghdad Pact signed, making Turkey & Iraq a defense alliance
  • 1955-02-24 Pact of Baghdad signed between Iraq & Turkey
  • 1955-09-23 Pakistan signs Pact of Baghdad
  • 1955-10-11 Persia signs Pact of Baghdad
  • 1956-01-14 Jordan government refuses to join Pact of Baghdad
  • 1959-03-24 Iraq withdraws from the Baghdad Pact
  • 1959-05-30 Iraq withdraws from the Baghdad Pact (Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom)
  • 1969-01-27 14 spies hanged in Baghdad
  • 1980-11-20 United Nations Gulf War mediator Olof Palme makes first unsuccessful peace shuttle between Tehran and Baghdad
  • 1986-08-12 Iran fires missile at refinery near Baghdad; Iraq raids Iranian terminal at Sirri Island severely disrupting Iranian exports

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1990-11-30 US President George H. W. Bush offers to send Secretary of State James Baker to Baghdad to meet with Saddam Hussein

41st US President George H. W. Bush
41st US President
George H. W. Bush
Iraqi President and Dictator Saddam Hussein
Iraqi President and Dictator
Saddam Hussein
  • 1991-02-13 US air raid on the Amiriyah shelter in Baghdad kills more than 408 civilians
  • 1993-06-26 The U.S. launches a cruise missile attack targeting Baghdad intelligence headquarters in retaliation for a thwarted assassination attempt against former President George H. W. Bush in April in Kuwait.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1998-02-20 UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan lands in Baghdad, for peace negotiations

UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan
UN Secretary-General
Kofi Annan

Event of interestEvent of Interest

2003-04-07 U.S. troops capture Baghdad; Saddam Hussein's regime falls two days later.

Iraqi President and Dictator Saddam Hussein
Iraqi President and Dictator
Saddam Hussein

IraqInvasion of Iraq

2003-04-09 Baghdad falls to U.S. forces, ending the invasion of Iraq, but resulting in widespread looting
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US troops in a sandstorm during the invasion of Iraq in 2003
US troops in a sandstorm during the invasion of Iraq in 2003
  • 2003-04-14 U.S. troops in Baghdad capture Abu Abbas, leader of the Palestinian group that killed an American on the hijacked cruise liner the Achille Lauro in 1985
  • 2005-08-31 A stampede on Al-Aaimmah bridge in Baghdad kills 1,199 people.
  • 2005-10-19 Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity

  • 2006-03-22 Three Christian Peacemaker Teams Hostages are freed by British forces in Baghdad after 118 days captivity and the death of their colleague, American Tom Fox
  • 2007-02-03 A Baghdad market bombing kills at least 135 people and injures a further 339.

Conference meetingConference of Interest

2008-12-14 President George W. Bush make his fourth and final trip to Iraq as president and is almost struck by two shoes thrown at him by Iraqi journalist Muntadhar al-Zaidi during a farewell conference in Baghdad

43rd US President George W. Bush
43rd US President
George W. Bush
  • 2009-08-19 A series of bombings in Baghdad, Iraq, kills 101 and injures 565 others
  • 2009-10-25 The 25 October 2009 Baghdad bombings kills 155 and wounds at least 721.
  • 2009-12-08 Bombings in Baghdad, Iraq kill 127 and injure 448.
  • 2012-06-04 Car bomb kills 26 and injures 190 people in central Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2012-06-16 32 people are killed by a car bomb in Baghdad
  • 2012-06-22 Two Baghdad market bombings kill 14 people and injure 106
  • 2012-07-31 Two car bombs kill 21 people in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2012-10-28 15 people are killed and 33 injured by a series of Baghdad car bombings
  • 2013-01-22 A series of Baghdad car bombings kill 17 people
  • 2013-02-17 37 people are killed and 130 are injured in a series of Baghdad car bombings
  • 2013-02-28 28 people are killed and 60 are injured after a series of bombings across Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2013-03-14 25 people are killed and 50 are wounded by a series of car bombings in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2013-04-18 27 people are killed and 65 are injured in a cafe bombing in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2013-06-18 31 people are killed and 60 are injured by two suicide bombings in al-Qahira, Baghdad
  • 2013-07-05 15 people are killed by a bomb attack on a Shia mosque in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2013-08-06 25 people are killed and 60 are wounded by a series of car bombs in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2013-08-23 26 people are killed and 55 are injured by a suicide bombing in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2013-09-13 30 people are killed by a mosque bombing attack in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2013-09-15 21 people are killed in a series of bombings in Baghdad and Shia provinces, Iraq
  • 2013-09-27 7 people are killed in mosque bombings in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2013-09-30 54 people are killed by a series of car bombs in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2013-10-20 37 people are killed in a suicide bombing in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2013-11-06 15 people are killed after a suicide bombing in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2013-11-25 17 people are killed and 37 are wounded in a cafe bombing in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2014-01-30 24 hostages are killed after 6 suicide bombers temporarily take over the Iraqi Ministry of Transportation in Baghdad
  • 2015-08-13 76 people are killed & 212 are wounded by an ISIL truck bomb in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2016-07-02 Large lorry bomb in Baghdad kills at least 125 people and wounds 150, Islamic State claims responsibility
  • 2017-02-16 Car bomb in Bayaa, Baghdad kills at least 48, Islamic State claims responsibility. 3rd attack in 3 days
  • 2017-05-30 Car bomb outside ice cream shop in Baghdad kills 17, Islamic State claim responsibility
  • 2017-05-30 Bomb outside government pension office in Baghdad kills 14, injures 34, Islamic State claim respnsibility
  • 2019-12-31 Iraqi militiamen and protesters breach the outer wall of the US embassy in Baghdad following US airstrikes against Kataib Hezbollah, an Iranian-backed Iraqi militia, on December 29
  • 2020-01-01 Pro-Iranian protesters end siege of US Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2020-01-03 US drone strike kills top Iranian security and intelligence commander, Maj. Gen. Qasem Soleimani outside Baghdad airport in Iraq
  • 2020-02-11 Snow falls in Baghdad, Iraq, for only the second time in a century

Famous Birthdays

  • 0786-09-14 Al-Ma'mun, 7th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate (813-833), born in Baghdad (d. 833)
  • 1612-07-27 Murad IV, Sultan of Turkey (1623-40) who conquered Baghdad, born in Constantinople, Ottoman Empire (d. 1640)
  • 1887-12-23 Eric Blore, British actor (Great Gatsby, Bowery to Baghdad, Abie's Irish Rose, Love Happy), born in London, England (d. 1959)
  • 1895-10-28 John Boles, American singer and actor (Babes in Baghdad), born in Greenville, Texas (d. 1969)
  • 1914-05-04 Abd al-Karīm Qāsim, Prime Minister of Iraq (1958-63), born in Baghdad, Iraq (d. 1963)
  • 1917-08-17 Safa Khulusi, Iraqi writer and historian, born in Baghdad (d. 1995)
  • 1921-03-21 Abdul Salam Arif, Iraqi politician and President of Iraq (1963-66), born in Baghdad, Mandatory Iraq (d. 1966)
  • 1935-05-02 Faisal II, King of Iraq (1939-58), son of Ghasi I, born in Baghdad (d. 1958)
  • 1936-12-07 Martha Layne Collins, American businesswoman and politician (56th Governor of Kentucky), born in Bagdad, Kentucky
  • 1944-10-30 Ahmed Chalabi, Iraqi politician (supported US 2003 invasion), born in Kadhimiya, Baghdad (d. 2015)
  • 1945-01-16 Kabir Bedi, Pakistani actor (Thief of Baghdad, Terminal Entry), born in Lahore, Pakistan
  • 1946-06-21 Maurice Saatchi, English-Iraqi advertising CEO (Saatchi & Saatchi), born in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 1948-09-17 Patricia Kluge, Baghdad Iraq, wife of Billionaire John Kluge
  • 1950-10-31 Zaha Hadid, British architect (London Aquatic Centre), born in Baghdad, Iraq (d. 2016)

Person of interestHaider al-Abadi

1952-04-25 Haider al-Abadi, Iraqi politician, Prime Minister of Iraq (2014-present), born in Baghdad, Iraq

Prime Minister of Iraq Haider al-Abadi
Prime Minister of Iraq
Haider al-Abadi

Famous Deaths

  • 0833-10-10 al-Ma'mun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad (b. 786)
  • 1063-09-04 Toghrül, Turkish conqueror of Persia and Baghdad
  • 1258-02-20 Al-Musta'sim, last Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad, dies in the sack of Baghdad by being rolled up in a carpet and trampled to death
  • 1520-09-22 Selim I, captured Baghdad/Sultan of Turkey (1512-20), dies at 53
  • 1640-02-08 Murad IV, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1623-40) who conquered Baghdad, dies from cirrhosis in Istanbul at 27
  • 1958-07-14 Faisal II, King of Iraq (1939-58), son of Ghasi I, assassinated at Baghdad at 23
  • 1963-02-08 Abd al-Karīm Qāsim, Prime Minister of Iraq (1958-63),, assassinated in Baghdad at 48

BattleSaddam Hussein

2006-12-30 Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq (1979-2003), hanged in Baghdad at 69

Iraqi President and Dictator Saddam Hussein
Iraqi President and Dictator
Saddam Hussein
  • 2020-01-03 Qasem Soleimani, Iranian major general of the Quds Force of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, killed at 62 in a US drone strike outside Baghdad airport, Iraq