Japanese History (Part 5)

Historical Events

Events 401 - 500 of 820


Event of interestEvent of Interest

1943-03-06 Sukarno asks for cooperation with Japanese occupiers

1st President of Indonesia Sukarno
1st President of Indonesia
Sukarno
  • 1943-04-05 Japanese troops conquer Indin
  • 1943-05-14 Sinking of the Australian Hospital Ship Centaur off the coast of Queensland, by a Japanese submarine
  • 1943-05-19 Churchill pledges Britain's full support to US against Japan
  • 1943-05-25 Trident conference in Washington, D.C. (operation plan '43 against Japan)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1943-07-07 -10] Japanese premier Hideki Tojo visits Java

Prime Minister of Japan during WW II Hideki Tojo
Prime Minister of Japan during WW II
Hideki Tojo
  • 1943-08-01 Japan declares Burma Independence under U Ba Maw
  • 1943-08-21 Japan leaves Aleutian Islands
  • 1943-08-31 Japanese occupiers intern Jewish Congregation of Sorabajo
  • 1943-10-02 Japanese troops leave Kolombangara, Solomon Island
  • 1943-10-03 Operations begin at PETA Java, defending (Japanese) fatherland
  • 1943-10-05 US air raid on Wake, Japanese execute 98 US prisoners in retaliation

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1943-10-14 Japan declares the Philippines independent under President José P. Laurel

3rd President of the Philippines José P. Laurel
3rd President of the Philippines
José P. Laurel

TrainDeath Railway Completed

1943-10-17 Burma railway completed, built by Allied POWs and Asian laborers for use of the Japanese army
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'Bridge over the River Kwai' drawn by Leo Rawlings in 1943 depicting construction by POWs of the Burma Railway
'Bridge over the River Kwai' drawn by Leo Rawlings in 1943 depicting construction by POWs of the Burma Railway

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1943-11-22 FDR, Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek meet to discuss ways to defeat Japan

32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Chinese Military and Political Leader Chiang Kai-shek
Chinese Military and Political Leader
Chiang Kai-shek
  • 1943-11-23 US forces take control of Tarawa, Gilbert Island & Makin from Japanese

  • 1944-02-02 Allied troops 1st set foot on Japanese territory
  • 1944-02-14 Anti-Japanese revolt on Java
  • 1944-03-07 Japans begins offensive in Burma
  • 1944-04-01 Japanese troops conquer Jessami, Eastern India
  • 1944-04-26 1st B-29 attacked by Japanese fighters, one fighter shot down
  • 1944-05-27 Japanese advance in Hangkhou China
  • 1944-06-11 15 US aircraft carriers attack Japanese bases on Marianas
  • 1944-06-14 1st B-29 raid against mainland Japan
  • 1944-06-16 US bombs Kyushu Japan
  • 1944-06-19 Japanese troops conquer Changsha China
  • 1944-06-19 World War II: First day of the 2 day Battle of the Philippine Sea, US naval forces defeat Japanese fleet
  • 1944-06-20 US attacks Japanese fleet in Philippines Sea

Victory in BattleRaising the Flag on Iwo Jima

1944-07-04 1st Japanese kamikaze attack, US fleet near Iwo Jima
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United States Marines raise the U.S. flag atop Mount Suribachi, during the Battle of Iwo Jima
United States Marines raise the U.S. flag atop Mount Suribachi, during the Battle of Iwo Jima
  • 1944-07-07 Heavy Japanese counter offensive on Saipan
  • 1944-07-08 Japanese kamikaze attacks on US lines at Saipan
  • 1944-07-09 In World War II, US troops secure Saipan as Japan falls
  • 1944-07-19 Japanese aircraft carriers Taiho and Shokaku sink in Marianas
  • 1944-07-20 Japanese aircraft carrier Hijo sunk by US air attack
  • 1944-07-20 US invades Japanese-occupied Guam
  • 1944-07-21 General Koiso becomes Premier of Japan
  • 1944-07-21 US forces land on Guam during its recapture from the Japanese (Operation Forager)
  • 1944-07-23 US forces invade Japanese-held Tinian in WW II
  • 1944-07-25 Japanese banzai-attack on Guam
  • 1944-07-26 Japanese suicide attack on US lines in Guam
  • 1944-08-10 Battle for Guam ends, US troops recapture Guam from the Japanese

  • 1944-08-19 Last Japanese troops driven out of India
  • 1944-10-24 US air raid on Japanese battleships and cruisers in Sibuya Sea: Musashi sinks
  • 1944-10-25 Battle at Cape Engano: 4 Japanese ships sink
  • 1944-10-25 Battle in Straits of Surigao: Japanese fleet destroyed
  • 1944-11-20 1st Japanese suicide submarine attack (Ulithi Atol, Carolines)
  • 1944-12-13 Japanese kamikaze crashes into US cruiser Nashville, kills 138
  • 1944-12-17 US Army announces end of excluding Japanese-Americans from West Coast, detainees released
  • 1944-12-22 Sub Swordfish departs Pearl Harbor for Japan
  • 1944-12-31 Japanese army evacuates harbor city Akyab

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1945-01-03 Admiral Chester Nimitz begins planning assaults on Okinawa and Iwo Jima in Japan

US Admiral Chester Nimitz
US Admiral
Chester Nimitz
  • 1945-01-04 US jeep-aircraft carrier Ommaney Bay sinks after Japanese kamikaze attack
  • 1945-01-07 The last surface engagement between Allies and Japanese in the Pacific campaign, World War II
  • 1945-01-25 Japanese occupiers of Batavia arrest Indo-European youths
  • 1945-01-30 American Rangers and Filipino resistance fighters liberate over 500 Allied POWs from Japanese at Cabanatuan
  • 1945-02-19 980 Japanese soldiers reportedly killed by crocodiles in 2 days on Ramree Island, Burma
  • 1945-02-19 US 5th Fleet launches invasion of Iwo Jima against the Japanese with 30,000 US Marines
  • 1945-02-24 Manila freed from Japanese
  • 1945-03-09 Japanese proclaim "independence" of Indo-China
  • 1945-03-10 Japan grants occupied Vietnam independence
  • 1945-03-19 800 killed as Kamikaze attacked USS Franklin off Japan
  • 1945-03-21 1st Japanese flying bombs (ochas) attack Okinawa

Battle of InterestBattle of Okinawa

1945-03-23 Battle of Okinawa: US Navy ships bomb the Japanese island of Okinawa in preparation for the Allied invasion; it would become the largest battle of the Pacific War in World War II
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British navy vessel HMS Formidable on fire during the Battle of Okinawa after being struck by a kamikaze
British navy vessel HMS Formidable on fire during the Battle of Okinawa after being struck by a kamikaze
  • 1945-03-27 World War II: Operation Starvation, the aerial mining of Japan's ports and waterways begins.
  • 1945-04-05 Kuniaki Koiso resigns as Prime Minister of Japan; replaced by Kantaro Suzuki
  • 1945-04-06 Giant Japanese battleship Yamato heads to Okinawa
  • 1945-04-07 US planes intercept Japanese fleet heading for Okinawa on a suicide mission, super battleship Yamato & four destroyers were sunk
  • 1945-04-19 US aircraft carrier Franklin heavy damaged in Japanese air raid
  • 1945-04-29 Japanese army evacuates Rangoon
  • 1945-05-10 Allies capture Rangoon from the Japanese
  • 1945-06-21 US defeat Japanese forces on Okinawa
  • 1945-06-23 Last organized Japanese defiance broken (Tarakan)
  • 1945-07-14 Battleship USS South Dakota is 1st US ship to bombard Japan

Conference of InterestPotsdam Conference

1945-07-26 Declaration of Potsdam: US, Britain and China demand the Japanese surrender during WWII
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Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman and Josef Stalin in the garden of Cecilienhof Palace before meeting for the Potsdam Conference
Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman and Josef Stalin in the garden of Cecilienhof Palace before meeting for the Potsdam Conference
  • 1945-07-26 Japanese government disregards US ultimatum
  • 1945-07-28 Japanese premier Suzuki disregards US ultimatum to surrender

Sinking ShipSinking of the USS Indianapolis

1945-07-30 After delivering the Atomic Bomb across the Pacific, the cruiser USS Indianapolis is torpedoed and sunk by Japanese submarine I-58. 880 of the crew died, many after being attacked by sharks, the inspiration for the movie Jaws.
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A scene from the 2016 movie
A scene from the 2016 movie "USS Indianapolis: Men of Courage"
  • 1945-08-01 Japanese city Toyama destroyed by B-29's
  • 1945-08-08 USSR declares war against Japan in WW II

JapanNuclear Bombing of Nagasaki

1945-08-09 US drops 2nd atomic bomb "Fat Man" on Japan destroys part of Nagasaki
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Mushroom cloud over Nagasaki
Mushroom cloud over Nagasaki

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1945-08-10 Japan announces willingness to surrender to Allies, provided Emperor Hirohito's status remains unchanged

Emperor of Japan Hirohito
Emperor of Japan
Hirohito
  • 1945-08-11 Allies refuse Japan's offer to surrender on the condition that Emperor Hirohito retains his status

Victory in BattleVictory over Japan

1945-08-14 V-J Day, Japan surrenders unconditionally to end WW II (also August 15 depending on time zone)
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Kissing the War Goodbye on VJ Day
Kissing the War Goodbye on VJ Day

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1945-08-14 Ho Chi Minh's Viet Minh movement launch a coordinated uprising against French rule across Vietnam following the Japanese surrender

Vietnamese Communist Revolutionary Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese Communist Revolutionary
Ho Chi Minh
  • 1945-08-15 Victory over Japan Day, the Japanese surrender and the end of WWII is announced in Japan (due to time zones 14th Aug in the Americas)
  • 1945-08-26 Japanese diplomats board USS Missouri to receive instructions on Japan's surrender at the end of WWII
  • 1945-08-27 US troops land in Japan after Japanese surrender
  • 1945-08-29 British liberate Hong Kong from Japan

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1945-08-29 Gen MacArthur named Supreme Commander of Allied Powers in Japan

US WWII General Douglas MacArthur
US WWII General
Douglas MacArthur

Victory in BattleSurrender of Japan

1945-09-01 V-J Day, formal surrender of Japan aboard USS Missouri marks the end of WW II (US date, 2nd September in Japan)
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Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signs the Instrument of Surrender to formally end World War II
Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signs the Instrument of Surrender to formally end World War II
  • 1945-09-02 V-J Day, formal surrender of Japan aboard USS Missouri marks the end of WW II (Japanese date, 1st September in US)
  • 1945-09-03 World War II: Japanese forces in the Philippines surrender to the Allies
  • 1945-09-04 US regains possession of Wake Island from Japan
  • 1945-09-07 Japanese at Rioekioe-islands surrender
  • 1945-09-08 US invades Japanese-held Korea
  • 1945-09-09 Japanese in South Korea, Taiwan, China, Indochina surrender to Allies
  • 1945-09-11 Hideki Tojo, Japanese Prime Minister during most of World War II, attempts suicide rather than face war crimes tribunal but fails - later he is hanged

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1945-10-25 Japanese surrender Taiwan to General Chiang Kai-shek

Chinese Military and Political Leader Chiang Kai-shek
Chinese Military and Political Leader
Chiang Kai-shek

Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 401 - 500 of 1,082

  • 1950-05-12 Shōzō Fujii, Japanese judoka (4x World Champion 1971-79)
  • 1950-09-14 Masami Kuwashima, Japanese race car driver, born in Kumagaya, Saitama, Japan
  • 1950-09-27 Cary-Hiroyuki Tagawa, Japan, actor (Lt A J Shimamura-Nash Bridges)
  • 1950-10-12 Kaga Takeshi [Shigekatsu Katsuta], Japanese actor, born in Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan
  • 1950-11-27 Gran Hamada, Japanese professional wrestler
  • 1950-12-06 Joe Hisaishi, Japanese composer
  • 1951-03-04 Linda Yamamoto, Japanese singer
  • 1951-04-02 Ayako Okamoto, Japanese golfer (US Open runner-up 1987, 17 LPGA Tour titles), born in Hiroshima, Japan
  • 1951-04-02 Moriteru Ueshiba, Japanese martial artist, born in Tokyo
  • 1951-06-06 Noritake Takahara, Japanese racing driver
  • 1951-06-11 Yasumasa Morimura, Japanese appropriation artist, born in Osaka, Japan
  • 1951-07-05 Keiko Fuji, Japanese enka singer and actress, born in Ichinoseki, Iwate, Japan (d. 2013)
  • 1951-08-08 Mamoru Oshii, Japanese film director
  • 1951-08-28 Keiichi Suzuki, Japanese songwriter and record producer (Moonriders), born in Tokyo, Japan
  • 1951-12-03 Riki Chosyu, [Mitsuo Yoshida], wrestler (NJPW/All-Japan)
  • 1951-12-28 Ian Buruma, Anglo-Dutch scholar and writer on Japan and the Far East.
  • 1952-02-02 Genichiro Tenryu, Japanese professional wrestler
  • 1952-05-02 Mari Natsuki, Japanese singer, dancer and actress, born in Tokyo
  • 1952-05-06 Chiaki Naito-Mukai, Tatebayashi Japan, astronaut (STS 65, sk:95)
  • 1952-06-21 Kôichi Mashimo, Japanese anime director (Bee Train Production), born in Tokyo
  • 1952-07-20 Keiko Matsuzaka, Japanese actress
  • 1952-07-28 Yoshitaka Amano, Japanese artist
  • 1952-11-16 Shigeru Miyamoto, Japanese video game designer
  • 1953-02-04 Kitaro, Japanese composer
  • 1953-02-23 Satoru Nakajima, Japanese racing driver
  • 1953-05-17 Yoko Shimada, Kumamota Japan, author (Kir Royal)/actress (Shogun)
  • 1953-05-25 Stan Sakai, Japanese-American cartoonist (Usagi Yojimbo), born in Kyoto, Japan
  • 1953-06-04 Susumu Ojima, Japanese entrepreneur (Huser), born in Shikama, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan
  • 1953-06-21 Robyn Douglass, American actress (Lonely Guy, Romantic Comedy), born in Sendai, Japan
  • 1953-12-17 Ikue Mori, Japanese experimental drummer and composer, born in Tokyo
  • 1954-01-06 Yuji Horii, Japanese video game designer, born in Sumoto, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 1954-01-27 Joko Ninomiya, Japanese martial artist
  • 1954-02-11 Noriyuki Asakura, Japanese composer
  • 1954-03-26 Kazuhiko Inoue, Japanese seiyu (voice actor)
  • 1954-04-01 Susumu Hirasawa, Japanese electropop musician, born in Nakagawa, Adachi, Tokyo
  • 1954-05-22 Shuji Nakamura, Japanese-born American electronic engineer (invented the Blue LED), born in Ikata, Japan
  • 1954-09-18 Takao Doi, Japanese astronaut (STS 87), born in Tokyo, Japan

Person of interestShinzō Abe

1954-09-21 Shinzō Abe, Prime Minister of Japan (2006-07 and 2012-), born in Nagato, Japan

Prime Minister of Japan Shinzō Abe
Prime Minister of Japan
Shinzō Abe
  • 1954-11-03 Godzilla, Japanese monster (Godzilla)
  • 1954-12-22 Hideshi Matsuda, Japanese racing driver, born in Kōchi Prefecture, Japan
  • 1954-12-29 Prince Takamado of Japan, born in Tokyo, Japan (d. 2002)
  • 1955-01-20 Hiromi Ōta, Japanese singer, born in Tokyo, Japan
  • 1955-01-27 Koji Ushikubo, Japanese racing driver
  • 1955-03-02 Shoko Asahara, [Chizuo Matsumoto], Japanese sect leader
  • 1955-03-10 Toshio Suzuki, Japanese racing driver
  • 1955-03-16 Jiro Watanabe, Japanese boxer
  • 1955-04-05 Akira Toriyama, Japanese manga artist, born in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan
  • 1955-05-26 Masaharu Morimoto, Japanese chef
  • 1955-07-03 Sanma Akashiya, Japanese comedian and TV personality, born in Kushimoto, Wakayama, Japan
  • 1955-08-13 Hideo Fukuyama, Japanese racing driver
  • 1955-11-24 Takashi Yuasa, Japanese lawyer
  • 1955-12-21 Kazuyuki Sekiguchi, Japanese musician, born in Agano, Niigata Prefecture
  • 1956-01-01 Kôji Yakusho, Japanese actor
  • 1956-01-05 Chen Kenichi, Japanese-born chef, born in Tokyo, Japan
  • 1956-01-30 Keiichi Tsuchiya, Japanese racing driver, born in Tomi, Japan
  • 1956-02-15 Hitoshi Ogawa, Japanese racing driver (d. 1992)
  • 1956-02-26 Keisuke Kuwata, Japanese singer, born in Chigasaki, Japan
  • 1956-05-18 Naomichi 'Joe' Ozaki, Japanese golfer (32 Japan Tour titles), born in Tekushima, Japan
  • 1956-05-31 Yoshiko Sakakibara, Chiba Japan, actress (Sailor Moon, Vampire Hunter)
  • 1956-07-15 Toshihiko Seko, Japanese runner (world record 25/30 km)
  • 1956-08-31 Masashi Tashiro, Japanese television performer
  • 1956-09-22 Masayuki Suzuki, Japanese singer (Rats & Star)
  • 1957-04-04 Nobuyoshi Kuwano, Japanese musician (Rats & Star), born in Ōta, Tokyo
  • 1957-04-23 Kenji Kawai, Japanese film score composer, born in Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan
  • 1957-05-01 Ko Otani, Japanese composer
  • 1957-06-10 Hidetsugu Aneha, Japanese architect
  • 1957-10-10 Rumiko Takahashi, Japanese artist, born in Niigata, Japan
  • 1957-12-15 Yuuichi Nagashima, Japanese voice actor
  • 1958-02-23 David Sylvian, vocalist, guitarist (Japan), born in Beckenham, England
  • 1958-03-01 Chosei Komatsu, Japanese conductor
  • 1958-03-07 Alan Hale, American astronomer (Comet Hale–Bopp), born in Tokyo, Japan
  • 1958-04-21 Yoshito Usui, Japanese manga artist
  • 1958-05-10 Yu Suzuki, Japanese creator of Virtua Fighter series
  • 1958-07-24 Mick Karn [Andonis Michaelides], English musician (Japan), born in Nicosia, Cyprus (d. 2011)
  • 1958-09-08 Mitsuru Miyamoto, Japanese voice actor
  • 1958-10-01 Masato Nakamura, Japanese musician
  • 1958-12-24 Munetaka Higuchi, Japanese drummer, born in Nara Prefecture, Japan
  • 1959-01-04 Yoshitomo Nara, Japanese pop artist
  • 1959-01-17 Momoe Yamaguchi, Japanese singer and actress
  • 1959-02-03 Yasuharu Konishi, Japanese musician (Pizzicato Five)
  • 1959-03-21 Nobuo Uematsu, Japanese composer
  • 1959-08-01 Otomo Yoshihide, Japanese musician (Ground Zero), born in Yokohama, Japan
  • 1959-08-03 Koichi Tanaka, Japanese scientist (Nobel 2002), born in Toyama, Japan
  • 1959-08-11 Yoshiaki Murakami, Japanese investor
  • 1959-10-21 Ken Watanabe, Japanese actor
  • 1959-12-26 Koji Morimoto, Japanese anime director, born in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan
  • 1959-12-29 Ritsuko Okazaki, Japanese singer-songwriter (Kanashii Jiyū / Koi ga, Kiete Yuku), born in Hashima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan (d. 2004)
  • 1960-01-02 Naoki Urasawa, Japanese manga author

Person of interestNaruhito

1960-02-23 Naruhito, Emperor of Japan (2019-), born in Tokyo, Japan

Emperor of Japan Naruhito
Emperor of Japan
Naruhito
  • 1960-03-12 Minoru Niihara, Japanese singer
  • 1960-03-12 Maki Nomiya, Japanese singer (Pizzicato Five)
  • 1960-05-22 Hideaki Anno, Japanese film director and animator (Neon Genesis Evangelion), born in Ube, Yamaguchi, Japan
  • 1960-06-23 Tatsuya Uemura, Japanese arcade game musician and programmer, born in Japan
  • 1960-07-28 Yōichi Takahashi, Japanese mangaka of Captain Tsubasa and Hungry Heart Wild Striker
  • 1960-08-13 Koji Kondo, Japanese composer
  • 1960-08-24 Takashi Miike, Japanese filmmaker
  • 1960-10-07 Kyosuke Himuro, Japanese singer
  • 1960-12-18 Kazuhide Uekusa, Japanese economist
  • 1961-01-08 Kazuki Takahashi, Japanese creator of Yu-Gi-Oh, born in Tokyo, Japan
  • 1961-02-22 Akira Takasaki, Japanese guitarist, born in Osaka, Japan

Famous Weddings


Famous Deaths

Deaths 401 - 432 of 432

  • 2008-06-18 Miyuki Kanbe, Japanese actor (b. 1984)
  • 2008-08-02 Fujio Akatsuka, Japanese cartoonist, dies of pneumonia at 72
  • 2008-09-07 Nagi Noda, Japanese pop artist and director (b. 1973)
  • 2008-10-10 Kazuyoshi Miura, Japanese businessman (b. 1947)
  • 2008-11-30 Munetaka Higuchi, Japanese drummer (Loudness) (b. 1958)
  • 2009-01-03 Hisayasu Nagata, Japanese politician (b. 1969)
  • 2009-03-25 Kosuke Koyama, Japanese theologian (b. 1929)
  • 2009-06-13 Mitsuharu Misawa, Japanese professional wrestler (b. 1962)
  • 2009-06-19 Tomoji Tanabe, Japanese supercentenarian, dies of old age at 113
  • 2009-11-24 Kan Ishii, Japanese composer, dies at 88
  • 2009-11-28 Takeo Kajiwara, Japanese Go player (b. 1923)
  • 2010-01-04 Tsutomu Yamaguchi, Japanese Businessman, and Survivor of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings (b. 1916)
  • 2010-01-17 Daisuke Gouri, Japanese seiyu (b. 1952)
  • 2010-02-26 Nujabes, Japanese Hip Hop producer and inspiration to many around the world.
  • 2010-03-04 Tetsuo Kondo, Japanese politician (b. 1929)
  • 2010-08-24 Satoshi Kon, Japanese anime film director, dies at 46
  • 2010-09-01 Wakanohana Kanji I, Japanese sumo wrestler, the 45th Yokozuna (b. 1928)
  • 2010-09-05 Shoya Tomizawa Japanese MotoGP Racer (b. 1990)
  • 2011-08-04 Naoki Matsuda, Japanese Soccer player (b. 1977)
  • 2011-09-21 Jun Henmi, Japanese writer and poet (b. 1939)
  • 2011-12-08 Minoru Miky, Japanese composer for traditional Japanese instruments, dies at 84
  • 2012-02-21 Eiko Ishioka, Japanese Costume designer, dies from pancreatic cancer at 74
  • 2013-01-15 Nagisa Oshima, Japanese film director and screen writer, dies at 80
  • 2013-01-26 Hiroshi Nakajima, Japanese doctor, dies at 84
  • 2013-02-09 Keiko Fukuda, Japanese-born American martial artist, dies at 99
  • 2015-07-05 Yoichiro Nambu, Japanese-born American Physicist (Nobel Prize 2008), dies at 94
  • 2015-07-11 Satoru Iwata, Japanese CEO of Nintendo (Nintendo DS and Wii), dies of cancer at 55
  • 2015-07-17 Jules Bianchi, French Formula One racing driver, dies from injuries during accident at Japanese Grand Prix in 2014, at 25
  • 2015-09-05 Setsuko Hara, Japanese actress (Late Spring, Tokyo Story), dies of pneumonia at 95
  • 2015-11-30 Shigeru Mizuki, Japanese soldier and Manga artist (GeGeGe no Kitarō), dies at 93
  • 2016-10-20 Junko Tabei, Japanese mountain-climber, 1st woman to climb Mount Everest, dies at 77
  • 2017-02-13 Seijun Suzuki, Japanese cult film director, dies at 93